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ing whether it is the intention of the committee that the results of researches obtained by the expenditure of national funds should be kept secret, as most scientific men would regard this as short-sighted.
The second ground is that, where results are to be patented, delay in publication is in the interest of the investigator. This is scarcely relevant. It is surely in the highest degree dangerous to delay applying for a provisional patent until the results have been communicated to the committee and its consent obtained, for any person who, by lawful or unlawful means, gets the information is then in a position to prevent the real discoverer from protecting himself.
The third ground is that it is the object of the department to secure to the discoverer a fair share in any profits that may accrue from his discovery. Admittedly, the class of inventors and discoverers is in very great need of being protected from the sharp practises that have sprung up under the shadow of the patent law, and primarily from the government itself. But why should a small part of them, who receive government funds, be singled out and protected? If the discoverer prefers to secure for himself the legal ownership of his discoveries, rather than from the committee, I do not think he should be debarred from participating in this money. The most, I think, the committee has a right to stipulate is that its interest is limited to the amount it has contributed, and that, in the event of a dispute, the matter shall be referred to an impartial arbitrator for settlement.-Frederick Soddy in Nature.
motion of zoology through exploration, research and publication. Two volumes have already been published, namely "Tropical Wild Life," studies from the Tropical Station of British Guiana, and "A Monograph of the Pheasants," Volume I., by C. William Beebe. The present volume is the third to be issued; it contains twenty bulletin papers which have been published by the society beginning in 1907, and here brought together in permanent form.
The members of the scientific staff of the park and of the aquarium did not enter the well-trodden field of the lifeless cabinet or museum animal, nor of the older systematic or descriptive zoology, nor even of the newer field of experimental zoology and Mendelism; they sought the inspiring field which has been relatively little entered in this country or abroad, namely, observation of the normal living bird and the living mammal, wherever possible in its own living environment, not from the standpoint of the older naturalists or systematists, but from the standpoint of the newer problems raised in modern biology. This is a path partly pursued by certain of the older naturalists and travelers, and especially by such wonderful observers as Darwin, Wallace and Bates, which has been abandoned for a time through the lure of artificial experiment and of the breeding pen, but which may now be followed with the new ardor of a larger knowledge of the problems and of a deeper insight into the search for natural causes. These causes are sought either in the experiments which nature herself is constantly trying, or in a close imitation of the actual experiments of nature, as in Beebe's studies of the causes governing the changes of plumage and of color in the scarlet tanager (Piranga) and the Inca dove (Scardafella).
scarlet tanagers and bobolinks under careful observation. Little by little the supply of light was cut off and the amount of food was increased. In about a month, when the time for the normal autumn moult arrived, the tanagers and bobolinks were living the "simple life" in a dim illumination, and, although consuming a fair amount of food, were exercising but little. As the winter gradually passed, it was evident that the birds had skipped the autumn moult entirely and appeared to suffer no inconvenience as a result. In the following spring individual tanagers and bobolinks were gradually brought under normal conditions and into their seasonal activities, with quick result. The birds moulted into the colors appropriate to the season; there was no exception; the moult was from nuptial to nuptial, not from nuptial to winter plumage; the dull colors of the winter season had been completely suppressed. Of an entirely different character is Beebe's second paper, "A Contribution to the Ecology of the Adult Hoatzin," a bird which presents a most remarkable survival both of habit and structure in the presence of claws on its wing phalanges and in its tree-climbing habits.
Interspersed with the biological papers are some which are partly biological and partly systematic, such as Beebe's third paper, "An Ornithological Reconnaissance of Northeastern Venezuela." It was learned in the zoological researches of Venezuela and in the more recent work in British Guiana, at the Tropical Research Station, that a systematic survey of the zoology and botany of any region is absolutely essential for broad and intensive biological and experimental work. Thus there also appear in this volume the first series of systematic papers on the "Insects of British Guiana," by Kellogg, Caudell and Dyar; also "Notes on Costa Rican Birds," by Crandall. These will be followed in Volume II. of Zoologica by very complete check-lists of the birds and mammals of British Guiana, to which the Zoological Society observers havé made very extensive additions.
Of more general zoological character of the older kind are Townsend's observations on the
"Northern Elephant Seal," describing his discovery of a previously unknown herd on Guadalupe, an uninhabited island lying in the Pacific Ocean 140 miles off the northern part of the peninsula of Lower California. There is also a series of morphological papers, such as those of Beebe, on the "Supernumerary Toes in Hawks," and of Gudger, on "The Whale Shark." One pathological paper has found its way into this volume, namely, that of W. Reid Blair, entitled, "Common Affections among Primates." Other papers of this character, however, will be placed in the special pathological series to be issued by the Zoological Society. It is not intended to continue in these volumes of Zoologica such papers as MacCallum's "Ectoparasitic Trematodes," not because they are not of interest and value, but because they belong more properly with other series of researches.
Quite germane to this volume, however, are Ditmar's observations on the "Feeding Habits of Serpents," and Beebe's careful studies on the "Racket Formation in Tail-Feathers of the Motmots," which describe the rare phenomenon of the apparent voluntary mutilation of plumage of birds with its well known bearing on Lamarckism. We have known absolutely nothing of the actual cause of this phenomenon; either how it arose, why it is so persistent, or what good is accomplished. For some reason totally unknown to us a certain portion of the central rectrices of these birds exhibits congenitally a decided degeneration of the barbs and barbules; the motmot, in the course of the preening to which it subjects all of its rectrices, breaks off the enfeebled barbs in the area most affected by this degeneration, and thus brings about the remarkable, symmetrically formed rackets. Thus an apparently purposive act is explained as being due to the weakness or hereditary degeneration in a certain portion of the tail.
The Zoological Society thus puts forth its first volume of collected contributions by younger men who have been trained chiefly within its staff and by its expeditions on land and sea, in the hope of striking the new and inspiring note which normal life always gives.
Since the materials for this first volume were collected, the same authors have found especially in the wild life of South America and of Asia materials for these and for more profound and exhaustive studies which from time to time will be published in succeeding volumes of Zoologica.
The present work contains 436 pages and 138 illustrations. These collected papers are handsomely bound, for free distribution to certain of the libraries which exchange with the library of the Zoological Park, and for sale to other institutions. The volumes appear under the editorship of Henry Fairfield Osborn, president of the society, with the assistance of Elwin R. Sanborn, and may be purchased by application to the secretary of the Zoological Society, New York Zoological Park.
ting effect on heat production, increased catalase more than fat or sugar. It was found that the amino acids, the essential constituents of meat or protein, were responsible for the stimulating effect of the proteins, the simple sugars for the stimulating effect of the starchy foods and the neutral fats for the stimulating effect of the fats. We found, also, that by whatever means oxidation was increased in the body, there resulted a corresponding increase in catalase. Hence, the conclusion was drawn that the increase in oxidation following the ingestion of food, as well as the increase in oxidation produced in other ways, was due to an increase in catalase.
HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN
THE REASON MEAT INCREASES OXIDATION IN THE BODY MORE THAN FAT OR SUGAR
LAVOISIER1 showed that the ingestion of food increased oxidation in the body. Rubner2 found that of the food materials, the ingestion of meat increased oxidation most, fat next and sugar least. Several theories have been advanced in attempts to explain how food increases oxidation in the body. The one most generally accepted seems to be the theory, or some modification of the theory, of Voit, who claimed that the presence of increased quantities of food materials augmented the inherent power of the cells to metabolize. We found that the ingestion of food produced an increase in catalase, an enzyme possessing the property of liberating oxygen from hydrogen peroxide, by stimulating the alimentary glands, particularly the liver, to an increased output of this enzyme, and that the ingestion of meat, in keeping with its greater stimula
1 Lavoisier, Mem. de l'Acad. des Sc., 1780. 2 Rubner, "Energiegesetze,'' 322.
3 Burge and Neill, The American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 46, No. 2, May, 1918.
The object of the present investigation was to determine why the amino acids, the essential constituents of protein, stimulate the alimentary glands, particularly the liver, to a greater increase in catalase, with resulting greater increase in oxidation, than does fat, and why fat produces a greater increase than sugar. The animals used were dogs. The amino acid, glycocoll, and two related compounds, acetamid and sodium acetate; the fat, olein and its constituents, glycerine and oleic acid; and the sugar, dextrose, were the materials used. Ten grams of the sugar and of the amino acid and five grams of the fat, per kilo of body weight, were used.
After etherizing the animals, an incision in the abdominal wall was made and the material to be used was introduced in about equal quantities, into the stomach and upper part of the small intestine, by means of a hypodermic syringe. The catalase in 0.5 c.c. of blood taken from the liver was determined before as well as at intervals after the introduction
of the material into the stomach and intestine. The determinations were made by adding 0.5 c.c. of blood to 50 c.c. of diluted hydrogen peroxide in a bottle at approximately 22° C. and the amount of oxygen gas liberated in ten minutes was taken as a measure of the amount of catalase in the 0.5 c.c. of blood.
The maximum increase produced in the blood of the liver by the different materials is given in Table 1. It may be seen that the amino acid, glycocoll, produced 56 per cent. increase in catalase, sodium acetate 36 per cent. and acetamid 48 per cent. increase. By comparing the formulæ of these three substances it may be seen that all three are derived from acetic acid; the amino acid, glycocoll, CH2NHCOOH, and acetamid, CH,CONH2, being acetic acid, CH,COOH, with an amino (NH) group introduced into the molecule while sodium acetate, CH,COONA, has the element sodium introduced, hence the conclusion was drawn that the introduction of the amino (NH) group into the molecule of the organic acid, acetic, thus forming the amino acid, glycocoll, as well as acetamid, was to increase the effectiveness of the acetic acid molecule in stimulating the liver to an increased production of catalase with resulting increase in oxidation. If the introduction of the amino (NH) group into the other organic acids, propionic, valerianic, caproic, succinic and glutaric, thus forming the amino acids, the essential constituents of protein, increases the effectiveness of these acids in stimulating the liver to an increase output of catalase, this may explain the great increase in heat production after the ingestion of protein.
It may be seen further in Table 1, that the introduction of olein, a fat, into the alimentary tract produced 40 per cent. increase in the catalase of the blood of the liver, glycerine 43 per cent., and potassium oleate 31 per cent. increase. By comparing these figures it may be seen that glycerine produced a greater increase in catalase than did the olein and that potassium oleate produced a smaller increase. By comparing the formulæ of these sub
stances it will be seen that the fat, olein, (C,,H3COO),C,H,, has in its molecule a part of the glycerine, C,H, (OH),, molecule and a part of the oleic acid, C12H12COOH, molecule. Since oleic acid or potassium oleate produces a smaller increase in catalase than the olein, and glycerine a larger increase, it follows that the effect of the glycerine radical in the olein molecule was to increase the effectiveness of the fat in producing an increase in catalase in a manner similar to but not so extensive as did the amino (NH) group in the amino acids. It may be seen that the sugar, dextrose, produced a smaller increase in catalase than any of the other substances in keeping with the fact that the ingestion of sugar produces a smaller increase in oxidation than fat or protein.
Evidence is presented in this paper to show that the increased heat production following the ingestion of food is due to the stimulation of the liver to an increased output of catalase, the enzyme bringing about the oxidation and that meat or protein, in keeping with its greater stimulating effect on heat production, produces the greatest increase in catalase, fat next and sugar least. The amino (NH2) group in the protein molecule renders protein, or meat, a more effective stimulant on catalase production and hence on heat production than fat and the glycerine radical in the fat molecule renders fat more effective than sugar. W. E. BURGE
THE BUFFALO MEETING OF THE
DIVISION OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTS AND CHEMICAL
H. S. Miner, Chairman
H. E. Howe, Secretary Symposium on Library Service in Industrial Laboratories
The public library in the service of the chemist: ELWOOD H. MCCLELLAND, Technology Librarian, Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. The function of the public library is to serve its public by affording information relating to the problems of the
entire community, and since the field of modern chemistry is now so extensive as to find application in almost every line of human endeavor, it is inevitable that the library should have much to offer the chemist. Library service to the chemist should begin before he becomes a chemist and should be emphasized during the entire period of his professional education. The professional chemist-especially the man engaged in research or consulting work-can secure valuable assistance from the well-equipped public library. The broader his field, the greater the necessity for using the general library collection to supplement the professional library. The efficacy of the public library is dependent both upon its resources and its "'attitude." Satisfactory service to the community assumes the responsibility of maintaining an up-to-date collection; of so administering this collection as to make its resources readily available; of keeping, to some extent, in contact with local technical activities and of keeping thoroughly informed as to the material in his library. Progressive library methods are necessary not only to keep regular readers informed but to bring the library's resources to the attention of professional men and manufacturers who do not habitually use the public library.
Axioms in the use and abuse of special libraries: HELEN R. HOSMER, formerly of General Electric Co. Now with Dr. Geo. W. Crile Laboratory.
Methods employed in the industrial library of Eastman Kodak Company: GERTRUDE REISSMAN. The Kodak Park Library was established in 1912 in compliance with a strongly felt need for a general reference center for all involved in research work and manufacturing problems. On account of the nature of work done here, the main feature of the library is the completeness of photographic literature. It contains about 6,000 volumes and maintains subscriptions of about 200 current periodicals. Articles of interest contained therein are abstracted in a monthly publication, the Abstract Bulletin. Articles in foreign languages are translated, if necessary, and if the information which had been asked for can not be supplied from the library's own resources, great efforts are made to obtain it elsewhere.
Relation of the library to industrial laboratories: W. P. CUTTER, The Chemical Catalogue Co., Inc. Functions of the industrial library—that of Arthur D. Little, Inc., a type: E. D. GREENMAN. In order to keep in touch with chemical literature the chemist finds the frequent use of a library
essential. Research investigations are now carried jointly in the library and the laboratory. That the public, college and technical libraries are not sufficiently accessible to quickly supply desired information, has given rise to the development of the industrial library. These libraries serve as storehouses where information is collected, preserved, indexed and distributed. The working functions of an industrial library and its service to the chemist are illustrated by a description of the library of Arthur D. Little, Inc.
The functions of a research library in the dyestuffs industry: JULIAN F. SMITH, National Aniline and Chemical Co., Inc. Research Laboratory. The Schoellkopf Research Library, named in honor of the pioneer American dyestuffs makers, is classified according to the Dewey Decimal System. The plan of administration is patterned after the usage of public and institutional libraries, with modifications as required by special conditions. It consists chiefly of literature on pure and applied chemistry, the former predominating, and on engineering and physics. A wide range of other subjects is represented to a less extent. There are great possibilities open for the research library in service to the industries.
Interior publicity as an aid to the laboratory: S. M. MASSE, National Carbon Co., Inc.
Long distance library service of the New Jersey Zinc Co.: L. A. TAFEL. Object: To extend library service to any member of the organization wherever located. Organization: Relation to technical department, centralization of library resources, establishment of branch libraries at mines and works. Technical information service: Publication and distribution of the library bulletin.
Features of the library of Stone & Webster: G. W. LEE.
Work of the library of The Solvay Process Co.: W. L. NEILL. The collecting of books and journals for this company began more than thirty years ago. Ours is particularly a special library, mainly on chemical subjects, which contains some 1,200 volumes, including bound volumes of the principal English and German chemical journals. It is in constant use by the staff of chemists. It is indexed on the Dewey system, with the usual cards. We have also, as a second part of the library, files of the principal technical journals, both American and foreign. From these we make abstracts, which are printed and sent out to about 100 men in our employ, one half of whom are in the local office and one half in our other works.