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aries, and is an admirer of European produc- be educated in the International College at tions, especially mechanical inventions. In Sep- Turin. tember the new King was crowned at Adua, the Asmara is the place that Ras Aloula chose for sacred city of Abyssinia, by Bishop Matheos. his residence when he advanced from Zazega to

Italian Annexations. --Although the auspi- oppose the Italian occupation of Keren. It was cious moment had arrived for carrying out the formerly a wretched village, but is well situated carefully arranged plans of the military authori- in an undulating plateau, 2,327 metres above the ties to occupy the cool and healthful plains near sea, 90 kilometres from Massowah, on the road Massowah, which would afford a summering; that passes through Mukulu, Dogali, Sahati, place where the troops could escape the fatal Ailet, Sabarguma, Baresa, and Ginda, and is near climatic conditions of the coast, and also a gate- the sources of the Mareb and other streams. In way for spreading Italian influence into Abys- conjunction with Keren it commands the northsinia, yet the Italian Cabinet was at first unwill- ern border of Tigreh, and with Zazegra controls ing to assent to Crispi's proposal to occupy the all the routes between northern Abyssinia and coveted positions in the highlands, because the the sea. The neighboring valley of Anseba, Premier had not long before promised that no through which passes the road to Keren from more money should be sunk in African under- Abyssinia, is adapted to agricultural colonizatakings. I'he Minister of War reckoned the tion, and the table-land is nowhere unfruitful. cost of occupying Keren and Asmara with two The fort at Asmara was rendered impregnable regiments at 6,000,000 lire, while for an extended without the aid of artillery, barracks and magaoccupation of Bogos 20,000,000 lire would be re- zines were erected, and other places in the Ilaquired. The Italians have had to support an massen district were fortified during the summer. expense of 20,000,000 lire per annum and the The Shoan Mission.-Anticipating the ultidislocation of 7,000 or 8,000 of the best of their mate accession of the ambitious Menelek to the troops to retain possession of Massowah and a

supreme power, the Italians had cultivated triangle of coast territory which is of no practi- friendly relations with him and favored his precal benefit, since the blockade has stopped all tensions. Count Antonelli, the Italian envoy to trade with Abyssinia. Therefore, they were Shoa, accompanied Menelek as far as Egyn, leardriven to make a choice between going forwarding him when he had obtained his signature to a or retiring from Africa. Moreover, considera- treaty embodying the more important demands tion of the health of the troops was a pressing that the Negus Johannis had rejected when prequestion. The forces in and near Massowah in sented, in 1887, by the English embassy in a letter the spring of 1889 consisted of 7,800 Italian sol- from Queen Victoria, and later in the peace nediers and 4,160 Bashi-Bazouks, or native irregu- gotiations with Gen. San Marzano when the lars, without counting the bands of Abyssinians Abyssinians confronted the Italian encampments in Italian pay. The Italians made an unsuc- in March, 1888. The treaty was conveyed to cessful attempt in 1888 to seize Keren, which is Italy by an embassy of twenty Shoan chiefs, who on the edge of the salubrious table-land. Subse- arrived at Rome in August. King Menelek quently they purchased the allegiance of Baram- agreed to recognize the sovereign rights of Italy baras Kafei, an Abyssinian chief, who collected over the places actually occupied by Italian 2,000 men, and by means of 600 breach-loading troops, and for that reason the military authorrifles tyrannized over the entire plateau of Bo- ities made haste to raise the Italian flag over gos. When ordered to restrain his men from Keren and Asmara. The Iialians agreed to open plundering, Kafel invited Ras Aloula to join him the port of Massowah to the unrestricted comin expelling the Italians. The latter knew of merce of the Abyssinians, in return for special the treacherous scheme, and while Aloula was facilities in comparison with other nations. Menon the march with 8,000 men, laid their plans elek accepted an Italian protectorate over the to frustrate it before he arrived. Gen. Baldis- whole of Ethiopia. The treaty was made by sera, governor of Massowah, sent a detachment Count Antonelli on May 5, and was ratified by of scouts and Bashi-Bazouks with a mountain King Umberto on Sept. 25. On Oct. 3 a supplebattery under Major Dimajo, who, with the co- mentary convention was signed at Naples by operation of Debeb's army of 1,500 men, sur- Signor Crispi and Makonen, chief of the Shoan rounded and surprised the faithless ally, ar- Mission, providing for the termination of the rested him and five of his principal chiefs, blockade, and for the establishment of commerdisarmed his freebooting band, and on June cial relations between Italy and Abyssinia. It 2, 1889, took formal possession of Keren, hoist- also makes provision for the appointment of an ing the Italian flag over the fort. Senahit, an- Italian consul-general in King Menelek's dominother important place on the Abyssinian front- ions and for mutual defense against a common ier, was occupied subsequently. On Aug. 4

On Oct. 13 the Italian Government deGen. Baldissera took possession of Asmara, clared a protectorate over all Abyssinia. which he fortified. Ras Aloula attempted to op- The Sagallo Incident.-Nicholas Atchinoff, pose the Italian advance, but was put to flight calling himself Hetman of Free Cossacks, is a by Major Dimajo at the head of a detachment Russian adventurer who has visited Abyssinia of chasseurs and irregulars. Debeb had held the and aided the Negus Johannis in his warfare district since early spring, having again entered against the Italians, and who, according to his the Italian service after deserting to the enemy own story, fought with the Mahdi against Gorwith arms and baggage the year before, giving don at Khartoum, and with Osman Digma against his infant brother and uncle into their hands as the English at Suakin. By taking some Abys. hostages, and proving his fidelity by defeating sinian priests to Russia, he interested the Slavonic the Abyssinian governor of Asmara. Debeb's committees in a scheme for assimilating Abysbrother, Ligg Abraham, was taken to Italy to sinian Christianity to the doctrines and worship of the Orthodox Church and privately aiding the cial flag. He said that he expected other cargoes Negus in his conflict with the Italians, in the ex- of arms from Odessa. In answer to further depectation of gaining for Russia the ascendancy mands of the French governor he refused to in Abyssinia and the commercial and political recognize any authority except that of the Emfoothold in Africa that Italy with heavy sacrifices peror of Russia. M. Goblet apprised the Russian had failed to attain. With pecuniary contribu- Foreign Office of this state of affairs, and received tions of the Panslavists, Atchinoff fitted out an the assurance that, as soon as the imperfect comexpedition, consisting of 146 persons, the public- munications would permit, a Russian war-vessel ly announced purpose of which was to make would be sent to bring Atchinoff to reason. Sapropaganda for the Greek religion in Abyssinia gallo is the starting-place of a caravan route into by establishing schools and churches. The party the interior; but Atchinoff was not able to open consisted of Capt. Atchinoff, Archimandrite communications with Abyssinia and send on the Paissy, 9 popes, 20 military officers, a band of 40 missionaries and the munitions, for the reason South Cossacks—artisans and cultivators, who that passage through Aoussah was denied at the were likewise acquainted with military duties, behest of the Italian authorities, the Sultan deand the wives and children of many of the emi- taining as hostages two Tadjurah chiefs who were grants. The disguised purpose of the expedition, sent to treat with him in behalf of Atchinoff. that of assisting the Abyssinian belligerents with According to French accounts, Atchinoff not arms and military instructors, was as widely only incited hostile and rebellious feelings against bruited as its ostensible religious mission. The the protecting power among the natives, but only ports giving access to Abyssinia are Mas- through his brutal tyranny came into conflict sowah and Robock. Atchinoff and his backers with them and with his own followers, producreckoned on opening an avenue into Abyssinia ing a situation that compelled the naval authorfrom French territory, expecting public opinion ities to take measures to avert disturbances in France to commend a breach of the neutrality without waiting for the promised interference of laws in favor of a Russian enterprise aimed the Russian Government. On Feb. 17 Admiral against the ally of Germany. The expedition Olry sent the Cossack leader an ultimatum to the passed through the Suez Canal and the Red Sea effect that if he did not lower the Russian ensign in an Austrian packet to Jeddah, followed by an and give up his mitrailleuse and boxes of rifles, Italian aviso, the “ Barberigo.” Slipping past except such as were necessary for personal prothe Italian vessel and a French cruiser that was tection, the fort would be bombarded in twentywatching, under cover of the night, the Austrian four hours, whereas if he complied with French ship took the party down the blockaded coast laws the religious mission would be granted faand landed it, with its chests of arms, on the cilities to penetrate into Abyssinia, and the shore of the Bay of Tadjurah, which is under others might colonize Sagallo or go forward the protectorate of France.

enemy.

unmolested. On the 18th the French commander, The doings of Atchinoff have repeatedly been wishing to avoid a hand-to-hand combat with the subject of diplomatic correspondence between the Russians, having an insufficient landingthe French and Russian governments since 1886. force, fired shells into the fort, killing five perIn the spring of 1888 the Cossack adventurer sons and wounding as many more. Some one had negotiated with the Sultans of Tadjurah for inside then displayed a white flag, and the Rusa grant of land on which he had left seven com- sian colors were hauled down. The Frenchmen panions, forning what he called a Russian colony landed and took the whole Russian party. The of the name of Moskva. As he failed to return ecclesiastics, as well as the others, preferred being before the promised term of three months with sent back to Russia instead of going to Abyssinia. more settlers, arms, and provisions, the deserted They were forwarded to Suez, and there given colonists escaped to European stations, and were into the custody of the Russian authorities, and assisted on their way back to Russia. Russian conveyed on a man-of-war to Odessa. diplomatic agents in Paris and Cairo, in reply to Unfortunately, among those who were hit in French interrogatories, gave official contradic- the bombardment were women and children, tions to Atchinoff's assertions at Port Said and owing to Atchinoff's cruel order forbidding any Jeddah that his enterprise was under the patron- person to retire from the fort. The Sagallo inage of the Czar. When the expedition landed cident produced a painful impression in Russian at Tadjurah, on Jan. 18, the governor of Obock patriotic circles, although the Russian Governsent an official to inquire his intentions of Atch- ment, in an official communiqué, threw the blame inoff, who said he had come to found a colony, upon Atchinoff, and declared that it would have and would remove in a few days to Sagallo, a no influence on the existing relations between district outside French jurisdiction over which Russia and France. M. Spuller, the new French he had acquired sovereign rights by treaty with Minister of Foreign Affairs, defended his predethe native chiefs. He was told that by virtue of cessor in a semi-otlicial note and in the Chamber, prior treaties and formal acts of occupation, the while the responsibility for the affair rested with territory was subject to France, but that he was M. Goblet. 'Î'he anti-Republican and Boulangist at liberty to establish a Russian settlement if he factions embraced the occasion for Chauvinistic would acknowledge French sovereignty and con- attacks on the Government, which led to the form with the regulations by delivering up super- suppression of the League of Patriots and refluous arms, as the importation of firearms as an markable political consequences. (See FRANCE.) article of commerce was interdicted on protected ADVENTISTS, SEVENTH-DAY. The staterritory.

tistical reports of this denomination, made to the Atchinoff departed with his companions for General Conference in October, 1888, give for the Sagallo, and there took up his quarters in an old thirty-two conferences and five mission fields : fort, on which he hoisted the Russian commer- Number of ministers, 232; of licentiates, 168; of churches, 901 ; of members, 26,112. Amount of General Conference.- The General Confertithes paid in for the eight months ending Julyence met at Minneapolis, Minn., Oct. 17, 1888. 30, 1888, $163,129. The mission fields, British, S. N. Haskell presided in the absence of the regGeneral Southern, New Zealand other Pacific ular president, George I. Butler. The Arkansas islands, and South African-returned of these and Australia conferences were admitted. A numbers, 16 ministers, 7 licentiates, 26 churches, committee on the subject of a missionary ship reand 1,709 members. The receipts of the General ported upon its efforts to secure a suitable vessel Conference for eight months had been $26,634, for the use of the conference. A vessel had been of which $17,514 had been paid to ministers; furnished by one of the members of the Church and the receipts of the General Conference Asso- to transport a missionary to Pitcairn Island. ciation had been $103,112.

Action was taken by the conference recommendIn connection with twenty-two missions in ing provision for the instruction of the people at cities, 131 persons had been engaged in Bible all general meetings on what the Bible teaches as work, who had visited 10,353 families. Sixteen to church discipline and on the duties of officers of the missions reported 526 converts since they and members and the holding of monthly meetwere established. The missions had contributed, ings for prayer and counsel ; approving the disin tithes and gifts, $6,852 to the Church and its use of tea, coffee, opium, and tobacco: pledging enterprises. The sum of $38,712 had been con- support to measures for the prohibition of the tributed for foreign missions.

liquor traffic, and protesting against any legisThe receipts of the International Tract Society lation which discriminates in favor of any religihad been $131,598, while the the total receipts ous class or institution, or which tends to the of State secretaries” were returned at $198.456. infringement of anybody's religious liberty": One hundred and six cities in the United States commending the organization of health and and forty in foreign countries had been entered temperance societies; inviting the conferences to by the agents of the society. About five hundred send candidates to the Sanitarium Training reading-rooms in the United States, Great Brit- School for Nurses ; denouncing the “ National ain, and Australia were supplied with the religious Reform" party, as a menace to religious freedom, periodicals of the denomination. The work of and recommending the circulation of a book predistributing religious periodicals and other pub- senting the Seventh-Day-Adventist view on the lications had been extended to China, South relations of “ Civil Government and Religion”; Africa, Holland, the West Indies, and Pitcairn condemning the “ Blair amendment" to the Conand other islands in the Pacific Ocean. Several stitution of the United States and the National sets of bound volumes had been placed in colored Sunday bill ” of May 21, 1888 as tending toward schools in the South,

union of church and state; appointing a comThe International Sunday-School Association mittee to appear before the Senate Committee on had received $9,931, while the contributions re- Education and Labor “ in the interests of religceived by the schools amounted to $16,944, the ious liberty," and recommending the commisgifts of the schools to missions to $10,076, and sion of qualified speakers to go about and make their gifts to State associations to $1,346. Nine addresses on the subject ; making various provishundred and fifty-five schools were returned, with ions for advancing religious work in foreign 25,560 members.

fields, for the training of foreign laborers, and At the meeting of the American Health and the promotion of mission schools; concerning Temperance Association favorable accounts were city missions; and advising the holding of yearly received from the State organizations of the in- institutes in each State and special general institerest of members and improvement of public tutes for the study of the doctrines of the Church sentiment in favor of health and temperance and its methods of working in the various deSpecial instruction in these subjects and on so- partments. Persons wishing to discuss views cial purity was given at Battle Creek College and differing from those usually taught by the deat several of the State camp-meetings.

nomination were advised to present them to the The accounts of the Central Publishing Asso- conference committee of their State; the conciation, Battle Creek, Mich., were balanced at ference committee. if it thinks proper, to present $373,896 ; those of the Pacific Press Publishing them to the State institute; and that body, if it Company, Oakland, Cal., at $305,291. The sales consider the matter of sufficient importance, to from the Central establishment had amounted recommend it to the consideration of the Gen(at wholesale rates) to $69,693 ; the Pacific Press eral Conference Institute. Company had done a year's business of $163,935. Second-Advent Christian Association.Publishing establishments were in operation This body, besides awaiting in common with abroad at Basle, Switzerland (valued at nearly other Second Adventists the speedy second com$60,000); Christiania, Norway ($60,000); Mel- ing of the Lord, holds to the doctrine of immorbourne, Australia ($25.000); and London ($5,000). tality through Jesus Christ for the righteous The accounts of the Educational Society were bal- alone. The thirtieth annual meeting of the asanced at $112,232. The institutions are Battle sociation was held in Chelsea, Mass., Aug. 7 and ( 'reek College, Mich., Healdsburg College, Cal., 8. Elder E. A. Stockman presided. The treasurer South Lancaster Academy, Mass., and prepara- reported of the Sick and Poor Ministers' fund tory schools at Milton and East Portland, Ore- that the receipts for the year had been $668, and gon, Minneapolis, Minn., and Ottawa and Le- the expenditures $448; and of the Help the high, Kansas. The last is German. In connec- Needy fund,” receipts, $124, expenditures $38. tion with the health and temperance work of The receipts of the Publishing Society had been the denomination, sanitariums are established at $31,227, and its expenditures $27,121, while the Battle Creek, Mich., St. Helena, Cal., and Mount amount of its assets was returned at $31,346. It Vernon, Ohio.

had published twelve new tracts and books. Gifts of $267 had been received for the Tract the refugee Sultan and his fighting men entering fund, and $594 worth of tracts had been granted the Bokharan service. After the suppression of in answer to applicants. A book on “ Conditional the rebellion, Gholam Haider Khan withdrew Immortality," by a Congregational minister, had the main body of the troops to engage in a cambeen accepted for publication. Five periodicals paign against the insurgent Shinwarris, while —for general reading, young people, and Sunday- Abdurrahman went to Turkistan to establish his schools—were published under the direction of rule by measures of vengeance and terror. The the society, and an appropriation had been made Russians accused Abdurrahman of endeavoring to aid in establishing a new paper in the West. to extend his influence beyond the boundary The association directed that two publication fixed by international agreement, suspecting him societies be established, one in the East and one of an intention to pursue his fugitive subjects in the West, to be sovereign in the management into Bokhara, or of wishing to inveigle the Bokof their affairs. Resolutions passed by the asso- haran Ameer into a secret alliance against Rusciation, besides expressing the belief that the sia, or of intriguing with the Russophobe party people of the body had been called out by the in Bokhara and exciting the fanaticism of the Lord to give the world the special message of his Mollahs against the Christians. Great excitecoming to judgment and insisting on the im- ment was produced in Bokhara by the wholesale portance of organization for that purpose, execution of friends and relatives over the borurged ministers, missionarioes, and evangelists der, and there was danger of a collision with to form church and conference organizations at the troops of Abdurrahman. A concentration all suitable places in the new fields in which they of Russian troops was ordered. The Muscovite may labor. The collection of a mission fund force in Turkistan amounted, in the early months was advised for sending missionaries throughout of 1889, to 17 battalions of infantry, 14 squadrons the United States, and to England, Australia, of Cossack troopers, a brigade of artillery, and 5 Ireland, Canada, Nova Scotia, and other places batteries of guns. A large Russian garrison was open for missionary work. A committee was posted at Kerki, and a road and a telegraph were appointed to further the preparation and pub- constructed to connect that fortress with Chardlication of a book of standard and substantial jui, steamboat communication having proved merit on the subject of the near and personal unsafe. The advanced guard at Kerki was placed second coming of Jesus Christ. Provision was under the command of Gen. Christianin. Gen. made for the preparation of a denominational Komaroff, commander-in-chief, removed his headregister, giving the names and statistics of min- quarters to Chardjui. Abdurrahman remained isters, churches, Sunday-schools, and member- at Mazar-i-Sherif throughout the year. On his ship

arrival at that place he broke off commercial AFGHANISTAN, a monarchy in Central Asia, relations with Russia and strengthened the fronbetween Russian Turkistan and British India. tier posts. His military force consisted of from The present ruler is Abdurrahınan Khan, Ameer 12,000 to 15,000 troops armed with breech-loaders. of Cabul, who receives a subsidy from the Indian Those partisans of Ishak Khan who did not Government and is under a treaty obligation to escape into Bokharan or Russian territory were follow the Viceroy's advice in his dealings with executed at the rate of 300 a day. The Russians foreign powers, the Calcutta Government being received Ishak Khan with honor, and gave him bound in turn to aid in the defense of his fron- a residence at Samarcand and a liberal pension, tiers against unprovoked foreign aggression. with lodging and support for 500 followers. The

Revolution in Afghan Turkistan. — The adherents of Ishak Khan continued through the Ameer, with the help of British money and spring to emigrate by thousands, to escape the munitions of war, strengthened his power by Ameer's vengeance. In attempting to impose overcoming, before the winter of 1888–'89, a for- his rule in Badakshan, especially by enrolling the midable rebellion in the northern part of his young men in his army, Abdurrahman provokeil dominions. Ishak Khan, who had reconquered a rebellion in the summer. The insurgents imAfghan Turkistan and for many years admin- prisoned the Ameer's officials. Regular troops istered it on a semi-independent footing, took were sent against them from Mazar-i-Sherif, and advantage of his cousin's troubles with the re- re-enforcements were brought from Cabul. The volted Shinwarris and Ghilzais to renounce his rebels, with their primitive weapons, could not allegiance and rebel against Abdurrahman, in stand up before breech-loading rifles, and in it the hope of seizing the throne of Cabul, which month the province was reduced to subjection. his father had once occupied. Gholam Haider The Russian Transcaspian Railway.- The Khan, deputy commander-in-chief of the Ameer's great strategic railroad skirting the borders of forces, a most successful general, who had com- Persia and Afghanistan, binding the Central manded in the operations against the rebel Ghil- Asian Khanates to Russia, is said to be already zais, marched rapidly into Turkistan with an a success in a commercial sense, as well as for overwhelming force, before the revolution was military purposes. Not only are troops, officials, well organized. The armies met in pitched battle, and tourists being conveyed along its line, but and Ishak was defeated and his troops dispersed there is also a considerable movement of merwith great slaughter. Gholam Haider was ap- chandise. It is largely used as a trade route bepointed Governor-General of Afghan Turkistan. tween India and Central Asia, and the principal In January Ishak Khan fled with his followers traders of Central Europe and Asiatic countries, across the Amu Darya, and took refuge with the including Afghanistan and Persia, are joining in Russians. The Uzbeck Sultan, Murad Khan, who a combination to develop trade along the line of took part in the revolution, crossed into Bokhara, the railroad, which offers to reward them by with 3,000 families of Afghan Uzbecks, who were placing the freight tariffs for them very low. settled on the lands of the Ameer of Bokhara, Afghanistan has been accorded the same favorable terms that were previously given to Persia. his discretion. This Legislature granted also a Gen. Annenkoff has proposed to extend the rail- much-needed increase of appropriation for the road from Samarcand, the present terminus, to support of the public schools, by which the anTashkend. He has also urged the Government nual State expenditure for this purpose will be to acquire possession of the Transcaspian oil- $350,000, instead of $250,000. The sum of fields, in order to insure the railroad a supply of $50,000 was appropriated to complete and equip naphtha, the only available fuel, of which 1,500,- the building of the Agricultural and Mechanical 000 poods were required for the year 1889 ; other. College; $11,600 for an additional building at wise he fears that the prices will be artificially the Alabama Academy for the Blind, and $20,000 advanced by a combination of well-owners, and for repairing and furnishing the Capitol building that, through natural causes, they will rise in- and improving the grounds. A mechanical and conveniently when the pipe-line shall have been industrial department was established at the laid between Baku and Batoum.

Alabama Institute for the Deaf, and $5,000 was ALABAMA, a Southern State, admitted to appropriated for a building. The act of Feb. the Union in 1819; area, 50,722 square miles; 22, 1887, authorizing the Governor to issue and population, according to the last decennial cen- sell bonds not exceeding $954,000, bearing not sus (1880), 1,262,505 ; capital, Montgomery. over 35 per cent. interest, in order to raise money

Government.—The following were the State to pay that part of the State debt accruing in officers during the year: Governor, Thomas Seay, 1890, was amended so as to allow the issue of Democrat; Secretary of State, Charles C. Lang- 4-per-cent. bonds to the same amount. The don, who died on June 8, and was succeeded by number of legal holidays was increased by addJ. D. Barron, appointed by the Governor; Treas- ing the 26th of April, Good Friday, and Mardi urer, John L. Cobbs; Auditor, Cyrus D. Hogue; Gras. It was made punishable by fine to present Attorney - General, Thomas N. McClellan, who fire-arms, whether loaded or unloaded, ‘at anresigned on March 6, and was succeeded on other. It was declared unlawful for any person March 18 by William L. Martin, appointed by or persons, whether uniformed or not, to be asthe Governor ; Superintendent of Public In- sociated or assembled together under any name struction, Solomon Palmer; Commissioner of in a military capacity for the purpose of paradAgriculture, Rufus F. Kolb; Railroad Commis- ing, drilling, or marching, or otherwise taking sioners, Henry R. Shorter, Levi W. Lawler, W. up and bearing arms, unless permitted by law C. Tunstall; Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, or by leave of the Governor; but this act does George W. Stone; Associate Justices, David Clop- not apply to schools for military tactics or ton and H. M. Somerville. The Legislature of to certain benevolent orders named in the act. this year made provision for a fourth justice of Whenever any mob, riot, or tumult occurs in the Supreme Court, and the Governor, on March, any city, village, or town, all persons therein 7, appointed Attorney-General McClellan. who sell intoxicating liquors, arms, ammunition,

Finances.- The balance in the State treasury dynamite, or other explosives, shall at once close on Jan. 1 of this year was $153,373.46, of which their places of business and keep them closed $100,098.49 was available for general revenue and refrain from selling till the local authorities purposes. On Oct. 1 preceding the balance was publicly announce that they may be opened. A over $555,000. The latter figures represent more forfeiture of the license to sell and a heavy fine nearly the average surplus for the year. The or imprisonment are the penalties for violating bonded debt consists of $7,721,300 in 4-per-cent. this act. Certain local officers and the commandbonds, $539,000 in 5-per-cent. bonds, and $954,- ing officer of the State troops when called out 000 in 6-per-cent bonds, in all $9,214,300. The for duty are required to issue orders closing Governor is authorized to redeem the 6-per-cent. such shops and saloons, when there is reason to bonds on Jan. 1, 1890, when they first become apprehend trouble or an outbreak has occurred. redeemable, and to issue 4-per-cent. bonds to the Selling liquor to State troops on duty without same amount.

leave of the commander is severely punished. Legislative Session.— The Legislature met The board of prison inspectors is required to in regular biennial session on Nov. 13, 1888, adopt rules that will prevent inhuman treatand adjourned on Feb. 28, having taken a ment of State and county convicts, and to regumonth's recess, which ended on Jan. 29. Early late the time, amount, and manner of working in the session United States Senator John T. them. The sum of $50,000 was appropriated Morgan, Democrat, was re-elected without op- for the relief of disabled Confederate soldiers position for the term beginning March 4, 1889. and the widows of those killed in the late war, Fully five sixths of the legislation was local and the manner of its distribution was preand special. The Supreme Court was enlarged scribed. Other acts of the session were as follows: from three to four members, and provision was made for calling in a member of the bar to sit

Providing for a commission of lunacy of three with the judges in any case where they are equally sane, and regulating the trial and care of such persons.

members which shall have control of the criminal individed in opinion. The drummers' license tax,

Creating an additional judicial district, called the declared by the United States Supreme Court to Tenth Judicial District. be unconstitutional, so far as levied upon non- Authorizing corporations to alter and amend their residents coming into the State, was repealed. charters. An evidence of the improved financial condition

Permitting building and loan associations to inof the State is found in the reduction of the crease their capital stock. tax rate from 5 mills to 4:5 mills for 1890, and sold for taxes prior to 1881 to the existing owners of

Releasing any claim now held by the State to lands to 4 mills for 1891. To prevent any deficiency such lands. caused by this reduction, the Governor was au- To authorize the separate redemption of distinct thorized to borrow not more than $100,000, in parcels of land sold for taxes under one decree.

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