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applies to all the assistants in the stock system.

The man who handles the chemicals must have a steady working force, determined by the demands of the department. He is held responsible for the care and storage of all chemicals, and must notify the office of any needs. His main duty is, however, the bottling of liquid and solid reagents for student kits in ample time to have them ready at the beginning of each term. In a chemical department of 700 students this is an enormous task, when one course may require 140 different bottles per man. But with a good man in charge of several boys, and in rush times, extra student help, those chemicals can be put up, gathered together, in sets, and got ready for the student rush on the first day of the term. The man in charge need not receive over from $90 to $125 per month, and the boys over $10 a week. Student help may be used at an hourly remuneration, differing with the locality and the school.

The cost of this entire work is very small, when compared with the expense when this same work is done in the old way by a $3,000 a year man. The apparatus can be well handled by any capable woman with one or more assistants.

On checking out day the instructor assigns a student to a laboratory bench. The students take that slip to the office to see that all fees have been paid, and deposit for excess chemicals and breakage have been made. At the supply window he now receives and signs for his entire kit of chemicals and apparatus for one term. That material he arranges in his desk according to a plan which is given him. He locks his desk with his own padlock, which he can get from the stock-room if he wishes to do so, for a small sum. He now has his own chemicals and apparatus in his own individual locker, protected by his own padlock, to which he only has the key. The student is now solely responsible for breakage and loss, and his excess chemicals and breakage deposit protects the department against loss either from accident or by the student leaving the institution. Should he need extra

chemicals or supplies, he can easily obtain these at the supply window by signing for the same. At Columbia the student receives as free allowance, the average chemicals needed for his particular course, and pays for excess chemicals, as being a loss due to his careless


Many benefits arise from this arrangement, viz., individual responsibility for care of apparatus and chemicals; a much reduced consumption of chemicals, because the amount given is just sufficient for the experiment, plus a slight margin for unavoidable waste; all unnecessary movement is eliminated, as the student seldom has to leave his own bench, providing the laboratory is modern, and has at the benches individual student hoods; a doubling of the assigned amount of laboratory work, in the same time, due to a reduction of lost motion, and moving about the room, as exists under the old fashioned side reagent scheme, and finally, a relieving of the instructor of every duty, but that of teaching, which is probably the most important of all. A set of weights and a rough hand balance as a part of the kit avoids having common weights and balances, and the necessary walking and waiting one's turn to weigh under the old plan. The laboratory has no common property of any kind where theft, contamination, or injury is possible. The only exception is in the balance room, where two or more men are assigned to a quantitative balance, which is locked, and only assigned men have keys. Here responsibility can easily be fixed among a very few students.

Such a plan can only be possible when the curator of supplies has the sympathetic cooperation and support of the administrative head of the department. Many well meaning administrators of the old school pay little attention to the application of modern business methods to running a laboratory. Efficiency and expert ideas, when applied to that job are frowned on. It is the author's opinion that these men can not be regarded as progressive administrators, and it is his conviction that the department will go on in the same old way as back numbers, till some one

wakes up, or those who obstruct progress retire. There is no question, but that the chemical department which undertakes to run its laboratory on a strict business basis, will not only give their students more and better service for the same money, but will turn out better trained men than the laboratory with less up-to-date methods.

The College of the City of New York has partly adopted the Freas System, with such satisfactory results that we have almost doubled the amount of laboratory work given to the students per afternoon. The author feels that we should go the whole way and reap the full reward in more efficient work on the part of student and instructor. Starting is the big thing, but when once started, the plan will grow by its own intrinsic merits.

For a number of years past, the summer session of Columbia University has offered a course in laboratory organization and management, where the ideas I have here discussed have been carefully criticized by the students taking the course, mostly men and women of experience along the same line in other institutions.

Further details of this scheme will appear from time to time.

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a resolution requesting the National Academy of Sciences, or the corresponding organization in each of the countries represented, to take the initiative in organizing the section to represent that country in the International Astronomical Union. The tentative plan of organization of the American Section of the Astronomical Union, as approved by the president of the National Academy of Sciences, involved the representation of the various interests concerned as given below.

Upon the call of Dr. George E. Hale, acting for the National Academy of Sciences, the organization meeting for the American Section of the proposed Astronomical Union was held in the office of the National Research Council, Washington, D. C., March 8, 1919. The delegates who had been appointed by the presidents of the respective societies, or by the government, were as follows:

National Academy of Sciences-5.

H. D. Curtis acting for W. W. Campbell, G. E. Hale, A. A. Michelson, F. R. Moulton, Frank Schlesinger.

American Astronomical Society-10.

C. G. Abbot, S. I. Bailey, E. W. Brown, E. B. Frost, A. O. Leuschner, S. A. Mitchell, W. J. Humphreys, H. N. Russell, Joel Stebbins (absent, J. F. Hayford). American Mathematical Society-3.

Frank Morley (two others to be appointed). American Physical Society—3.

Henry Crew (absent, J. S. Ames, Theodore Lyman).

U. S. Naval Observatory-1.

J. A. Hoogewerff, accompanied by W. S. Eichelberger, Asaph Hall, F. B. Littell. U. S. Coast Survey-1.

William Bowie.

The meeting organized by appointing Mr. Hale as chairman and Mr. Stebbins secretary. There followed a general discussion of the present international situation of science, and it was agreed that the union should take the place of previous international bodies in astronomy.

It was voted that the organization of the section should be considered temporary until

after the proposed conference in Paris in July, ephemerides, such as comets, asteroids and 1919. variable stars. Astronomical abstracts, and news of new comets, variable stars, novæ, asteroids and the like.

The section voted that the chair appoint a committee on committees, to act temporarily as an executive committee, which should consider the general matter of business, appoint all committees, and add six additional members to the section. Appointed: W. W. Campbell, chairman; C. G. Abbot, E. W. Brown, Frank Schlesinger, Joel Stebbins, secretary. The committee added the following to the membership of the section: W. S. Adams, R. G. Aitken, E. E. Barnard, L. A. Bauer, Benjamin Boss, W. S. Eichelberger, W. J. Hussey, V. M. Slipher.

In regard to membership of enemy nations in the union, the section voted to adopt as representing the sentiments of the meeting the declaration of the Interallied Conference on International Scientific Relations, held at the Royal Society in London on October 9 to 11, 1918.

In regard to the admission of neutral nations to the union, the section voted that it be the sense of the meeting that nations which had been neutral in the war should be admitted into the International Astronomical Union on the conclusion of peace.

Mr. Schlesinger outlined the kind of astronomical work that requires international cooperation:

1. Work too extensive to be undertaken except by international cooperation; the Carte du Ciel, for example, or the plan of selected


2. Undertakings in which there is a geographical necessity for international cooperation. Variation of latitude, longitudes, variable stars, continuous observation of solar phenomena, etc.

3. Matters of convention. Uniformity of nomenclature, notation and units. Examples, unit for stellar distances (four now in use), classification of spectra, use of probable or mean error or of average deviation, notation for celestial mechanics, notation for the reduction of photographic plates, etc.

4. The avoidance of duplication. Calculations for the national almanacs and for special

The section discussed the various fields in astronomy in which committees should be formed to make report at another meeting of the section, which would give instructions to the delegates to the proposed Paris conference. The following committees were authorized by the section. The executive committee later made the appointments:

Committee on the Variation of Latitude: E. B. Littell, chairman; A. O. Leuschner, Frank Schlesinger. It was voted to ask the American Section of the International Geophysical Union to appoint a similar committee to confer and make a joint recommendation on the organization and method of handling the variation of latitude.

Committee on Standards of Wave-Length: Henry Crew, chairman; H. D. Babcock, Keivin Burns, W. W. Campbell, C. E. St. John.

Committee on Solar Rotation: C. E. St. John, chairman; W. S. Adams, Frank Schlesinger.

Committee on Eclipses: S. A. Mitchell, chairman; E. E. Barnard, H. D. Curtis.

Committee on Stellar Classification: H. N. Russell, chairman; Miss Annie J. Cannon, R. H. Curtiss.

Committee on Asteroids and Comets: A. O. Leuschner, chairman; E. W. Brown, G. H. Peters. Committee on Almanacs: W. S. Eichelberger, chairman; E. W. Brown, R. H. Tucker. Committee on Radial Velocities: W. W. Campbell, chairman; W. S. Adams, J. S. Plaskett. Committee on Double Stars: R. G. Aitken, chairman; Eric Doolittle, W. J. Hussey.

Committee on Notation, Units and Economy of Publication: W. J. Humphreys, chairman; E. B. Frost, A. O. Leuschner.

Committee on Meridian Astronomy: Benjamin Boss, chairman; F. B. Littell, Frank Schlesinger. Committee on Abstracts and Bibliographies: F. E. Fowle, chairman; H. D. Curtis, G. S. Fulcher. Committee on Research Surveys: G. E. Hale, chairman; F. R. Moulton, Harlow Shapley.

Committee on Stellar Photometry: F. H. Seares, chairman; S. I. Bailey, F. C. Jordan, J. A. Parkhurst, Joel Stebbins.

Committee on Wireless Determination of Longitude: J. A. Hoogewerff, chairman; W. W. Campbell, J. J. Carty. This committee was requested to

study the feasibility of determinations of longitude by wireless at widely distributed stations, and report on what seems to be the proper time and method for such undertakings.

Committee on Solar Radiation: C. G. Abbott was asked to prepare a report on solar radiation.

Committee on the Spectroheliograph: The Mount Wilson Solar Observatory was asked to prepare a report on work with the spectroheliograph.

Committee on Reform of the Calendar: R. T. Crawford, chairman; W. W. Campbell, Harold Jacoby.

The question of delegates to the Paris meeting was left to the executive committee with power.

It was voted that the section offer to act in astronomical matters as the agent of the Division of Physical Sciences of the National Research Council.

Various other items of organization and scientific interest were discussed by the section at the morning and afternoon sessions, and in the evening, without formal action.





THE University of St. Andrews, as reported by the London Times, has an interesting record of scientific service during the war, notwithstanding the fact that nearly all the men students and members of the staff of military age joined the fighting forces.

One of the early difficulties encountered by the British Admiralty and War Office was the provision of the scarce and costly kinds of sugar used in bacteriological work, which before the war had been prepared in Germany. The St. Andrews Laboratory was able to provide supplies for the British and Allied governments. In some cases the raw material itself was not to be had and new synthetic methods were devised for its production. The laboratory took part in preparing novocain and the corresponding intermediates, new processes being developed which have been adopted successfully on a manufacturing scale. Other synthetic drugs were also produced.

Professor Irvine, the director of the laboratories, acted as chemical adviser to the Department of Propellant Supplies, and for two years and a half was responsible for investigations relating to the manufacture of the materials needed for making cordite. During the last eighteen months of the war the laboratory carried on researches into chemical shellfillings.

The general work of the university was restricted during the war. But, owing to the large number of women students, the courses qualifying for useful professions were kept up with the help of senior officials, who undertook additional duties, and of extra women teachers.

Without knowing what financial help will be forthcoming from the government or the Carnegie Trust, it is impossible to say anything very definite on the developments which will take place in the new conditions created by the war. The endowments of St. Andrews leave little margin for expansion. But in general the policy of the university authorities is rather to increase the facilities for higher study and research in existing departments than to dissipate energies over a wider range of subjects. The training of graduates in research methods has been a special feature of the university for many years. It is hoped to extend the research laboratories and to enable research graduates in chemistry to combine with a training based on fundamental scientific principles a better knowledge of the necessities and methods of manufacture. A start has indeed already been made in this direction.

The university has felt justified in providing a Ph.D. degree open to graduates of British, colonial and foreign universities on terms similar to those which govern graduation in German universities. Students who wish to enter the university at a later age than usual are to be encouraged by the removal of the bar which they have hitherto met with in the preliminary examinations. In pure science the way is opened to more intensive specialization in the study for honor degrees. Syste

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matic courses of instruction in commerce have been instituted, leading to graduation. The number of graduates and students who served with the forces during the war was about 800. Of these 96 have been killed or reported missing.


AN outline of the work planned by the department of bacteriology and public health of Yale University, is given by Professor C.-E. A. Winslow in a recent number of the Yale Alumni Weekly. After consultation with the leading eastern universities a comprehensive program has been prepared leading to the Certificate in Public Health and the Doctorate in Public Health as well as to the Doctorate in Philosophy.

The Certificate in Public Health, which is to be conferred for one year of post-graduate study, is designed for two classes of students. On the one hand, young men and women who are just graduating from a college or technical school and desire to enter the field of public health, will be given a broad training in bacteriology, sanitation, health organization and vital statistics which will fit them for positions in health department laboratories and statistical bureaus, in bureaus of child hygiene or in other state and municipal departments. Outside of this district field of public service, experience has shown that those who hold the Certificate in Public Health may frequently find attractive positions as health executives, or as secretaries and field agents of various private organizations such as anti-tuberculosis societies, housing associations and the like.

A second class of students of maturer years for whom provision must be made, includes persons who have already specialized in some field related to public health, in medicine, for example, or sociology, or psychology or sanitary engineering, and desire to apply their special knowledge in the campaign for public health. The course for the Certificate in Public Health, with the freedom of election permitted to such mature students, is well adapted to give them a grasp of the general tendencies of the public health campaign and the special training they

need in order to apply their knowledge in this field.

For students who desire to specialize in greater detail in certain of the various lines discussed above, opportunities will be offered to pursue a course of study of three years leading to the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, with opportunities for major specialization in problems of sanitation, epidemiology and industrial

hygiene (with Professor Winslow); in public health bacteriology (with Professor Rettger); in the hygiene of the respiratory and central nervous system (with Professor Henderson); in immunology (with Professor Smith); in nutrition (with Professor Mendel); in problems of sanitary engineering (with Professor Barney); in problems relating to school and child hygiene (with Professor Gessel); and in vital statistics (with Dr. Dublin).

Both the Certificate in Public Health and the degree of Doctor of Philosophy are open to any college graduates, either men or women, provided they have pursued during their college course certain necessary prerequisites.

Beginning next autumn a new course of two years will be offered to medical graduates for which the degree of Doctor of Public Health will be conferred. It is believed that such a course, embodying not only class work but practical field work in a municipal health department, and the completion of study of a special problem designed to test and to develop the power of individual initiative, should furnish an ideal education for the public health administrator of the future.


ON April 20, 1919, Base Hospital No. 21, formed from the faculty of the Washington University school of medicine, St. Louis, landed in New York after 23 months service with the American Expeditionary Forces in France. The unit, in command of Major Fred T. Murphy, was in the first one thousand troops to go overseas; it was attached during the greater part of its service to the British forces and stationed at Rouen. Lieutenant Colonel Walter Fischel was in charge of the medical service. A part of the hospital, oper

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