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Among the eminent dead of the year here sketched and pictured are Robert Browning, John Ericsson, John Bright, Jefferson Davis, and Simon Cameron and John P. Usher, the last surviving members of President Lincoln's Cabinet. The article on Robert Browning presents a fine analysis of his style and a history of his works; that on Jefferson Davis includes, in rapid outline, the story of the Southern Confederacy and the civil war. The obituary sketches are very numerous and reasonably full. Among the noteworthy ones are those of the eminent lawyers S. L. M. Barlow and Leonard Swett, the actors John Gilbert and George Fawcett Rowe, the legislators Samuel S. Cox, George H. Pendleton, and Edward H. Rollins, the soldiers John F. Hartranft, Daniel H. Hill, and Henry J. Hunt, the journalists Samuel Wilkeson, Henry W. Grady, and Charles S. Collins, the educators Theodore D. Woolsey and James Ryland Kendrick, the physicians D. W. Bliss and Joseph E. Turner, the littérateurs S. Austin Allibone, David D. Lloyd, and William D. O'Connor, the jurist Stanley Matthews, the artist Robert W. Weir, the former mistresses of the White House Julia G. Tyler and Lucy W. Hayes, and the eminent women Mary L. Booth, Elizabeth C. Kinney, and Maria Mitchell. The illustrations include, besides those already mentioned, a large colored map of the eastern provinces of Canada, a full-page view of the newly discovered Mountains of the Moon, the Johnstown disaster, the first and last of the “Great Eastern,” the St. Mary's Canal, Dalhousie College in Halifax, the new State-House of Georgia, the Parliament House in Toronto, a map of the newly surveyed Selkirk range, the Chamber of Commerce in Cincinnati, Canterbury College in New Zealand, and portraits of the

young King and Queen of Portugal.

The illustrations were drawn by F. A. Carter, Edward L. Chichester, Clifton Johnson, William Kurtz, Jacques Reich, and A. C. Warren.

New YORK, April 2, 1890.

CONTRIBUTORS.

Among the Contributors to this Volume of the Annual Cyclopedia" are the following :

Oscar Fay Adams,

Author of Handbooks of American and English

Authors.
COLLINS, WILLIAM WILKIE,
GRAY, ALBERT ZABRISKIE,

and other articles.

John D. Champlin, Jr.,

Editor of Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings. FINE ARTS IN 1889.

Hon. Benjamin F. Clayton.

Secretary of National Farmers' Congress. FARMERS' CONGRESS.

Robert Anderson.

BROOKS LICENSE BILL,
Philadelphia's New CHARTER.

Rev. David Cole.

YONKERS, N. Y.

Mrs. Florence E. Angle.

CATTLE, IMPROVED BREEDS OF,
GREAT EASTERN,

and other articles. Marcus Benjamin, Ph. D.,

Fellow of the London Chemical Society. BARNARD, FREDERICK A. P., ERICSSON, JOHN, NEW YORK CITY,

and other articles. J. H. A. Bone,

Editor of the Cleveland (0.) Plaindealer. Ohio. Arthur E. Bostwick, Ph. D.

Physics,

WESSELLS, HENRY WALTON. J. S. Boyd,

Journalist.
Moncton, N. B.
James C. Brogan.

LEO XIII.
James M. Brown, A. M.,

William Crocket.

Superintendent of Education.
FREDERICTON, N. B.
Henry Dalby,

Editor of the Montreal Star.
DOMINION OF CANADA,
ONTARIO,

QUEBEC.
T. E. Dalton, A. M.

Principal of Public Schools, Phenix,
Phenix, ARIZONA.
John Davis,

Editor of Junction City (Kan.) Tribune.
JUNCTION CITY.
Chester P. Dewey,

Journalist.
TURNER, JOSEPH EDWARD.
Maurice F. Egan, A. M.,

Professor in Notre Dame University, Ind.
ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.
George T. Ferris.
JOHNSTOWN FLOOD,

and other articles.

Rev. William E. Griffis, D.D.,

Author of "The Mikado's Empire." COREA, JAPAN.

George J. Hagar,

Of the New Jersey Historical Society. ARTICLES IN AMERICAN OBITUARIES. Percy St. C. Hamilton,

Editor of the Yarmouth (N. S.) Times. YARMOUTI, N. S.

Professor in Canterbury College, New Zealand. New ZEALAND. Hon. Lloyd Bryce,

Editor of the North American Review. RICE, ('HARLES ALLEN THORNDIKE. David N. Camp.

New Britain, Conn. James P. Carey,

Financial Editor of the FINANCIAL REVIEW OF 1889, MERCANTILE AGENCIES.

ce.

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Frederick G. Mather.

REGISTRY Laws,
St. Mary's CANAL,
TRUST,

and other articles. A. P. Morey.

SEDALIA, Mo.
Lieut. Arthur P. Nazro, U.S. N.

L'NITED STATES Navy.
Miss Bessie B. Nicholls.

DAMIEN DE VEUSTER, JOSEPH, LITERATURE, AMERICAN, and BRITISH, OKLAHOMA,

and other articles. Col. Charles Ledyard Norton,

Author of "Handbook of Florida." ENGINEERING, MARITIME EXHIBITION, ,

and other articles.

Louis von Eltz.

Music, PROGRESS OF, IN 1889. William C. Winlock,

Of Smithsonian Institution. ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS AND DISCOVERY. William J. Youmans, M. D.,

Editor of the Popular Science Monthl
CHEMISTRY,
METALLURGY,
METEOROLOGY,
PHYSIOLOGY.

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ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT,
IMAGE FOUND IN IDAHO

18 | THE GREAT EASTERN (2 illustrations)
RELICS FROM SUSIANA (4 illustrations) 22, 23 Views in BOMBAY (2 illustrations)
RELICS FROM TELL KAHUN (23 figures) 26 IRRIGATION (4 illustrations)
RUINS OF THAUMEGAS (2 illustrations) 28, 29 JOUnstown Flood (map and 2 views)
MONUMENT IN COLONGA

29 MANDOLIN ECLIPSE OF THE SUN.

45 House Of THE MORAVIAN SISTERHOOD RIO DE JANEIRO .

81 CANTERBURY COLLEGE BAHIA.

83 John BRIGHT'S BIRTHPLACE Pine Forest, MiNAS-GERAÈS

85 CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, CINCINNATI CAVE-DRAWINGS (10 illustrations) 118-122 Military RIFLES (20 illustrations) DALHOU'SIE COLLEGE

149 St. Mary's Falls CANAL (2 maps) COREAN FLAG

239 Silk-WORM GUT (8 figures) JEFFERSON Davis'S RESIDENCE

262 SOLDIERS! HOMES (2 illustrations) PARLIAMENT House, TORONTO

277 FORT Bobo, IBWIRI ENGINEERING (8 illustrations)

290–296 Trout (4 illustrations) Ericsson's Monitor (2 illustrations) 298 UNION JACK MAP OF SELKIRK MOUNTAINS

358 ZITHER. GEORGIA STATE HOUSE

365

404, 405 426, 427 453-463 477-481

525 573 609 657

674 1735–742

755

763 708, 769

781 792, 793

815 833

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ABYSSINIA, a monarchy in eastern Africa. Bogos for colonization and to concede to Italy The area, exclusive of conquered territories of commercial advantages over other European nathe Somalis and Gallas, is about 175,000 square tions. The King's nephew Debeb, a son of the miles; the population is not more than 3,500,000. widow of Theodoros by her marriage with Ras The ruler bears the title of Negus Negusti, or Salasiem, they also encouraged in his aspirations " King of Kings.” The inhabitants are Coptic to the supreme power, making use of him as an Christians.

ally in the campaign against Ras Aloula until he War with the Dervishes.— The Soudanese went over to the enemy and turned against them dervishes, or Mahdists, invaded the province of the weapons they had furnished. Menelek assemAmhara in 1885, and burned all the churches and bled an army of 130,000 men on the border of houses, carrying the people away into slavery. Shoa to wage war against Johannis. The King In 1886 they devastated the Tshelga province, marched to the south with the intention of forctook many captives, massacred the monks of ing his rebellious vassal and rival into submisMahebera, and burned the monastery. In 1887 sion, but finding the latter intrenched in an the Negus Johannis defeated the dervishes; but impregnable position, he avoided a battle by in 1888, while he was contesting the advance of turning aside with his army, which was already the Italians from Massowah to a summer station partly demoralized and suffering from want of on the border of the Abyssinian plateau, he was food, and, marching to the northwest, began the called away by a new raid of the Mohammedans. campaign against the dervishes. When King who defeated the King of Godjam, and carried John fell, Menelek proclaimed himself Negus off thousands of his subjects to be sold into slav- Negusti, and after securing the adhesion of Ras ery. King Johannis gathered his warriors to de- Michael and the King of Godjam, advanced fend the western country. King Menelek of Shoa, into Tigreh to try conclusions with Degiac who had proclaimed war against his sovereign in Mangascia, a Shoan chief who in 1888 had order to supplant him as Negus, remained idle, fought the insurgent Wollo-Gallas, King John's with his larger army encamped in a strong placé nephew and chosen heir, whose cause had been on the bank of the Abai, a confluent of the Blue espoused by Ras Aloula. Several fights between Nile, dividing Shoa and Tigreh, while Johannis the partisans of the rival pretenders took place contended with unequal forces against the fanat- before the rainy season. Debeb entered Tigreh ical invaders who made western Abyssinia a des- from the north with his well-armed troops to ert, put many thousands to the sword, and sent dispute the succession. Mangascia and Aloula the flower of the nobility and of the people as invited him to an interview at Makalle, and when slaves to Mecea or Khartoum. The Abyssinians he came they treacherously made him a prisoner. fought bravely, but were defeated in the princi- The three Abyssinian abounas-Petros of Aspal battles. On March 10, 1889, the Negus at- mara, Lucas of Godjam, and Matheos of Shoatacked the dervishes' stronghold at Metemneh, recognized Menelek as Negus, and most of the on the frontier of the Soudan, but was driven chiefs south of the Takaze gave him their alleback. The Negus himself was mortally wounded. giance. Mangascia's money did not long hold On the 12th the dervishes followed up their out, and when he was deserted by most of his success, attacked the King's camp, and completely men except Aloula's force, he entered into negorouted his army. Ras Area and Ras Ailu fell in tiations with the Italians. Before September all the engagement, while Ras Michael fled with the Abyssinia had submitted to Menelek's rule, with remnant of his command to Magdala, and Ras the exception of a small portion of Tigreh. King Aloula retreated to Tigreh.

Menelek was the son of King Haelou of Shoa by The Contest for the Throne. – When the a slave-woman, and was selected by his father to Italians found they could not obtain from King succeed him. The new ruler of Abyssinia has John the footing in Abyssinia that they desired, had men of ability amor.g his generals and counthey entered into negotiations with King Men- selors, most of whom are hostile to Europeans. elek of Shoa, whom they supplied with firearms But such is not the character of Menelek. He in return for promises to give them a part of is well disposed to white people, except mission

VOL. XXIX.-1A

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