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155.), versicoloribus segmentis vel virgis intertextis, qui quidem habitus Gallis, Germanis, et Britannis frequentatus, Scotis nondum in usu esse desiit"]. Sed quis color sagulorum ? non desunt vv. dd. qui capiant purpuram.
In his sunt Cælius L. XVI. c. vii. et Germ. Hi duo in Virg. Trcepúpous agnoscunt [“ Virgatum Virgilio et Propertio non purpureum, quod nugatur Servius, nec ab eo, quod ράβδοι in vestibus dicerentur αι πάρυφοι πόρφυραι, quo1 quidam ex Polluce accommodarunt.” Jos. Scaligeri Conject. in Varr. de L. L. p. 67.] Sunt autem rápudo virga purpurea intexte vesti, inde et eúrápudor. Huc pertinent verba interpretis veteris Juvenalis in Sat. 8. Qua tunica (Galli) utuntur in sacris in modum organi utrinque decrescentibus virgulis purpureis
. Imo Serv. virgatis explicat purpuratis, et ait lingua Gallorum dici virgam. Trahi etiam in argumentum potest verbum lucent, quod de
purpura dici alibi indicabam, et clare Silius, L. III.
Humeroque refulget Sanguinei patrium suguli decus. Probavit tamen jam Lipsius ex Valer. et Hirt. non semper sagum fuisse purpureum, sed interdum album. Unde lux accedet Martiali in illo versiculo,
Vis te purpureum Marce sagatus amen." Now we profess ourselves to be in the number of those, who think with Servius, who has been treated somewhat harshly on this occasion, that virgatis refers to the purple stripes in the sagulis, and that it is the same as purpuratis, and it is to be observed that the Scholiast upon Juvenal, whom De la Cerda quotes, actually uses the words virgis purpureis, when he is speaking of the garment worn by the Gauls, and so also does Ovid quoted above. We have not been able to find the passage in Lipsius's de Militia Romana, to which De La Cerda refers to show that the sagum was not always purple, but sometimes white; but supposing it to be occasionally white, it might still have purpurea virgæ. fact, however, is, that purple was the prevailing color of the sagum among the Gauls, or rather the groundwork was some other color, and these purpureæ virgæ were so interwoven into it, as to present the appearance of a variegated, but still a purple garment. The only blunder of Servius is, in roundly asserting what is false, that "irga, in the Gallic tongue, signifies purple
, and we have pointed out the source of this error above. Tacitus Hist. L. II. c. xx. says, speaking of Cæcina, Quod versicolore sagulo braccas, barbarum tegmen, indutus, togatos alloqueretur. What Propertius, as we have seen, calls bracæ virgata, Valerius Flaccus L. vi. v. 227. as Forcellinus informs us, calls piete, and in L. v. v. 424. Sarmaticæ. Gesnier in the Thes. I. Li says
under the word : “ Braca, vel bracca—vestis fluxa, qua utebantur frigidioris plagæ homines, ad tegenda femora in primis comparata, interdum tamen ita prolixa, ut totum pæne corpus tegeret : ad femora proprie pertinuisse, tum usus, quem statim indicabimus, declarat, tum illud, quod breech, Anglis hodie partem, qua sedetur, notat, et quod britschen Germanis est nates pulsare :-braccis usos fuisse Bessos, docet Ovid. Trist. 3, 10, 19., de Getis ac Sarmatis Ponti accolis idem Trist. 5, 7, 49., ac de Tomitanis, qui se Græcos colonos dicebant, Trist. 5, 10, 34., (ubi) Persica, bracca, nempe hæ sunt Persarum ávažupioes, de Armeniis Juvena'. II. 169.,. Gallis ita propria fuit, ut inde braccata Gallia diceretur—de Sarmatis et quibusdam Germanis Lucan 1. 430. Sarmatica braccæ etiam sunt Valer. Argon. 5, 424.” Forcellinus's Remarks deserve to be added : “ Vestis barbarorum pro. pria, ut Persarum, Medorum, Sarmatarum, Gallorum, Germanorum, et hujusmodi, nostris femoralibus valde similis, laxior tamen, et longior, ut quæ non femora solum, sed et crura, imo et ventrem contegat : talis putatur, quam Dalmatæ e plebe adhuc gestant: A Romanis, sicut neque a Græcis, diu adhibita non fuit; quamvis enim de Augusto narret Sueton. in ejus Vita c. lxxxii. feminalia et tibialia hieme gestasse ; ea tamen non braccæ, sed fasciæ fuerunt, quibus femora et tibias involvebat, ut præter alios Casaub. eo loco pluribus docet : posterioribus tamen temporibus etiam ad Romanos transiit; scribit enim Lamprid. in Alex. Sev. c. xl. in fi. eum Imperatorem braca's albas habuisse, non coccineas, ut prius solebant, ex quo intelligitur aliquanto etiam ante braccas a Romanis gestari coeptas: qui mos postea adeo invaluit, ut latis legibus coercendus fuerit : hinc Impp. Arcad. et Honor. sanxerunt, ut nemini liceat intra Urbem braccas gestare, ut in Cod. Theodos. L. xiv. tit. 10. Leg. 2. legitur. v. Salmas. ad l. c. Lamprid.” Jos. Scaliger upon Propertius L. iv. Eleg. xi. (cited above) says: “ Jam Romanis avatupièks in usu fuisse tempore Licinii Imp. habes ap. Suidam AVĘérTiOs: sed et Lampridius scribit Alagabalum braccas albas habuisse, non coccineas, ut solebant reliqui imperatores : quare antiquior usus braccarum Romanis fuit, quam vulgo persuasum.” As to the etymology of the word braca, Hoffmann in the Lexicon Universale says from Salmas. ad Tertullian. de Pallio, p. 123. “ Non Gallica vox, uti nonnulli contendunt, sed pura puta Græca.” J. Vossius says in the Etymologicon Ling. Lat. : “ Isidoro L. XIX. C. xxii. videtur dici quod sit brevis, nempe a Greco βραχύς : aliis placet esse 2 ράκος, quod a ρήσσω, seu ρήγνυμι, unde ab Eustathio esse dicitur διερρωγός ιμάτιον, vestis disrupta : Æoles, quos Romani maxime imitantur, literam B literæ e præmittunt, quando post p sequitur x, t, vel &, ut futūp, Bputrip, páčov, Bpólov, páxos, Bpáxos, etc. : sed sane bracæ vox est a Gallis Belgis ; quippe hodieque Belge, sive Germani inferiores,
eam broeck appellant, ut Cimbri brog, Britanni breache : at braca esse a Gallis clare docet Diodorus Siculus, cujus illud de Gallis, χρώνται δε αναξυρίσιν, ας εκείνοι βρακας καλούσιν, similiter Hesychius
: quare et bracæ vocem Gallicam putamus, vel, si origo est Græca, vocem eam acceperint Galli a Massiliensibus, qui Græce loquebantur.” To derive braca from Bgáxos, i. e. þaxos, is just as absurd, as it would be to derive our word rag from páxos, which, as Eustathius, and after him Hesychius, observes, is properly disopyös illatiou.” The fact is, that these are accidental coincidences, and merely prove that such words are derived from one common source, which may perhaps no longer exist.
Dr. Butler has in page 133. the following observations : "The most general name for Greece among the natives themselves was Hellas, and the people were called Hellenes, but even this term did not comprise the inhabitants of Macedonia and Epirus : the poets, however, used, by synecdoche, to put the names of several small tribes for the whole body of the nation. The most usual term in Homer is Achæi and Danai, and sometimes Argivi : they were also called Pelasgi, from an ancient nation of that name in Thessaly; Iones, Dores, and Æoles, from the inhabitants of particular districts : Attica was the original seat of the Ionians, the Peloponnese the principal seat of the Dorians, and Thessaly the original country of the Æolians. The word Hellenes occurs only once in Homer Il. ii. 618. where it is used not as a generic, but a specific name of the inhabitants of that part of Thessaly called Hellas; and what is also remarkable, the word Gracia was not legully recognised by the Romans, who, from their having subdued the last bulwark of Græcian liberty, the Achæan confederacy, reduced Greece into a Roman province called Achaia : the name of Grecia, however, was sufficiently familiar among the Romans in writing and conversation."
In page 138. Dr. B. says:
« South of Sicyon, in the interior, was the city of Phlius, which still preserves its name in Staphlica. The addition of Sta, or Stan, is common in modern Greek namnes, being a corruption of is tá, or is tèr: thas Constantinople is called Stambol, or is rdv rómsv."
In page 172. we have the following note :
“ The places, which contended for the birth-place of Homer, are enumerated in those well-known lines,
Septem urbes certant de stirpe insignis Homeri,
Smyrna, Rhodos, Colophon, Salamis, Chios, Argos, Athene ; of these, Chios and Smyrna have the best claim.-I am not one of those, who doubt his existence. The uniformity of plan and diction convinces me that the Iliad, with possibly a small exception, is the work of one man. The Odyssey I attribute to different hands, and to a somewhat later, but very early age.”
The lines quoted by Dr. B. are tame and insipid, when they are compared with the subsequent lines, which have some spirit,
Smyrna, Rhodos, Colophon, Salumis, Chios, Argos, Athene,
Orbis de patria ceriat, Homere, tua.
217. when Dr. Butler is speaking of Tigranocerta, he adds the following note :
“Horace has been thought to allude to it in his story of the soldier of Lucullus, who, having been robbed of his accumulated savings,
Præsidium regale loco dejicit (dejecit], ut aiunt,
Hor. Epist. 11. ii. 30. but I cannot think this interpretation sufficiently authorised by the words of the poet."
Now as the fact is admitted that Lucullus found an immense treasure in Tigranocerta, which was a place of great strength, it is very natural to suppose that Horace intended to imply this place by the epithet regale, regale prasidium, and so Cruquius thought for this very reason, for he says at the words, Videtur significare Tigranocertam, de qua sic Appianus in Mithridaticis: Íta Tigranocerta capta ingenti præda ditavit exercitum, utpote urbs recens condita, ambitiose contractis undique incolis, etc; and after Cruquius, Baxter, whose words are, “Mithridatis præsidium quod Tigranocertæ erat, uti ex Dione ostendit Cruquius." But Baxter should have said not ex Dione, but ex Appiano ; for Cruquius quotes Dio only to show that this capital went by another name, Hanc autem Dio L. 35. ad finem nominat Nisibim, Beda L. de Rerum Natura Niniven. The Vetus Commentator, whom Cruquius edited, it is true, does not seem to have understood Tigranocerta, Velut furibundi expugnarunt quoddam præsidium, ubi erant thesauri Mithridatis.
In page 237. Dr. Butler gives us the following note, when he is speaking of the Libyan Deserts : « I
cannot avoid quoting a sublime passage in the first part of the Botanic Garden of the late Dr. Darwin, descriptive of the invading army of Cam, byses overwhelmed by those mighty columns of sand, which may be called the waves, or rather, the moving mountains, of the desert,
Wave over wave the driving desert swims,
awhile the living hill
Botanic Garden, Pt. I. Canto ir. V. 489."