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ating as Mobile Hospital No. 4 under the comand of Major W. B. Clopton, took part in the St. Mihiel and Argonne operations. Miss Julia Stimson, who went out as chief nurse, later became the head of the Nurses' Corps of the American Expeditionary Forces and has remained in France. Colonel Nathaniel Allison, orthopedic surgeon to the unit, was appointed orthopedic consultant of the American Expeditionary Forces. Major Sidney Schwab, neurologist, was transferred and placed in charge of Hospital No. 117 for war neuroses. Colonel Opie was detached from the unit to cooperate with Colonel Strong in the investigation of trench fever; he was afterwards placed in charge of the pneumonia commission in the Surgeon-General's Office. Colonel Murphy, after seven months service was appointed Medical and Surgical Director of the American Red Cross in France. He was succeed in command of the unit by Lieutenant Colonel Borden Veeder. The unit cared for over 62,000 patients during the eighteen months of its stay in Rouen.
and the aid of specially trained personnel, all combat troops were instructed in the necessary defen. sive measures against poisonous gas. The first gas regiment was trained and equipped, and rendered good service in the two American offensives of St. Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne.
Due to the energetic cooperation of all ranks, much was accomplished in a very short time, for which it gives me great pleasure to extend to you all the thanks of your comrades of the American Expeditionary Forces. Will you convey this especially to Brigadier General Fries, whose enthusiasm and energy were such great factors in the successful organization and development of the service. Sincerely yours,
JOHN J. PERSHING
THE DIVISION OF APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY OF THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTE OF
ANNOUNCEMENT is made of the following changes in the faculty of the division of applied psychology at the Carnegie Institute of Technology:
Lieutenant Colonel W. V. Bingham, executive secretary of the Committee on Classification of Personnel in the Army, returned to the Carnegie Institute of Technology on March first. He has been promoted to be dean of the division of applied psychology, which includes the departments of psychology, vocational education and personnel administration, and with which are affiliated the Bureau of Salesmanship Research and the Research Bureau for Retail Training. Lieutenant Colonel Edward K. Strong, Jr., Ph.D. (Columbia), formerly professor of educational psychology at the George Peabody College for Teachers, has been appointed professor of vocational education and has already assumed his new duties as head of the department for the training of vocational teachers.
Major C. S. Yoakum, Ph.D. (Chicago), formerly director of the psychological laboratory at the University of Texas, has left the psychological section of the Surgeon General's Department to become associate professor of applied psychology.
Professor G. M. Whipple, who has been acting
director of the Bureau of Salesmanship Re
search during the absence of Colonel Walter Dill Scott on war service, has been released from these duties for work in educational research, through the return to Pittsburgh of Colonel Scott. At the close of the present academic year, however, Colonel Scott will devote himself to commercial practise as consultant on industrial personnel and will then give only a limited portion of his time to the Carnegie Institute of Technology. Dr. Beardsley Ruml, who was on leave of absence with the War Department as head of the Trade Test Standardization Division of the Committee on Classification of Personnel, has resigned his position at Carnegie to enter commercial practise with the Scott Company.
SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS
A TESTIMONIAL dinner to Dr. N. L. Britton, director of the New York Botanical Garden, given by the managers at the Metropolitan
elected president of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
PROFESSOR PAUL P. BOYD, dean of the college of arts and sciences at the University of Kentucky, has been elected president of the Kentucky Academy of Science.
REAR ADMIRAL JOHN E. PILLSBURY, U. S. N., has been elected president of the National Geographic Society.
THE John Fritz Medal of the four national societies of civil mining, mechanical and electrical engineering has been awarded to Major General George W. Goethals, for his achievement in the building of the Panama Canal. The presentation was made on May 22 by Ambrose Swasey, past president of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The speakers included W. L. Saunders, past president of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers; Henry L. Stimson, former secretary of war, and Colonel G. I.
Club on the evening of May 7, was attended by Fieberger, of West Point. Among those to
men of science from all parts of the country. Dr. D. T. MacDougal, director of the Desert Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington acted as toastmaster, and speeches reviewing the history of the organization of the garden by Dr. Britton twenty-three years ago, and of his widely inclusive and important
researches were made by Dr. W. Gilman Thompson, president of the board; Professor R. A. Harper, chairman of the scientific directors; Professor H. F. Osborn, president of the American Museum of Natural History; Provost William H. Carpenter, of Columbia University; Dr. Arthur Hollick, director of the Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences, and Professor Geo. T. Moore, director of the Missouri Botanical Garden, at St. Louis. At the conclusion of the ceremonies Mr. Robert DeForest presented Dr. Britton with a loving cup appropriately inscribed on behalf of the board of managers. Congratulatory letters and telegrams from distinguished scientific men were read.
DR. THEODORE W. RICHARDS, professor of chemistry at Harvard University, has been
whom the medal has been awarded in former years are: Lord Kelvin, for his work in cable telegraphy; Alexander Graham Bell, for the invention of the telephone; George Westinghouse, for the invention of the airbrake;
Thomas A. Edison, for the invention of the
duplex and quadruplex telegraph, and other
devices, and Sir William H. White, for achievements in naval architecture.
DR. C. G. ABBOT, of the Astrophysical Observatory, Smithsonian Institution, sailed for South America on May 1, to inspect the Smithsonian solar constant observing station at Calama, Chile, and to observe the total solar eclipse at La Paz, Bolivia. He expects to return to Washington in August.
THE following members of the Princeton University faculty have returned from service abroad: Lieutenant Colonel Augustus Trowbridge (Engineers), professor of physics; Captain E. P. Adams, Royal Engineers, British Expeditionary Force, professor of mathematical physics, and Captain H. L. Cook, also of the Royal Engineers, assistant professor of physics.
ARTHUR H. BLANCHARD, consulting highway engineer, has been appointed chief of the Bureau of Public Works, Department of Citizenship, under the Army Overseas Educational Commission.
MAJOR GEORGE F. SEVER, Engineers, U. S. A., has been honorably discharged from the United States Army after a service of fifteen months and will make his headquarters in New York City for consulting engineer practise. Major Sever during his service made extensive and detailed investigations of the electric power conditions in New England as well as on the Pacific coast from Seattle to Los Angeles. His investigations covered analyses of the production of power by coal, oil and water, and the comparisons of these different methods.
SECOND LIEUTENANT ASA C. CHANDLER, Sanitary Corps, formerly assistant professor of zoology at Oregon Agricultural College, has undertaken parasitological work at the Central Medical Department Laboratory of the A. E. F. at Dijon, France.
PROFESSOR J. M. ALDRICH, formerly professor of zoology in the University of Idaho, has been appointed associate curator of the Division of Insects in the National Museum, but more recently has been working with the Bureau of Entomology.
luminescence and selective radiation of the rare earths, $500.
A NEW acoustical laboratory has just been completed at Riverbank, Geneva, Illinois. This laboratory was built for the late Professor Wallace C. Sabine, of Harvard University, by his friend, Colonel George Fabyan. In this laboratory Professor Sabine proposed to carry on the study of a number of problems in architectural acoustics requiring special building construction and entire freedom from extraneous noises. The building was constructed with the most careful attention to details, according to Professor Sabine's plans, and has many interesting structural features. It was just ready for occupancy at the time of his death. Colonel Fabyan, the founder of the laboratory, proposes to carry out, as far as possible, the original purpose for which the building and its equipment were intended. Dr. Paul E. Sabine has resigned his position as assistant professor of physics in the Case School of Applied Science to take charge of the research program which had been laid out.
AN entomological expedition to South America is planned by Professor J. Chester Bradley, '06, of the college of agriculture of Cornell University. Leaving Ithaca next September, Professor Bradley will visit Brazil, Argentina and Chile; in the following spring he will be
DR. HERMANN VON IHERING, formerly director joined in Peru by Professors Cyrus R. Crosby
of the Museum of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, has been appointed director of the State Museum of Sta. Catharina, Brazil, to be organized by him at Flerianopolis (Estado de Santa Catharina, Brazil).
AT its meeting held May 14, 1919, the Rumford Committee of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences voted the following appropriations: To Professor P. W. Bridgman, of Harvard University, in aid of his research on the effect of temperature and pressure on the physical properties of materials, particularly their thermal conductivity (additional to previous appropriation), $400; to Professor Horace L. Howes, of the New Hampshire College, in aid of his research on the experimental study of the effect of temperature on the
and Dr. W. T. M. Forbes, of the agricultural college, and the party will work on the Amazon River as far as Peral near the headwaters. The expedition is conducted under the auspices of the university for the two-fold purpose of securing entomological specimens and of forming closer relations with South American institutions of learning.
DR. S. M. ZELLER, who has been special investigator in timber pathology for the Southern Pine Association, of New Orleans, La., with laboratory at the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, has been appointed investigator in fruit diseases at the Oregon Agricultural College, Corvallis, Oregon.
AFTER being at work for one year, the technical personnel of the Bacteriological Insti
tute of Buenos Aires, has been reappointed in a recent decree reorganizing the institution. The sections and the individuals in charge are: hygiene, Dr. Carbonnell; plague, Dr. Uriarte; serotherapy, Dr. Sordelli; physics and chemistry, Dr. Wernicke; experimental physiology and pathology. Dr. Houssay; medical zoology, Dr. Bachmann, and parasitology, Dr. Wolffhugel.
PROFESSOR I. NEWTON KUGELMASS, head of the department of chemistry at Howard College, addressed the Southern Child Health Association on "Applied Nutrition for Raising the Standard of Child Vitality in the Service of the Newer National Domism," in Birmingham, on May 1.
Ar the London meeting of the Institute of Metals on May 19, Professor F. Soddy, F.R.S., delivered the ninth annual May lecture on Radio-Activity."
PROFESSOR J. H. JEANS, F.R.S., delivered a lecture on "The Quantum Theory and New Theories of Atomic Structure" at a meeting of the Chemical Society in London on May 1. DR. AARON AARONSON, agricultural expert, of Haifa, Palestine, was killed in a fall of an airplane on May 15, near Boulogne, while flying from London to Paris. Dr. Aaronsohn had been a technical adviser of the United States Department of Agriculture.
THE next annual meeting of the American Chemical Society will be held in Philadelphia, from September 2 to 6, inclusive. The Philadelphia section is already planning to continue the rising curve of success and attendance for the meeting next fall.
HOMER P. RITTER, for many years an officer of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey and a member of the Mississippi River Commission, died at Washington, D. C., April 21, 1919. He was returning from a meeting of the Mississippi River Commission at Memphis and was taken ill on the train. On his arrival at Washington, on Saturday morning, he was taken to the Emergency Hospital, and died there. Mr. Ritter was born in Cleveland, Ohio, March 4, 1855. He attended the high school in Cleveland from 1869 to 1873 and Columbia College School of Mines from 1878 to 1880. He was afterwards employed for several years on railway surveys. He entered the Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1865; was appointed an assistant in 1895, and continued in the service until the time of his death. Mr. Ritter had been employed on field work in all parts of the United States and in Alaska and his last duty was in charge of the Field Station of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, at Boston, Massachusetts.
PROFESSOR JOEL STEBBINS, Secretary of the American Astronomical Society, writes: "In SCIENCE for May 10 there is an announcement that representatives of certain foreign observatories will be at the meeting of the American Astronomical Society at Ann Arbor on September 1. This is a mistake because so far as known to the officers of the society there will be no such representation from abroad." The erroneous statement was taken from the Michigan Alumnus.
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
THE seismological library of Count F. de Montessus de Ballore, director of the Seismological Service of Chile, has recently been purchased by Dr. J. C. Branner and presented to Stanford University. This is probably one of the most complete collections of seismological literature in existence and it is accompanied by a manuscript catalogue containing nearly 5,000 titles.
THE department of medicine of the University of Toronto is to be the recipient of a gift
of $25,000 a year for a period of twenty-five years from Sir John and Lady Eaton. This is to provide for a full-time clinician in the department of medicine and a half-time clinician in pediatrics.
THE court of governors of the University College of North Wales, at their meeting at Bangor, appointed a deputation to wait upon the Board of Agriculture regarding the proposal to have only two schools of forestry in Great Britain-one in Scotland and the other either at Oxford or Cambridge. Fears were expressed that if this was carried into effect it would mean the extinction of the forestry department in connection with the University College of North Wales. It was felt that one of the two new schools should be established in Wales, with its large area of forests.
SIR ARTHUR NEWSHOLME, K.C.B., who is now in the United States has accepted for the
academic year 1919-1920, the chair of hygiene
in the new school of public health of the Johns Hopkins Medical School.
CHARLES JOSEPH TILDEN, professor of civil engineering at Johns Hopkins University, has been elected professor of engineering mechanics in Yale University and assigned to the Sheffield Scientific School.
AUSTIN F. ROGERS and Cyrus F. Tolman, Jr., of the department of geology at Stanford University, have been promoted from associate professors to professors.
MORRIS M. LEIGHTON, Ph.D., Chicago, 1916, has accepted a joint-position as assistant professor of geology at the University of Illinois and as Geologist on the Illinois Geological Survey.
Ar the Massachusetts Institute of Technology the following assistant professors have been promoted to associate professorships: H. C. Bradley, department of drawing and descriptive geometry; C. E. Locke, department of mining engineering and metallurgy, and N. C. Page, department of electrical engineering. The following instructors have been appointed assistant professors: J. B. Babcock, 3d, railroad engineering; S. A. Breed, mechanical
drawing and descriptive geometry; L. A. Hamilton, analytical chemistry; H. B. Luther, civil engineering; C. S. Robinson, industrial chemistry; R. H. Smith, mechanical engineering; C. E. Turner, biology and public health.
MR. WILLIAM MORRIS JONES, M.Sc., B.A., has been appointed lecturer and experimentalist in physics at the University College, Bangor.
DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE QUANTITATIVE CHARACTER-MEASUREMENTS IN COLOR CROSSES
THE writer, although working in plant and not in animal breeding, has been struck with the desirability of finding a more exact quantitative measure of degree of distribution of coat color in animal crosses. The following is suggested. Photograph the animal in a centered position on its two flanks. On the
photographic prints of the right and left sides,
determine the area of the color markings under investigation with a planimeter. These areas, reduced to percentages of the entire area photographed, will give a quantitative expression for the degree of extension of the character markings. The writer would venture to suggest the following possibility in the study of the operation of an extension factor. Let the photographic prints be ruled off in square centimeter areas with India ink. Then the relation of the color areas to the region of the animal's anatomy can be definitely established upon a quantitative basis. This having been done for the parents, the operation of an extension factor could be studied both quantitatively with respect to the amount of surface over which the factor became operative, and topographically with respect to the location and range of its operation in the progeny. If desired, it would be a comparatively simple matter to construct a cross-wire screen behind which the animal could be photographed, and which would thus reproduce the areas to scale directly.
In the study of inheritance in plants, the application of this method suggests itself very readily in color-inheritance in the seed-coats of beans and other legumes. By photograph