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bers, and places of residence, of many tribes, and of not a few, who had never before been visited by white people, and whose names, even, were not before known to us.
We endeavoured to be useful on our way, when there was opportunity, without injury to the main object of my mission, by preaching to the troops of the U. States, at the several military posts which we visited, and at other destitute places, administering the ordinances of religion, and dispensing moral and religious instruction by the distribution of bibles and tracts, establishing Sabbath and other schools, Bible and Tract Societies, and laying foundations for a stated ministry of the Gospel, and the permanent support of schools for the education of the rising generation. Our efforts of this kind, I have reason to hope, have been crowned with the blessing of God, and will issue, at no distant period, in measures beneficial to many of the destitute, who otherwise would have been left to grow up in ignorance and vice.
I considered improvements of this kind, in these destitute places, as having an important bearing and influence on the benevolent project of the Government, in regard to the Indians; whose intercourse with these military posts, and with the inhabitants of these villages, is frequent and extensive. In these circumstances, good examples in the soldiers and citizens will be of much advantage to their Indian visitants. To make these soldiers and citizens good, of course, is doing good to the Indians. These observations apply with peculiar force to the inhabitants of Mackinaw and Green Bay, which places are regularly frequented by large numbers of the Indians, and in these places the establishments mentioned above were made.
I add, that the season was remarkably fine. We suffered no hindrance in our journey from unfavorable weather or any disaster. By the aid which I received, under a kind Providence, though my health was extremely feeble for a tour so extensive and of so much fatigue and responsibility, I was enabled to collect much information on the several topics specified in my commission. This will be found in as much order, as the nature of the several topics will admit, in the Appendix to this Report.
TOUR INTO CANADA.
Conceiving that it was within the spirit and meaning of my commission, and that it might, in various ways, aid essentially the accomplishment of the grand object of the Government in respect to the Indians, I left home on the 4th of July 1821, with a view to visit both the Canadas, and to ascertain the feelings and views of the Governors and principal men in those provinces, on the subject of the civilization and moral and religious improvement of the Indians, within their respective jurisdictions, and whether their cooperation, in such manner as they should deem proper, might be expected.* I proceeded by way of Buffalo, Niagara Falls and Town, to York, the seat of the government of Upper Canada, where I arrived the 3d of August; and the same day had a very full and satisfactory conversation with His Excellency, Sir PEREGRINE MAITLAND, on the subject of my visit, the result of whichi will be found in the following letter, which I had the honor to address to you from Niagara.
NIAGARA, August 5th, 1821.
I HAVE just returned to this place from a visit to His Excellency PEREGRINE MAITLAND, Governor of Upper Canada, at York. He received me with much civility, in a manner respectful to the Government under whose commission I had been acting; heard my communications with an attention, which indicated deep interest in them; communicated, in turn, what had been done, and was now doing, for the Indians in this Province; expressed in strong terms his approbation of what was doing in the U. States, for the benefit of our Indians; rejoiced very sincerely in our success, and manifested his readiness to co-operate with us in all suitable ways
and measures practicable for the accomplishment of the great and common object in view, the complete civilization of the Indians. A plan of
A summary Journal of this Tour is given in the Appendix K.
future proceeding in this business was proposed by him, to which I gave my ready assent.*
He will confer with Governor DalHousie, now on a tour in the western part of this province, on this subject, and of whose approbation of the benevolent design, of doing good to the Indians, he entertains no doubt.
I have conversed also with the Hon. and Rev. Dr. STRACHAN, and other gentlemen of York; and with the Hon. WILLIAM CLAUS, Deputy Inspector General of Indian Affairs, in Upper Canada, and a considerable number of other respectable gentlemen in Niagara, on this business, and by all am assured of their warm approbation of it, and have their promises of cordial support.
A foundation, I trust, is thus laid for future intercourse and cooperation between the Governments, and respectable and influential individuals in these Provinces, and our own Government and individuals connected with it, which will tend to harmonize and strengthen the efforts which shall in future be made, each within their respective jurisdictions, to raise the long neglected native tribes, whom the Providence of God has placed under our care, as christian nations, from their present state of ignorance and wretchedness, to the enjoyment, with us, of all the blessings of civilization, and of our holy religion. In all events, I shall never regret, that I have made this visit and effort to accomplish an object obviously good, and of deep importance. The gratifications I have enjoyed in the polite and favourable manner in which my communications were received, as well as in other respects, are an abun
* The plan suggested was, that a correspondence should be opened and continued between the Honourable and Reverend Dr. STUART of Lower Canada and myself on the subject at large, under his, the Governor's sanction, and that in this form he would most cheerfully give the business his influence. A letter, accordingly, introducing and opening the subject, has been forwarded to Dr. STUART.
The absence of Governor Dalhousie, prevented my going, as I had intended, to Montreal and Quebec, and of course my ascertaining from personal conversation, the feelings and opinions of a number of respectable gentlemen in those places, particularly Chief Justice SEWALL, and Sir WilLIAM JOHNSON, Bart. Inspector General of Indian Affairs, to whom I had letters of introduc tion. These letters have been since forwarded, with letters explaining fully the design of my intended visit to them. Their answers have not yet been received.
dant reward for all the fatigues and privations I have endured in so long a tour, in so hot a season, and far away from my family. I am, dear Sir, with high consideration and esteem,
Your obedient Servant,
JEDIDIAH MORSE. Hon. John C. Calhoun, Secretary of War.
1. On the difficulties peculiar to this subject, of which the reader of this report should be apprized in the outset. Accuracy in regard to the names, numbers, and situations of the numerous In. dian Tribes, which are spread over our widely extended territory; and in the spelling of their names, seeing that these tribes, in not a single instance, have a written language, is not pretended, nor must absolute correctness be expected.
The nature of these subjects precludes accuracy. No individual can visit the whole territory inhabited by the Indians and personally make the necessary inquiries. Even this, could it be done, would not prevent mistakes. Information is derived from many sources, on which different degrees of reliance are to be placed. No standard of spelling and pronouncing Indian names, has yet been agreed on, though we have several learned and able dissertations on this subject.* The same tribes are called by different names, by the French, English, and Spaniards, and even by the Indians themselves. The Winebago Tribe, for example, is called by the French, Puant ; by the Sioux, Ho-tonka-among themselves their name is O-shun-gu-lap. The Fox Tribe is called by the Chip-pa-was, Ot-tah-gah-ınie; by the Sauks, or Sacs, Musquah-kie; by the Sioux, Mich-en-dick-er; by the Winebagoes, O-sher-a-ca; and by the French, Renard: and so of others. acquaintance with many tribes is but commencing, and with many
* By P. S. Duponceau, Esq. Rev. John Heckewelder, Hon. John Pickering, Esq. Rev. Dr. Jarvis, and others.
more, contained in our Table, we have only the uncertain information of travellers, who have barely passed through, or only near, their villages. I can only say, I have been fully aware of these difficulties, and have met them with diligence and fidelity, and have employed my best and most assiduous endeavors to lay before the Government, as full and correct a view of the numbers and actual situation of the whole Indian population within their jurisdiction, as my information and materials would admit. It is a subject, indeed, in which accuracy is not now required. Enough is given for present use;-enough to show us our object with sufficient distinctness, and to commence our operations for the attainment of it. Our advances in knowledge of the names, numbers and situation of the western tribes, will keep pace with the advance of our operations. We shall always know enough on this subject, to enable us to do present duty.
2. My second remark relates to the nature of the composition of this report. The body of it is not intended to be original, but to consist of existing facts and materials, now scattered in
books and manuscripts, which it is important should be collected and arranged, for convenient use, under proper heads. To accomplish this, so far as it has been accomplished in this volume, has cost no small labor.
The length of the report will excite no surprize in the mind of ány one, who will reflect a moment on the extent of my commissions, the magnitude of the subject, the number and variety of facts and materials relating to it, and the deep interest happily excited concerning it, both in the civil and religious community.
Names, Numbers and places of Residence, of Indian Tribes in the
The following article in my instructions, is the first in order:
I. “You will particularly ascertain, as far as practicable, the number of the various tribes which you may visit, and those adjacent."