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cipal rivers, capitals and the largest cities in the different states are also embodied.
The map is of special interest from the fact that it is based on the same system of projection as that employed by the armies of the allied forces in the military operations in France. To meet those requirements and at the request of the army, special publications were prepared by the Coast and Geodetic Sur
Many methods of projection have been designed to solve the difficult problem of representing a spherical surface on a plane. As different projections have unquestionable merits as well as equally serious defects, the announcement states, any region to be mapped should be made the subject of special study and that system of projection adopted which will give the best results for the area under consideration.
The Mercator projection, almost universally used for nautical charts, is responsible for many false impressions of the relative size of the countries differing in latitude, according to the survey statement. The polyconic projection, widely used and well adapted for both topographic and hydrographic surveys, when used for the whole of the United States in one map has the serious defect of unduly exaggerating the areas on its eastern and western limits. Along the Pacific coast and in Maine the error in scale is as much as 6 per cent., while at New York it reaches 41 per cent.
The value of the new outline map on the Lambert projection can best be realized when it is stated that it shows that throughout the largest and most important part of the United States, that is, between latitude 30 degrees and 49 degrees, the maximum scale error is only one half of 1 per cent. This amount of scale error of one half of 1 per cent. is frequently less than the distortion due to the method of printing and to changes from the humidity of the air. Only in southernmost Florida and Texas does this projection attain. its maximum error of 2 1-3 per cent.
The Lambert projection is well adapted to large areas of predominating east and west dimensions in the United States where the dis
tance across from east to west is 14.5 times that of the distance north and south.
The strength of the Polyconic projection, on the other hand, is along its central meridian. The merits and defects of the two systems of projection may be stated in a general way as being at right angles to each other.
Special features of the Lambert projection that are not found in the Polyconic may be stated briefly as follows:
1. The Lambert projection is conformalthat is, all angles between intersecting lines or curves are preserved, and for any given point (or restricted locality) the ratio of the length of a linear element on the earth's surface to the length of the corresponding map element is constant for all azimuths or directions in which the element may be taken.
2. The meridians are straight lines, and the parallels are concentric circles.
3. It has two axes of strength instead of one, the standard parallels of the map of the United States being latitudes 33 degrees and 45 degrees, and upon these parallels the scale is absolutely true. The scale for any other part of the map, or for any parallel, can be obtained from special publication number 52, page 36, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. By means of these tables the very small scale errors which exist in this projection can be entirely eliminated.
The map measures 25 inches by 39 inches and will be sold by the government at 25 cents.
THE LECONTE MEMORIAL LECTURE IN THE YOSEMITE, 1919
THE University of California through its university extension division will offer free to the public a course of scientific lectures in the Yosemite Valley during June and July, 1919. These are to be known as the LeConte Memorial Lectures in the Yosemite in honor of the name of Joseph LeConte, the famous naturalist and geologist who was for many years a member of the faculty of the University of California. The lecturers and topics for 1919 and the tentative dates are as follows: I. Professor W. L. Jepson, department of botany, University of California. 1. The Origin and Distribution of But
tercups in Yosemite, Tuesday, June 24.
2. The Biology of the Chaparral, Thursday, June 26.
3. The Ancestry of the Yosemite Pines and Sequoias, Friday, June 27. II. Professor Frederick William Bade, lecturer, literary executor of John Muir.
1. John Muir, Nature and Yosemite, Tuesday, July 1.
2. Muir's View of the Valley's Origin Thursday, July 3.
3. Muir's Services to the Nation, Friday, July 4.
III. Dr. F. Emile Matthes, geologist, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C.
1. Origin of Yosemite Valley, as Indicated in the History of its Waterfalls, Tuesday, July 8.
2. The Highest Ice Flood in the Yosemite Valley (to be delivered at Glacier Point) Wednesday, July 9. 3. The Origin of the Granite Domes of Yosemite, Saturday, July 12. IV. Professor A. L. Kroeber, department of anthropology, University of California.
1. Tribes of the Sierra, Friday, July 11. 2. Indians of Yosemite, Saturday, July
3. Folk-lore of Yosemite, Sunday, July 13.
It is planned to give most of the lectures at the Village of Yosemite, probably in the pavilion or the open air. Certain of the lectures, especially those by Professor Jepson and Dr. Matthes, will be delivered at places in Yosemite which give concrete illustration of the scientific subjects under discussion.
SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS DR. VITO VOLTERRA, professor of mathematical physics in the University of Rome, will deliver a series of six lectures on the Hitchcock Foundation at the University of California in August or September.
DR. W. W. CAMPBELL, director of Lick Observatory of the University of California, has been named head of an American delegation of astronomers that will attend the international meeting in Brussels in July.
LIEUTENANT COLONEL JOHN R. MURLIN, Sanitary Corps, U. S. Army, who has been in charge of the Section of Food and Nutrition of the Surgeon-General's Office since September, 1917, has been discharged from the service to take up his work as the head of the department of vital economics at the University of Rochester. The work of the Section of Food and Nutrition is now under the charge of Major R. G. Hoskins, Sanitary Corps, U. S. Army.
PROFESSOR ANTON JULIUS CARLSON, chairman of the department of physiology at the University of Chicago, who as a major in the Sanitary Corps of the United States Army inspected American camps in England and is now a member of the American Relief Administration in France, will take the field again for the American Relief Administration, probably going up to Finland, and returning by Esthonia, Lettonia, Lithuania, Poland, Roumania and Vienna.
DR. W. A. CANNON, of the department of botanical research of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, has just returned to this country from an absence of a year in central Australia. While abroad he studied the plants and plant conditions of the more arid portions of southern Australia, including the Lake Eyre Basin, a portion of the Flinders Ranges, and southwestern South Australia contiguous to the Nullarbor Plains.
DR. C. H. T. TOWNSEND sailed, early in April, for Brazil, where he has accepted a position as entomologist for the Brazilian government. Dr. Townsend has been with the Bureau of Entomology and has spent most of his time studying the Muscoid Diptera.
MR. FRANK C. BAKER, curator of the museum of natural history of the University of Illinois, will spend a portion of the summer at Winnebago Lake, Wisconsin, conducting
molluscan studies in the interest of the Geological and Natural Survey of Wisconsin.
DR. J. H. GRISDALE, who has been for several years the director of the Experimental Farms Branch of the Dominion Department of Agriculture at Ottawa, has recently been appointed to the position of deputy minister of agriculture.
DR. SAMUEL C. PRESCOTT, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, formerly major in the Sanitary Corps, U. S. A., has been appointed expert in charge of dehydration investigations in the Bureau of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture, and will continue the investigations on this subject carried on during the war under the direction of the War Department.
C. M. WOODWORTH has resigned as instructor in genetics at the University of Wisconsin in order to take a position with the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture. He will devote his attention principally to a study of disease resistance in flax. The field experiments will be mostly in North Dakota, but Mr. Woodworth will retain Madison, Wis., as his permanent headquarters.
CAPTAIN S. T. DANA has resumed his duties with the Forest Service as assistant chief of forest investigations. During the war he was on the general staff as secretary of the army commodity committee on lumber, and in charge of determining wood requirements of the army.
W. FAITOUTE MUNN, formerly chemist in charge at the Baker and Adamson Works of The General Chemical Company, Easton, Pa., has accepted the position as chief chemist for The Brewster Film Corporation of East Orange, New Jersey.
PROFESSOR CHARLES E. FAY, of Tufts College, Massachusetts, president of the American Alpine Club, and Henry G. Bryant, of Philadelphia, have been elected honorary members of the French Alpine Club.
COLONEL E. LESTER JONES, Superintendent of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, has been made by the king of Italy an officer of the Order of S. S. Maurizo e Lazzaro.
SIR ERNEST RUTHERFORD, recently elected Cavendish professor of experimental physics at the University of Cambridge, has been elected to a fellowship at Trinity College.
THE British Electrical Research Committee has appointed Mr. E. B. Wedmore as director of research.
THE British Institution of Civil Engineers has made the following awards for papers read and discussed at the meetings during the session 1918-19:-A Telford gold medal to George Hughes (Horwich), a Telford gold medal and an Indian premium to R. B. Joyner (Bombay), a Watt gold medal to W. S. Abell (London), a George Stephenson gold medal to the Hon. R. C. Parsons (London), a Webb prize to F. E. Gobey, (Horwich), Telford premiums to James Caldwell (London), H. B. Sayers (London), J. Reney Smith (Liverpool), and F. W. Scott (Benoni, Transvaal), and a Manby prize to E. L. Leeming (Manchester).
PROFESSOR R. KOBERT died on December 27, at sixty-four years of age. He was professor of pharmacology at Rostock.
THE death of Dr. Edmund Weiss, director of the Vienna Observatory for thirty-two years, which occurred in 1917, was recently announced by the Paris Academy of Sciences of which he was a correspondent.
THE death is announced of Dr. José Penna, professor of epidemic diseases at the University of Buenos Aires.
THE British Scientific Products Exhibition, arranged by the British Science Guild, will be open in the Central Hall, Westminster, from July 3 to August 5. Its objects are to illustrate recent progress in British science and invention, and to help the establishment and development of new British industries.
WE learn from Nature that at a recent meeting of the council of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom it was announced that Dr. G. P. Bidder and Mr. E. T. Browne had each undertaken to contribute a sum of £500 towards a fund for the extension of the laboratory at Plymouth. The new building will be commenced at once, and the
scheme, when completed, will provide both a new and larger aquarium and special laboratories for physiological work.
A MESSAGE received from Rome states that in the province of Cattaniselta in the Island of Sicily, immense deposits of potash have been discovered and the preliminary investigations are said to establish these as the richest in the world. The exploitation of these deposits, if the first reports receive the confirmation hoped for, would make it quite unnecessary to have recourse to the German supplies.
MOSQUITOES representative of all species occurring at camps or posts where troops of the United States are stationed are to be collected for the Army Medical Museum in Washington. At present the collection is incomplete and medical officers have been directed to see that collections of these insects are made at the times and in the manner described in circular instructions being published. Collections of mosquitoes are to be made at each station at least biweekly, at three periods during the twenty-four hours, early morning from 5 to 6 A.M., midday, and after 7 P.M. The time of collection will vary in different latitudes, but observation will determine the time when the insects are most prevalent at each locality. They are to be collected by means of a suitable killer or by mosquito traps. The "chloroform tube" is the best and most easily obtained killer, and mosquito traps are also useful. Shipments of the mosquitoes in lots of 25 each in specially prepared boxes are to be mailed by medical officers at camps to the curator, Army Medical Museum, Washington, D. C.
IN announcing on March 20 the reopening of the Zoological Garden and the Aquarium, which had been closed by the military during the Berlin riots, the Berliner Tageblatt, as quoted in a press dispatch, notes the fact that because of the increased expense of operation the price of admission to the Zoological Garden will be advanced to 36 cents on week days and 24 cents on Sundays on April 1. In order to give the poorer inhabitants of the German capital a chance to enter the Garden there will be two "cheap Sundays" a month when the entrance fee will be only 12 cents, against the
former figure of 7 cents. Since 1910 the Berlin City Council has been subsidizing the Garden at the rate of about $5,000 a year and the Aquarium with about $6,000.
THE Virginia deer is said to have been unknown in Nova Scotia until about 1888, and was afterwards introduced. However, bones of this animal have now been found in two widely separated prehistoric Indian shellheaps in that province by archeologists of the Geological Survey, Canada. Toe bones have been found in a shell-heap near Mahone Bay on the outer coast by Mr. W. J. Wintemberg, in 1913, and a toe bone was also found in a shell-heap on Merigomish harbor on the north coast of Nova Scotia by Mr. Harlan I. Smith, in 1914. The identification of these bones has been confirmed by Dr. Gerrit S. Miller, of the United States National Museum. Other bones and teeth, supposedly of the same species, but not submitted to Dr. Miller, have also been found in these heaps.
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
THE General Education Board, founded by John D. Rockefeller, has made an appropriation of $500,000 toward a fund of two million dollars to be raised to endow a graduate school of education for Harvard University. The new fund will be named in honor of Dr. Charles W. Eliot, president emeritus of Harvard University.
DR. JAMES YOUNGER and his wife have given £30,000 to provide the University of St. Andrews with a memorial hall, to be used for university purposes.
THE sum of £10,000 has been given to the Cape University by the National Bank of South Africa.
DR. W. J. CROZIER has been appointed assistant professor in the department of zoology of the University of Chicago.
DR. E. W. LINDSTROM, who returned a short time ago from France, where he was in the aviation service, has been appointed assistant professor of genetics in the college of agriculture at the University of Wisconsin.
DR. BENJAMIN PALMER CALDWELL, formerly of Tulane University, New Orleans, and for the past three years professor of chemistry in Oglethorpe University, Atlanta, has accepted the professorship of analytical chemistry in the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, and will begin his work there in the autumn.
AT the University of Saskatchewan, Assistant Professor L. L. Dines has been promoted to a full professorship of mathematics.
DR. ALEXANDER MCPHEDRAN has resigned the professorship of medicine in the University of Toronto medical department, and Dr. Duncan A. L. Graham has been appointed his successor. The Journal of the American Medical Association states that recently Sir William Osler invited professors of medicine in the United Kingdom to a dinner in Dr. Graham's honor, at which it was stated that Dr. Graham was the first whole-time professor of medicine appointed in the British empire. The appointment was made possible by the munificence of Sir John Eaton, Toronto. As a result all physicians in the service of the medical department at the university will resign, so that Dr. Graham will have a free hand in selecting his own staff.
DR. F. A. LINDEMANN has been appointed to succeed Professor Clinton in the chair of ex
perimental philosophy at the University of
DR. S. W. J. SMITH, F.R.S., assistant professor at the Imperial College, South Kensing ton, and for many years secretary of the Physi
cal Society of London, has been elected to the Poynting chair of physics in the University of Birmingham.
DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE
THE CUMBERLAND FALLS METEORITE
On April 9, last, a brilliant meteor was seen at mid-day to fall in a northwesterly direction across northeastern Tennessee. Though the sun was shining in this section, observers describe the light from the meteor as exceeding the sun in brightness. Passing over southeastern Kentucky, where the sky was obscured
by clouds, the meteor made its presence known by violent detonations, accompanied by the spalling off of fragments. The first of these fell near Sawyer P. O., not far from the Fallsof-the-Cumberland.
The concussions produced by the bolide were terrific, causing buildings to rock, and producting the impression on some that the region was being visited by an earthquake. The first news of the phenomenon printed in the local papers so recorded it. Realizing that the detonations heard and shocks felt were due to the concussions produced by a falling meteorite the writer through the medium of these local papers, and by correspondence with postmasters and telegraph operators throughout the district affected has succeeded in determining the path of the meteor and has secured a number of the fragments. The main mass appears to be yet undiscovered. Falling in the most rugged and sparsely settled portion of southeastern Kentucky the prospects of this main mass being found are not promising.
The general azimuth of the meteor in its fall seems to have been about north 30 degrees west. Over Kentucky it paralleled roughly the line of the Cincinnati Southern Railroad. An interesting incident in this connection is the record of the progress of the meteor kept by the telegraph and telephone operators in the railroad stations and signal towers. They actually put it on a schedule something like an "extra," and heralded to operators ahead the arrival opposite them to the east of this mysterious visitor. The operator on another
branch of the Southern Road at Coal Creek Tennessee saw the meteor disappear to the northwest at 12:21 P.M. The tower man at Tatesville, Ky., heard violent detonations to the east, and felt his tower rock at 12:27. Telephoning ahead to the Danville, Ky., operator, while yet talking to him he heard him reply at 12:30 "I hear it coming now." The distance from Tatesville to Danville in an air line is 48 miles. It took the meteor sounds, therefore, 3 minutes to travel this 48 miles. How much of this is due to the rate of sound traveling in air and how much to the north