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Providing that persons who have paid taxes more may hold meetings and transact business outside the than once on the same property in the same year may State. have the excess so paid refunded by the State or Regulating the public printing of the State, and county upon proof thereoť before a judge of probate, providing that it shall be done by contract

. and upon obtaining from such judge a certificate of Assenting to the act of Congress of March 2, 1887, the amount so overpaid.

providing for the establishment of agricultural experiTo authorize the taking outside the State and ment stations in the States. perpetuating the testimony of non-residents of the Incorporating the cities of Fort Payne, in De Kalb State.

County, and Jenifer, in Talladega County. Authorizing the Governor to issue patents to pur- Providing for local option in Covington and Geneva chasers of swamp or overflowed land or lands in lieu Counties. of the same, which have been or may be patented to Providing that the widow or minor children shall the State upon satisfactory proof that such lands have not forfeit to the claims of heirs or creditors any homebeen fully paid for.

stead estate set off to them by their removal thereAppropriating $22,500 for the expenses of the en- from, if they still reside in the State or are only temcampment of the State troops for 1889 and 1890. porarily absent therefrom.

Providing that all deeds or conveyances of any kind Requiring county tax-assessors to make a list of not filed and recorded within the time prescribed by all lands in their county, and the owners, and to file law, may be filed and recorded within two years from the same for public inspection in the office of the the date of this act, and such record shall be valid judge of probate. notice as against all but existing bona-fide creditors and purchasers without actual notice of such deed. Education. The report of the State Super

Authorizing members of the various farmers' alli- intendent of Education for the year ending Sept. ances and other similar organizations to form thein- 30, 1888, presents the following statistics. Outselves into a body corporate.

side of 14 separate school districts, in which are To enable planters, farmers, and crop-growers to included the larger cities, there were taught mortgage unplanted crops.

Providing a penalty of $25 and upward for selling during the year 3,744 schools for white, and any pool or ticket or other device, or wagering any

1,958 for colored children. The total number of thing upon any horse-race, prize-fight, drill, base-ball white pupils enrolled in these schools was 159,game, or other contest occurring outside the State, or 671, and of colored pupils 98,919. The average for acting as agent of any one in procuring or placing daily attendance of white children was 98,675, of outside the State any pool, ticket, or other device or

colored children 66,424. The white schools were wager, and giving the mayor of each city and incor- taught 68.9 days on an average, and the colored porated town concurrent jurisdiction with the courts over offenses against this act occurring in the county male and 1,35/ female teachers in the white

schools 67-4 days. There were employed 2,368 in which said city or town is situated, and giving the police of such city or town authority to make arrests schools, and 1,290 males and 585 females in the within tive miles of such city or town.

colored schools. There was an average of 41 To provide for the sale of property of minors in pupils to each teacher of white children, and 49 order to remove the proceeds from the State. United States of lands needed by the latter for light- is less than in nearly every other Southern State, Authorizing the Governor to convey titie to the pupils to each teacher of colored children.

The average monthly pay of teachers, $22.31, houses, or other aids to navigation, the State retain- and the total available school fund for 1887–88 ing concurrent jurisdiction for legal purposes over such lands.

announted to only $539,209.04. The Legislature To regulate the survey and division of lands into has this year increased by $100,000 the annual town lots, and requiring such surveys to be recorded appropriation for school purposes. in the office of the judge of probate before sales of The number of pupils enrolled in the separate such lots are made. A fine is imposed for selling lots school districts, and not included in the above without complying with this act. Providing that if the owner of any judgment or

figures of enrollment, is as follows: Birmingham, decree rendered by a court of record for the payment 2,156; Montgomery, 1,543; Selma, 891; Tuscaof money shall file, in the office of the judge of pro- loosa, 679;

Eufaula, 452; Decatur, 411; Huntsbate, a certificate of the clerk of said court reciting the ville, 520; Troy, 533 ; Opelika, 289; Brownsville, nature of such judgment or decree, the same shall be 249; Cullman, 182; Prattville, 209; Uniontown, a lien for ten years on all land of the defendant in 564; total, 8,678. In these districts the sum of said county and shall be notice to all persons of the $174,183.10 was raised in 1888 by local taxation existence of the lien. Defining a lawful fence.

for support of schools, in addition to the State Punishing embezzlement in the same manner as

apportionment. larceny:

The biennial report of the trustees of the State Permitting the State health officer to modify the University for the years ending in June, 1887 restrictions of all quarantines established by county and 1888, gives the total number of matricuand municipal authorities when such appear to be too lates for 1886–87 as 212, and for 1887–88, 238. severe or too lax. Authorizing private business corporations incorpo- During 1887 the sum of $53,556.11 was received

During this period there were 111 graduates, rated under the laws of this State to hold meetings from all sources, and the sum of $53,632.77 disand do corporate acts in other States.

Declaring it unlawful to employ female clerks in bursed. In 1888 the receipts from all sources stores without providing accommodations for sitting were $57,444.54 and the disbursements were $57down and resting and allowing them to do so when 721.49, leaving a balance on hand, June 16, 1888, not otherwise employed. A fine of not less than ten of $1,976.06. Many improvements have been dollars is incurred for violating this act. Permitting the issue of preferred stock by corpora- been built and furnished, water works have been

made in the past two years. Garland Hall has tions organized under the general laws. To enable built, two new professors' dwellings have been heirs and distributees to perpetuate testimony to show that they are such.

erected, and the chemical laboratory has been Permitting the codification every ten years of the fitted up with the newest and best apparatus to local laws of each county.

be found. Providing that railroad corporations of the State The normal-school property at Florence consists of thirteen acres and a building worth about so that farm laborers are becoming difficult to $50,000. The annual appropriation of the State procure. These emigrants go either to Texas has been $7,500. There is a primary department and the West or to Birmingham and other cities in addition to the normal course. At the begin- of the “mineral belt.” During the present year ing of this year there were 135 normal pupils at the negro exodus has been unusually large. this school, and 121 persons were graduates. The Nevertheless, Montgomery and Selma, the two number in attendance during 1887-'88 was 218. cities of this region, have grown in population.

A State normal school and university for col- The southern tier of counties--including Clark, ored students has been located for several years Monroe, Pike. Washington, Butler, Conecuh, at Marion, in Perry County. The Legislature Escambia, Covington, and Geneva--constitute the undertook, in 1887, to establish the Alabama Uni- timber belt of the State. The logging and milling versity for colored pupils, and to use the money industry here flourishes along the streams, which heretofore appropriated to this normal school for furnish water for floating logs to market or the use of the new university. This proceeding power for sawing them. For several years both was declared by the State Supreme Court to be logging and milling have proved very profitable, illegal, and the legislature of this year accord- and large quantities of lumber are shipped to the ingly determined to continue the normal school, North and to South America and England. The abandoning, the idea of a university, and to Alabama Midland Railroad, from Montgomery change its location to some place to be chosen to Bainbridge, Ga., 175 miles, constructed during by a board of trustees. The sum of $15,000 the year, runs through the eastern portion of was appropriated for land and buildings. this belt.

The normal school at Jacksonville, established Immigration.-On Dec. 12, 1888, a convenin 1883, gave instruction to 176 pupils during tion of nearly 600 delegates from all the South1887'88, at an expense of $5,109.60. At the Liv- ern States met at Montgomery, under the name ingston Normal College there were, during the of the Southern Interstate Immigration Convensame period, 126 pupils; at the Huntsville Nor- tion. The presence of the commissioners of immal School, 135 pupils in the normal course and migration and of agriculture from the various 167 in the inodel school; at the Tuskegee Normal Southern States, together with other delegates school, 525 pupils; and at the Troy Normal School appointed by the several Governors, gave the 135 pupils in the normal course and 304 in the convention an official standing. John D. Roquemodel school. The school at Troy was established more, of Montgomery, was chosen temporary in 1887. All who enjoy the benefits of normal president, and P. W. Peeples, of Mississippi, instruction at these institutions are required to permanent president. The sessions continued sign an obligation to teach for two years at for two days, and after an earnest discussion it least in the common schools. A bill abolishing was resolved to establish a Southern Interstate the entire normal-school system was debated Immigration Bureau, “ for the purpose of securat length in the General Assembly of this year, ing added population and capital for the Southand found supporters sufficiently numerous to ern States and Territories, securing uniform carry it through the Lower House, but it failed freight and immigration rates, the opening of a to become a law.

general office and the establishment of such Railroads.—The valuation of railroad prop- other offices and agencies, the arranging of fairs erty, as assessed by the State board for 1889, and expositions, establishing ports of entry, and aggregated $40,163,776.18. This valuation only the doing of all other things necessary for the includes tracks and rolling stock, all other prop- development of every State and Territory emerty, real and personal, being assessed in the braced in the call of this convention.” It was counties by the tax assessors. The statement voted to chose an executive committee to consist shows an increase in valuation over last year of of a member from each State and Territory, that $4,855,918.81.

said executive committee shall elect a general Industrial Development.-The valleys of manager, and that said executive committee and the Tennessee and the upper Alabama rivers in general manager shall constitute the Southern the northern portion of the State have witnessed Interstate Immigration Bureau. The executive in the past few years a wonderful development. committee chosen by the convention selected Five years ago Birmingham was but little known B. F. Chilton, of Texas, to be the general manaand gave but little promise of the growth that ger. A few weeks later he issued an address has marked its history since 1886; Anniston explaining the proposed work of the bureau, was hardly heard of outside of its own county; which included not only the dissemination of Decatur was a country town of probably 1.200 literature regarding the South, but the establishinhabitants; Bessemer had even been ment of a permanent Southern exposition at alreamed of by its projector: Sheffield was a corn some large Southern city and the equipment of field ; Roanoke numbered fewer than 2,000 a special car containing specimens of Southern people; Florence was a sleepy Southern town, products and information regarding lands that living on cotton trade alone; and Huntsville was may be purchased by intending settlers, this similarly situated. (See CITIES AMERICAN, RE- car to visit all the large centers in the North CENT GROWTH OF, in " Annual Cyclopædia” for and West. In 1888, Commissioner R. F. Kolb 1888 and 1889.)

adopted the plan last mentioned, and in a car On the other hand, the central counties of the equipped with Alabama products visited the vaState, embracing the so-called - black belt." rious cities of the West and Northwest. He where agriculture is the leading industry, show claims that as a direct result of this trip, more a steady decline. Not only are the proprietors than 1,000 people and over $1,000,000 of capital of the soil selling their farms or leaving them to have come into the State during the first half of tenants, but the negroes are rapidly emigrating. this year.


Farmers' Organizations.-For many years “ Year-Book” for 1888 show that the Church is the “granges were the only organizations growing in several directions faster than the known to the farmers of the State. They had population is increasing. According to these their season of prosperity, but of late have de- reports, £1,101,000 was spent in church extenclined. In the northern counties there are a sion in 1887; 217,000 persons were confirmed in few agricultural wheels, so-called-semi-political 1888, against 138,000 in 1875, showing an infarmers' clubs, which have attained considerable crease of nearly 58 per cent., or almost four popularity in Arkansas and Tennessee. During times the growth of the population, in thirteen the past three years

* farmers' alliances " have years. Since 1811 the Church has spent for succeeded the granges” in popularity. They educational purposes £32,000,000, of which £16,have absorbed other local agricultural societies, 750,000 have been expended in the past eighteen and at the beginning of this year had been or- years, or since Mr. Forster's Education Act was ganized in 46 of the 66 counties of the State. passed in 1870. In 1878 the established churches There is a central State Alliance, and a State in London gave £17,333 out of a total of £23,Exchange has been established during the year. 681 contributed to the “ Hospital Sunday" fund, The efforts of the organization during the year or 73 per cent. of the whole. In 1888 they gave were chiefly directed against the combination £29,686, out of a total of £37,235, or within a known as the Jute Bagging Trust, by which the fraction of 80 per cent. price of the covering for cotton used by farmers The “ Year-Book” contains much special inwas increased about 100 per cent. A conference formation concerning the growth of the Church of delegates from alliances in nearly all the in Wales, where the question of disestablishment Southern States met at Birmingham on May 15 is actively agitated. In three out of the four for the purpose of considering this subject, and dioceses in the principality, there are flourishing recommended the farmers to use cotton bagging diocesan Church Extension Societies, which in instead of jute. This recommendation was ap- 1888 contributed and disbursed between three proved by the State Agricultural Society of Ala- and four thousand pounds for that object; and bama at its State convention at Union Springs, in 1887 the amount of money raised locally on July 24 and 25. The annual meeting of the throughout Wales for church building, endowState Farmers’ Alliance, at Auburn, on Aug. 9, ments, parsonages, etc., in the four dioceses was took similar action, and on Aug. 21 the South- nearly £80,000. In the ten years ending with ern Interstate Farmers' Association, at its an- 1887, 89 churches were built or rebuilt, and 146 nual convention, in Montgomery, strongly urged restored or enlarged; and within a very recent all planters to avoid the use of jute bagging. period accommodation has been provided in the The latter convention, of which L. L. Polk, of form of mission churches and rooms for nearly North Carolina, was president, adopted resolu- 80,000 worshipers. The records of all the diotions advising farmers to insist that no more than ceses show a rapidly growing rate of increase the actual weight of the bagging be taken out from year to year in the number of persons confor tare by purchasers; that they avoid using firmed, amounting in Bangor to 74, and in St. commercial fertilizers; that they secure the David's to 45 per cent., in the triennial totals, in election to office of those who are friendly to the nine years. agricultural interest ; that the acreage of cotton Church Missionary Society.–The meeting be gradually reduced to nearly half its present of the Church Missionary Society was held in amount; and that the area thus released be sown London, April 30. Sir J. H. Kennaway, M. P., with various grains.

presided. The income of the general fund had Exports. For the year ending Aug. 30, 1889, been £211,378, or £16,821 more than in the prethe total receipts of cotton at Mobile were 230,- vious year, and £3,602 more than the highest in 680 bales, and the exports 229,184 bales. The any former year. The expenditures had been total export of lumber, 48,284,162 feet, is one £214,383, of which £8,651 had come out of the third larger than in any previous year, and the extension and other similar funds; so that the export of 3,049,440 cubic feet of timber, also regular income account showed a surplus of largely exceeds the record of previous years. £5,666, and a contingency fund of £6,221 had There was a considerable shipment of staves been accumulated. The contributions to special and shingles both to domestic and foreign ports. funds had been £40,638, making the aggregate There were also shipped 66,950 crates of cab- receipts for the year £262,016. The missions bages, valued at $133,900, and 46,508 barrels of returned, so far as reports had been received, potatoes, valued at $111,619. The total value of 299 stations, 356 European missionaries, 286 naall exports to foreign ports was $3,192,997, while tive and Eurasian clergy, 4,556 lay teachers, 186,the imports of foreign goods reached only 956 native Christians, 48,194 communicants, and $153,862.

1,759 mission schools, with 75,125 pupils. A ANGLICAN CHURCHES. Statistics of prominent feature of the year's history of the the Church of England. - The Church of Eng- society at home had been the unusually large land has no systematic means, officially sanc- number of persons who had been accepted as tioned, for registering statistical records of church missionaries without preparation under the sowork. The projectors of the “ Official Year: ciety's auspices, they being fully qualified by Book are able, therefore, only to publish such reason of their previous training. Of them the facts respecting the concerns and growth of the University of Cambridge had sent nine, that of Church as are voluntarily furnished them, Oxford two, Dublin two, London one, and Edinwhether in answer to inquiry or without it. burgh one. Nearly half of the fifty candidates The information and tables contained in that that were accepted were women, and one third work are to a considerable extent fragmentary, of them were to go out to the mission-fields at and largely local. The reports contained in the their own charge.

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Society for the Propagation of the Gos- closer co-operation in the future.” In the House pel.— The annual meeting of the Society for the of Laymen a letter was read from the archbishop Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, was advising against the agitation of measures for held in London, June 6. The Archbishop of the taxation of larger benefices for the benefit of Canterbury presided. The gross income for the poor ones, and inviting the opinions of the laity year had been £138,366, a larger amount by sev- on the state of the law as to the solemnization eral thousand pounds than had been returned in of marriages in mother-churches, in district any previous year in the existence of the so- churches, etc., with reference to the existing acts, ciety. The larger part of the increase of funds and the recent discussions upon those acts; was the result of two gifts of £25,000 and £2,- upon the report of the Commission on Element268, the former sum being five sixths of a ary Education; and on the duty of the Church, property that had been left to an unnamed cler- as a church, in respect of slavery. A draft of a gyman. The society employed 637 ordained bill to provide for the foundation of new bishopmissionaries, including 10 bishops, of whom 144 rics in England was approved. A committee were Africans and Asiatics. It had in the vari- was appointed to consider the archbishop's quesous missions about 2,300 lay teachers, 2,600 stu- tion about marriage. A resolution was passed in dents in colleges, and 38,000 children in the mis- favor of the provision of additional church servsion schools of Africa and Asia.

ices, and of revision from time to time of the Universities' Mission. - The anniversary rubrics and directions contained in the Book of meetings of the Universities' Mission to Central Common Prayer. The house also approved Africa were held in London, May 21. Canon clauses in the draft bill authorizing the presScott Holland presided. The report referred to idents and clergy of the convocations to lay bethe troubles that had arisen in the society's fore Her Majesty from time to time schemes for field of operations (the Zanzibar coast and back- making alterations in and additions to the lying region) from foreign aggression and the rubrics and directions, and declared it imporGerman and English blockade of the coast. tant that provision should be made to enable the Evidences of the progress of the mission could, service of the Church to be adapted to special however, be shown in the completion of the circumstances. Respecting the report of the EduSuaheli Bible, and the consecration of the new cational Commission, the house resolved that it chapel at Kinngawi College. On the mainland was important that all children should receive no station had been given up, and no work aban- religious and moral training, that the teachers doned. Twelve new members had joined the who are charged with such training should conmission during the year, while two had been lost tinue to take part in it; that registers should be by death, and two had resigned.

marked before as well as after the religious inSunday-School Institute.—The Church of structions and observance begin ; that any reaEngland Sunday-School Institute had received sonable precaution that might tend to remove during the year ending May 1, 1889, £13,440. any suspicion of unfairness in the administration The report, reviewing the progress of Sunday- of the conscience clause should be adopted ; and schools, mentioned the deliverances on religious that continuation schools should be generally teaching in the encyclical letter of the bishops established in sequence to the elementary system at the Lambeth Conference in passages on the of education, and that these schools should be need of definite religious teaching and those in adapted to the needs of working boys and girls. which Sunday schools were referred to. The " so as to attract and interest tired children, and Convocation of Canterbury had appointed a com- prepare them for the actual duties of life.” ' Exmittee to inquire how Sunday schools could be emption of public elementary schools, for which improved, and the subject had been taken up at no rent is paid from local rates, and payment of the Manchester Church Congress. The subject the fees of indigent children attending voluntary had received attention in the reports of the schools by guardians of the poor direct to the Commission on National Education. A “Serv- managers, were also recommended. A minute ice to be used at the Admission of Sunday-School was passed by the house with reference to slavery, Teachers " had been issued by the Institute, with to the effectthe sanction of both the archbishops. Convocation of Canterbury. - The Convoca

That although domestic slavery is incompatible tion of Canterbury met for the dispatch of busi- with the full recognition of the equality of afl men

before God, and its continued existence must act as a ness, Feb. 28. In the upper house, a commu

direct encouragement to the slave trade, yet, inasmuch nication was received from the Archbishop of as it has the sanction of religious teaching and legalYork asking that copies of resolutions concurred ized custom in Mohammedan and pagan countries, in by both houses of the Southern Province be the house recognizes that its abolition can not be transmitted to the Convocation of York. The compelled by external force, but confidently hopes house resolved that such transcripts should be that the advance of Christianity and civilization will furnished. A resolution of the lower house by free institutions; that the slave trade as now car

in the near future bring about its entire supersession concerning parochial guilds was concurred in. A ried on by the Arabs in Equatorial Africa, being horcommittee was appointed to consider and report rible in its cruelty and waste of human life, and one upon the expediency of sanctioning the appoint- of the great obstacles to the rising hopes and encourment of lay readers, with commissions to be rec- aging prospects of Christianity and civilization in the ognized in all the dioceses; what should be the interior of that country, it is the duty of the Church order and nature of their services; and the rules

to make its voice heard on that subject; that in purand precautions needed to secure their fitness for

suance of the policy consistently maintained by Great their office. A proposed scheme for the joint the sea-going slave trade, and the signal success which

Britain for the last eighty years in the suppression of action of the two convocations was approved “ as attended the vigorous execution of that policy on the likely to be useful in the present, and to lead to west coast of Africa, Her Majesty's Government should


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be supported in such measures as may be possible to the action which had been taken by the upper the same end on the east coast; that although the house in defining the conditions of a satisfactory inland slave trade of Central Africa is at present be- clergy discipline bill, with amendments designed yond the reach of Government interference, every

to make the same more definite. effort should be made to impress its horrors on the minds of Englishmen, and that the Church should

Trial of the Bishop of Lincoln.- The case encourage such peaceful enterprises, commercial or of Read and others against the Lord Bishop of religious, as may lead to its diminution; that His Lincoln for irregularities in ritual, came for a Grace the archbishop be respectfully requested to hearing before the court of the Archbishop of consider the propriety of inviting the Church and Canterbury, Feb. 12. The archiepiscopal court, other religious bodies to special prayer in connection which was called for the trial is a tribunal which with this subject.

had long been out of use, and whose functions A motion was adopted in the upper house fa- were nearly forgotten till it was revived for this voring such legislation respecting marriage fees Its origin and history are somewhat obas will tend to remove the temptation to avoid scure, or at least lie outside the line of ordinary the offices of the Church in marriage. The legal precedent. Certain cases are known to lower house adopted a gravamen commending have been tried by the archbishop sitting as the recommendations of the Royal Commission metropolitan in the middle ages, but only one on Education respecting the support of voluntary clear instance could be found of the exercise of schools to a larger extent than at present, out of such a jurisdiction in Great Britain since the the public funds.

Reformation. This was the case of Bishop WatThe Houses of Convocation reassembled Mayson, of St. Davids, who was tried for simony by 14, and discussed questions relating to the Mar- Archbishop Tenison, in the reign of William II, riage Act and clergy discipline. The upper house when the archbishop's authority was upheld by had proposed a memorandum for a draft bill by the courts of appeal, and Bishop Watson was dewhich the law should be so amended that instead prived and excommunicated. The present Archof the man proposing to marry being required to bishop of Canterbury, when urged upon the have dwelt fifteen days in the parish of the strength of this precedent to entertain and try church in which he desired to be married by the charges against the Bishop of Lincoln, hesibanns, he might, upon producing a certificate tated to do so until he was assured that his juristhat the banns had been duly published in the diction would be recognized as valid under exparish where he was an ordinary and permanent isting laws. The promotors of the suit thereresident, be married in any other church in the fore applied to the Privy Council, and obtained same diocese. While the lower house had ap- from it, on the 5th of August, 1888, a unanimous proved the main features of this proposition, a decision from the five lay judges and the five report adverse to it was adopted in the House of bishops constituting that tribunal, that the archLaymen. The lower house adopted a report on bishop's jurisdiction remained valid. Pursuant the increase of the Episcopate favorable to the to this decision, the archbishop decided to hear constitution of four new dioceses. On the sub- the case in person and to follow in every releject of clergy discipline this house expressed vant detail the precedent in Bishop Watson's the opinion that suspension or deprivation, sub- The court was constituted of the archstituted for imprisonment as a penalty for con- bishop, with the bishops of London, Winchester, tumacy, would not be satisfactory if inflicted by Oxford, and Salisbury as assessors. the same courts that now have the power of The charges against the defendant recited procuring the imprisonment of clerks. “A report that he had, within two years past, offended was adopted on betting and gambling, recom- against the ecclesisastical laws in the diocese of mending that measures of moral suasion, in- Lincoln and province of Canterbury, by having in struction, and admonition be applied with a view the Church of St. Peter at Gonts, in the city of to mitigating the evils arising from their prev- Lincoln, Dec. 4, 1887, while officiating as bishop alence. The House of Laymen expressed its and the principal celebrant in the communion opinion that what is called “ free education service, used, or permitted to be used, lighted would, if granted, seriously interfere with pa- candles when they were not required for the purrental responsibility; weaken the position of re- pose of giving light; in having, at the same time ligious education and of voluntary schools; and and service, taken part in mixing water with the involve an unnecessary tax upon the public wine, and afterward consecrated and adminisfunds; and declared itself therefore satisfied that tered the mixture; in having, during the prayer the report of the royal commissioners did not of consecration, stood with his back to the peosupport any proposal for the abolition of school ple; in having permitted the singing of the “Agperice.

nus Dei” after the prayer of consecration, and The Convocation of York met for the trans- before the reception of the elements; in having action of business Feb. 26. The President said made the sign of the cross while pronouncing in his opening address that the two houses would the prayer of absolution; in having participated for the future sit separately, but would be liable in the ceremony of ablution; and in having perto be called to sit together for special purposes. formed similar acts, again recited in detail, durA resolution was passed declaring, that“ a satis- ing a service in the cathedral church of Lincoln, factory church-discipline bill should provide a on the 18th of December. court of first instance with a judge learned in the The defendant pleaded to the jurisdiction of law, with a jury, and at least one appeal on the the archbishop's court, holding that the authorfacts as well as the law; and, further, that to ity in proceedings against a bishop lay in the take away the appeal to the crown of any ben- Convocation. Several sittings of the court were eficed person for lack of justice would be a dan- occupied with the hearing of the argument on gerous innovation.” The lower house approved this question. The archbishop announced his


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