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basins of geysers and hot springs like Yellow


The crater of Katmai is very large. Its circumference, says Robert F. Griggs, who headed the expeditions which explored the entire area, is 8.4 miles, measured along the highest point of the rim.

The area is 4.6 miles. The precipitous abyss, which does not extend to the rim of the southwest side, is somewhat shorter, measuring 2.6 miles in length, 7.6 miles in circumference, and 4.2 square miles in area. The milky blue lake at the bottom is 1.4 miles long and nine tenths of a mile wide, with an area of 1.1 square miles. The little cresentshaped island in the lake measures 400 feet from point to point. The precipice from the lake to the highest point of the rim is 3,700 feet.

Mr. Griggs estimates the capacity of the hole at 4,500,000,000 cubic yards. If this hole were filled with water, there would be enough to supply New York City for 1,635 days. The great eruption blew out 11,000,000,000 cubic yards of material, more than forty times the amount removed in the construction of the Panama Canal.


How American farmers responded to the food needs of the United States and the countries with which it was associated in the war is described in detail in the annual report of the Secretary of Agriculture, David F. Houston, just made public.

For wheat and other leading cereals and for potatoes, tobacco and cotton, farmers in 1918 planted 289,000,000 acres, an increase over the preceding record year of 5,600,000. It is especially noteworthy, the secretary points out that, while the acreage planted in wheat in 1917 was slightly less than for the record year of 1915, it exceeded the five-year average (1910-14) by 7,000,000; that the acreage planted in 1918 exceeded the previous record by 3,500,000; and that the indications are that the acreage planted during the current fall season will considerably exceed that of any preceding fall planting.

Notwithstanding adverse climatic conditions in 1917, especially for wheat, and in 1918 espe

cially for corn, the secretary reports that only 1915 has exceeded either 1917 or 1918 in the aggregate yield of wheat and other leading cereals.

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"The estimated total for 1917," he explains,

was 5,796,000,000 bushels and for 1918, 5,638,000,000 bushels, a decrease of approximately 160,000,000 bushels. But the conclusion would be unwarranted that the available supplies for human food or the aggregate nutritive value will be less in 1918 than in 1917. Fortunately, the wheat production for the current year918,920,000 bushels-is greatly in excess of that for each of the preceding two years, 650,828,000 in 1917, and 636,318,000 in 1916, and is next to the record wheat crop of the nation. The estimated corn crop, 2,749,000,000 bushels, exceeds the five-year pre-war average by 17,000,000 bushels, is 3.4 per cent. above the average in quality and greatly superior to that of 1917."

Turning to live stock, the secretary notes that the number of pounds of beef for 1918 is given at 8,500,000,000 pounds, as against 6,079,000,000 for 1914, the year preceding the European war; and that the total for 1918 of beef pork and mutton is given at 19,495,000,000 pounds, as against 15,587,000,000 pounds for


On the basis of prices that have recently prevailed, the secretary says, the value of all crops produced in 1918 and of live stock on farms on January 1, including horses, mules, cattle, sheep, swine and poultry, is estimated to be $24,700,000,000, compared with $21,325,000,000 for 1917 and $11,700,000,000, the annual average in the five-year period 1910 to 1914. This greatly increased financial showing, the secretary explains, does not mean that the nation is better off to that extent, or that its real wealth has advanced in that proportion. Considering merely the domestic relations, the true state is indicated rather in terms of real commodities. The increased values, however, do reveal that monetary returns to the farmers have increased proportionately with those of other groups of producers in the nation and that their purchasing power has kept pace in the rising scale of prices.

Yields in 1918 of the major food crops were as follows, according to unrevised estimates: 2,749,198,000 bushels of corn; 918,920,000 bushels of wheat; 1,535,297,000 bushels of oats; 236,505,000 bushels of barley; 76,687,000 bushels of rye; 18,370,000 bushels of buckwheat; 41,918,000 bushels of rice; 61,182,000 bushels of kafirs; 390,101,000 bushels of Irish potatoes; 88,114,000 bushels of sweet potatoes; 17,802,000 bushels of commercial beans; 40,185,000 bushels of peaches; 10,342,000 bushels of pears; 197,360,000 bushels of apples; 6,549,000 tons of sugar beets; 29,757,000 gallons of sorghum sirup; 52,617,000 bushels of peanuts.

The estimated 1918 production of all the cereals, 5,638,077,000 bushels, compares with 5,796,332,000 bushels in 1917, and 4,883,819,000 bushels, the annual average in the five-year period 1910-14. On January 1, 1918, it is estimated there were on American farms 21,563,000 horses, compared with an average of 20,430,000 in the five years 1910-14; 4,824,000 mules, compared with 4,346,000; 23,284,000 milch cows, compared with 20,676,000; 43,546,000 other cattle, compared with 38,000,000; 48,900,000 sheep (an increase, for the first time in many years, over the preceding year), compared with 51,929,000; 71,374,000 swine, compared with 61,865,000.

The estimated 1918 production of beef, 8,500,000,000 pounds, compares with 7,384,007,000 pounds in 1917; 10,500,000,000 pounds of pork compared with 8,450,148,000; 495,000,000 pounds of mutton and goat meat compared with 491,205,000; 8,429,000,000 gallons of milk produced in 1918 was 141,000,000 pounds more than the 1917 production; 299,921,000 pounds of wool, 18,029,000 pounds more than 1917; 1,921,000,000 dozens of eggs, 37,000,000 dozens more; 589,000,000 head of poultry, 11,000,000




Ir will be of interest to zoologists and botanists, particularly ecologists and those interested in the fauna and flora of the Middle West, to learn what two areas in southwestern

Michigan have been set aside as wild life preserves. The tracts comprise 300 acres (150 or more of the original forest) situated two and a half miles north of Three Oaks, in Chickaming Township, Berrien County, and over 250 acres in the sand dune region on the shore of Lake Michigan, in Lake Township, two miles north of Sawyer, in Berrien County.

The forest is a remnant of the original beech-maple forest of southern Michigan. It has never been cut or burned over and many of the trees are splendid specimens, fifty to seventy feet in height to the first limb, and from two to four feet in circumference. The Galien River flows through the forest for about one and one half miles and there are numerous springs.

The sand dune tract has a frontage on Lake Michigan of about 3,000 feet. It includes probably the highest dunes in the State of Michigan, the largest of which are from two hundred to three hundred feet in height. Much of the tract is wild and with little doubt the original vegetation prevails in most places.

The preserves have been established by Mr. and Mrs. Edward K. Warren, of Three Oaks, Michigan, and are incorporated in the "Edward K. Warren Foundation," which also inIcludes the Chamberlain Memorial Museum at Three Oaks, founded in 1915 and opened to the public in 1916.

The forest has been in Mr. Warren's possession for forty years, and has been preserved

by him for its great natural beauty, and both tracts have been set aside that future generations may have an example of the primitive floral and fauna conditions in southern Michigan, that nature lovers may find here many of the animals and plants which are being exterminated elsewhere, and that students of biology may have available a place where they can study native animals and plants in their natural habitats. Some of the sand dune area has been more recently acquired, and it is typical of the good judgment and foresight of Mr. Warren that this area includes the best developed dunes and is the least disturbed tract in the sand dune region. The Museum of Zoology of the University of

Michigan has been asked to make a detailed survey of the reservations, and it is planned to extend this survey over an indefinite number of years. Field laboratories will be provided by the foundation, and the museum will send specialists on the groups represented in the preserves to these laboratories at different times. The object of the field work will be to obtain a complete inventory of the plants and animals and to secure data upon the causes of fluctuations in numbers of individuals, that the fauna and flora may be maintained as nearly as possible in the primitive condition. At the same time it is expected that ecological data and information on the original biota will be obtained which will be of scientific interest. The specimens will be deposited in the Museum of Zoology and the Chamberlain Memorial Museum, and the published results of the work will appear from the Museum of Zoology under a common title.

Future generations will not fail to appreciate the good judgment and public spirit which have led to the recognition of the desirability of insuring the perpetuity of the wild life of these areas and the establishment of the preserves.


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of the faculty of the Sheffield Scientific School are no longer valid.

3. That the governing board of the Sheffield Scientific School be requested to appoint a committee, of which the director shall be chairman, to prepare plans for the immediate establishment of a four-year undergraduate course and the discontinuance of the "select" course; reporting at the same time to the corporation whether, in the opinion of this committee, it is desirable to establish a scientific course in preparation for business.

4. That this committee be directed to confer with a similar committee to be appointed by the permanent officers of Yale College regarding the inter-departmental problems created by the proposed changes, in order that properly qualified students in either school may be given access to the courses of instruction offered by the other.

5. That the president be directed to call meetings of the two committees thus created, together with the chairman of the entrance examination committee, to devise means for carrying more fully into effect the policy of joint administration of entrance requirements for the two schools; with authority to recommend, for the consideration of the respective governing boards and the approval of the corporation, such changes as shall appear to them desirable in the scope of the entrance requirements themselves, and in the organization of the freshman year.

6. That in the opinion of the corporation it is practicable, as recommended by the executive board of the graduate school, to place the administration of all advanced degrees and certificates in science, comprising at present the degree of master of science, the certificate in public health, and the higher engineering degrees, under the jurisdiction of the graduate school, without interfering with the development of the departments of study concerned or their proper articulation with the undergraduate courses which lead up to them; and that under these circumstances the administration of the courses leading to these degrees should be transferred to the graduate school at the close of the present academic year.

7. That the executive board of the graduate school be requested to prepare for the consideration of the faculty and the approval of the corporation plans by which provision can be made for the necessary independence and the proper coordination of graduate and undergraduate work in other departments of study as well as in those immediately affected by this change; and to submit such plans to the governing boards of the two undergraduate schools for their information and for any suggestions which they may choose to make in connection therewith.

8. That in adopting the above resolutions the corporation does not thereby commit itself to maintaining as a permanent policy the present division between the college and the Sheffield Scientific School in freshman year.


DR. SIMON FLEXNER, director of the laboratories of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, was elected president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science at the meeting held last week in Baltimore. Chairmen of the sections elected are given in the report of the general secretary, published elsewhere in the present issue of SCIENCE.

COLONEL E. D. SCOTT was elected president of the American Psychological Association at the meeting held last week in Baltimore.

Ar the meeting of the American Association of University Professors, held in Baltimore during convocation week, Dr. Arthur O. Lovejoy, professor of philosophy in the Johns Hopkins University, was elected president.

DR. GEORGE L. STREETER has been appointed director of the department of embryology of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.

PROFESSOR A. E. KENNELLY, of Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was elected an honorary member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers, London, November 22, 1918.

LIEUTENANT COLONEL HARVEY CUSHING, professor of surgery at Harvard University, was

made last June neurological consultant to the American Expeditionary Forces, with headquarters at Neufchâteau.

DR. WILLIAM T. SHOEMAKER, of Philadelphia, in recognition of his services as ophthalmologist of Base Hospital Unit No. 10, from the Pennsylvania Hospital, which he accompanied to France in May, 1917, has been appointed ophthalmologist to all American hospitals in England, and recently left France to enter upon his new duties. The new appointment carries with it the rank of lieutenant colonel, and he has been recommended for the promotion.

DR. A. D. HIRSCHFELDER, of the University of Minnesota, is now with the research division of the Chemical Warfare Section and has been stationed in Baltimore.

DR. RAYMOND PEARL, chief of the statistical division of the United States Food Administration, has returned to this country from a two months trip in Europe on Food Administration business.

DR. A. G. ELLIS, associate professor of pathology at Jefferson Medical College, will proceed to Siam to organize the department of pathology in the Royal Medical College at Bangkok. The exact date of his departure has not been determined, and is contingent upon the return of Dr. W. M. L. Coplin, professor of pathology, who is with the American Expeditionary Forces in France, having charge of the organization of the hospital laboratories.

THE faculty of the medical school of Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, gave a dinner at the Hotel La Salle, Chicago, on December 12, in honor of Professor Emilius C. Dudley, who is retiring from the chair of gynecology after thirty-seven years of work. Many colleagues and friends of Dr. Dudley were there and several speakers both from the faculty and trustees bore witness to his great contribution to the development of modern medicine and the affectionate regard in which he was held.

Ar a meeting of the fellows of the Royal Society of Medicine, held on November 13, the diploma of honorary fellowship of the society was presented to Sir Alfred Keogh, G.C.B., late director-general of the British Army Medical Services.

LIEUTENANT COLONEL RICHARD H. HARTE, head of Base Hospital Unit No. 10, one of the first American Hospital units to arrive in France, is in the Pennsylvania Hospital recovering from a serious operation.

MR. CHARLES D. TEST, formerly chemist for the Western Potash Works of Antioch, Nebraska, has accepted a position on the staff of the United States Tariff Commission.

DUE to the retirement of Mr. Wallace G. Levison, Edgar T. Wherry, of the Bureau of Chemistry at Washington, has been appointed editor-in-chief of The American Mineralogist, with the following associate editors: George F. Kunz, president, New York Mineralogical Club; Herbert P. Whitlock, American Museum of Natural History; Alexander H. Phillips, Princeton University; Waldemar T. Schaller, U. S. Geological Survey; Edward H. Kraus, University of Michigan; Austin F. Rogers, Leland Stanford Junior University; Thomas L. Walker, University of Toronto, Canada; and Samuel G. Gordon, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.

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York Academy of Medicine on Saturday evening, January 11, at 8:30.

THE Lady Priestley Memorial Lecture of the National Health Society at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, South Kensington, was given by Professor Bone, F.R.S., who took as his subject Coal and health."

IT is the desire of the American Committee of the Ramsay Memorial Fund to make the fund an expression of the esteem for Sir William Ramsay in this country. Many have expressed a wish to contribute, but have held back on account of their inability to send in a sum commensurate with their esteem. This has been due to the numerous calls made upon all for the past two years. Small sums, from one to five dollars, will be welcomed by the committee, which is anxious to make the expression of appreciation as widespread as possible. Contributions may be sent to Professor Charles Baskerville, chairman, College of the City of New York, or Mr. W. J. Matheson, treasurer, 21 Burling Slip, New York City.

ACCORDING to a news despatch from France, the names of Lafayette and Wilbur Wright were joined, on December 22, by former Premier Painlevé, who spoke at the ceremonies incident to the laying of the foundation stone of the Wilbur Wright monument at Lemans, France. This was because Lafayette was a deputy of the Department of Sarthe, of which Lemans is the chief town, from 1812 to 1822, and three eminent French aviators, Fonck, Hurteau and Nungesser, were natives of this department. After sketching the lives of the Wright brothers, M. Painlevé said: "Let us honor Wilbur Wright's memory, first, as a good worker for human progress; second, because he brought to France the aid of his genius. Let his memory be joined with those of his young fellow citizens, who spontaneously brought their heroism to our aviation service."

CHARLES E. PHELPS, engineer of the Maryland State Board of Health, formerly chief engineer of the Maryland Public Service Commision, died of pneumonia on December 22, aged forty-seven years.

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