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those, who, trembling and aghast, had recoiled from the first recital of the horrors of revolutionary fury.
Sir Arthur Wellesley was winning his first laurels at Assaye and Argaum ; Nelson was sweeping with his victorious fleet the waters of the Mediterranean: the name of Bonaparte stirred up everywhere wrath and terror and despair; thrones were tottering, dynasties crumbling away, and governments shifting and changing like the chance combinations of the kaleidoscope. Poor Sir John Moore was taking his rest in his warrior's grave, beneath the walls of Corunna. Marengo, Trafalgar, and Austerlitz were “ household words” then; and a little later, Talavera, Salamanca, and Vittoria, with other names no less famous and inspiring, were the daily theme when men met for business, for worship, and for social intercourse. It was the old “. time," as it came to be called long afterwards, when peace had once more waved her olive-branch over the carnage-weary, exhausted nations—the war-time, when every man knew that he might be called to leave hearth and home, to do righteous battle for king and faith and fatherland; when the spirit of patriotism was rampant in the breasts of those who, but a few years later, were infuriated with the policy of their own rulers, and quite ready to fan the smouldering fires of anarchy and discontent, that, once expanded into flame, must have spread far and wide over the land, in the form of an unscrupulous and impolitic revolution.
Such were the times in which Arnold learned from his affectionate preceptress the first elements of knowledge; in which he played, no doubt, like other children of that day, at sieges, and battles, and maritime engagements; in which he studied at Warminster, and at Winchester; in which he saw, as things of course, men"great
of-war riding gallantly out of harbour, or coming back with the flag of victory hoisted high, and the great cannon booming along the rocky shores of the Isle of Wight; as the proud vessels swept over the blue waters of the Channel, to bring back the conquerors, the wounded and the dying, to their native soil.
His earliest associations were of the sea, of soldiers, and of sailors; and, as he says himself, “he was familiar from a child with boats and ships, and the flags of half Europe ;” which, he goes on to remark, gave him "an instinctive acquaintance with geography,” and taught him much also of the nature of nautical craft and nautical technicalities, which boys who are born and bred in the inland counties generally fail to acquire. He counted both the sea and mountains as points in education;" an acqr.aintance with the latter, he was inclined to believe almost indispensable for the development of certain powers, and certain influences; and in after life, we find him marvelling greatly at the ignorance of some Rugby boys, who at seventeen or eighteen were deficient in common geographical and maritime information, and which he attributes to two
to their never having seen the sea, and to their never having been in London: “and it is surprising,” he says in a letter dated 1829, “ how the first of these disadvantages interferes with their understanding much of the ancient poetry; while the other keeps the range of their ideas in an exceedingly narrow compass.'
He felt as strongly as any man the deep and wide interpretation which a sound mind gives to the momentous word EDUCATION. He knew, none better, that there are schools which are not institutions-schoolmasters who are not living, speaking men-books whose
mysterious leaves never issued from mortal press, whose teaching is fresh and pure from the Mighty Master of the Universe !
In 1811, in his sixteenth year, he was elected, “against several very respectable candidates,” a scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. “He came to us,” says Mr. Justice Coleridge, “in Lent term, a mere boy in appearance, as well as in age ; but we saw in a very short time that he was quite equal to take his part in the discussions of the common-room ; and he was, I rather think, admitted by Mr. Cooke at once into his senior class."
Corpus Christi is a college small in numbers, and without architectural pretensions; but among its eminent men occur the names of Jewell, Hooker, Coleridge, Professor Buckland, and others remarkable for ability and worth! And now Corpus, with a mournful pride, may add to the list of her dearest and most illustrious sons, the revered name of " Arnold of Rugby."
In 1815 he was elected Fellow of Oriel College, and in the same year, and in 1817, he took the Chancellor's prize for the two University Essays, Latin and English! How deeply, how entirely he loved Oxford; with what fondness he ever recurred to his old haunts, and his old habits there, those who knew him best and longest can bear faithful witness. How often in his letters, in his common converse, he expatiated again and again on the beauties of Bagley Wcod, and Shotover Hill! Amid the level and monotonous scenery of Rugby, his heart yearned for certain well-known nooks, special pretty fields, and wild streams in the country round Oxford; and even on the banks of his own beloved Rotha, with Fairfield in full view, and old Loughrigg close at hand, his affections clung to that oft-quoted Bagley Wood, and to the many familiar beauties in the neighbourhood of the University.
And when the great heresy of Newmanism arose, and spread throughout Oxford, he beheld with bitterest sorrow, and most vehement indignation, the development of principles which he held to be utterly subversive to the cause of truth, and most mischievous and fatal in their influences on the National Church of his country. Newmanism (or, as it afterwards came to be called, Puseyism and Tractarianism) would have called forth his conscientious protest, wherever it might have arisen ; but that its pernicious seeds should first take root and flourish in his own beloved and honoured Oxford, added the climax to his grief, and excited his most indignant denunciations. And it was the dream of his early manhood, and the cherished hope of maturer years, that in the decline of life he might be permitted to hold office there, and, amid old scenes and old associations, plan and carry out his long-pondered schemes of usefulness for his “ancient and magnificent University;" and there, in comparative retirement, alternating with his mountain home in the North, enjoy that repose which a life of arduous effort and advancing age would surely demand.
His fellow-student and beloved friend, Mr. Justice Coleridge, in his valuable contribution to Canon Stanley's “Life of Dr. Arnold," tells us that he was always ready to take part in the discussions of the commonroom ;
that he was fond of conversation on serious matters, and vehement in argument; fearless too in advancing his opinions, which even then seem considerably to have startled his contemporaries. “But," continues the same authority, "he was ingenuous and candid, and though the fearlessness with which, so
young as he was, he advanced his opinions, might have seemed to betoken presumption, yet the good temper with which he bore retort or rebuke relieved him from that imputation; he was bold and warm, because, so far as his knowledge went, he saw very clearly, and he was an ardent lover of truth ; but I never saw in him, even then, a grain of vanity or conceit.”
From the same impartial and authentic source we learn that, during his curriculum, he greatly preferred the philosophers and historians to the poets of antiquity; his passion was for Aristotle and Thucydides. For the former he seemed to entertain a personal affection; his tone was deeply tinctured with the ideas, the expressions, and the maxims of the “dear old Stagirite;" and therigh much inclined, when he was selecting his son's University, to choose Cambridge, he could not make up his mind to send him where he would lose Aristotle, and according.y lecided on Oxford. Almost equal in his regard was Thucydides ; be used him as a constant text-book, and knew thoroughly the contents of every individual chapter: and next in order came Herodotus, whom in after years he continued to enjoy with even more than youthful relish. Indeed, he was to the last true to his favourite authors, as he was faithful to his early friends. Aristotle and Thucydides never lost their place in his affections; but as he grew older he learned to estimate at their real value those grand productions of the ancient poets, which, at this early period, he rather unduly overlooked. In his correspondence of the year 1833, he writes thus :“ You will be amused when I tell you that I am becoming more and more a convert to the advantages of Greek and Latin verse;" which he had once regarded as “one of the most contemptible prettinesses