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e ratione metrica, qua vel ille vel tragici in canticis usi sunt, colligi possit : nam quæ sit ea ratio mihi diligenter perquirenti nondum comperisse contigit; neque viri ingenio et doctrina insignes, qui hoc nostro seculo eam expediendam, explicandam, et monstrandam susceperunt, aliud quam quantæ sint tenebræ, quibus ejusmodi studia involuta et impedita sint, ostendisse videntur. Carmina ea quæ cantu quodam exquisitiore, vocis varia et diversa flectione et modulatione producto et TETOIXIA péyw recitari solebant, dum continuato instrumentorum sono tenor pronunciandi fulciretur, et ultra communem sermonis usum et consuetudinem proferretur, numeris, aut lege solutis, aut legi saltem minus severæ subjectis, composita esse, credere licet; ita ut syllabæ syllabis et pedes pedibus in strophis et antistrophis non omnes omnibus invicem responderent, tametsi mensura quædam utrisque communis comparata esset, qua singulæ singulis totæ convenirent, quamvis partes dis. creparent. Demosthenes plane distinguit εμμέτρους ab αδομένων poetis ;' eos scilicet qui versus justa symmetria definitos, et justo ordine distributos, quales sunt Homeri, Alcæi, Sapphûs, &c. ab iis qui cantica, qualia sunt Pindari et tragicorum, liberiore spiritu et cursu componebant, atque arti minus severæ tibicinis et citharædi plurimum indulgebant. Grammaticorum autem sapientia, omni ejusmodi indulgentiæ et licentiæ semper inimicissima, in iis corrigendis et reformandis, et ad regulam quandam et normam artis redigendis, tandem adhibita est ; multis nempe post seculis, omni ejusmodi poesi jamdudum prorsus extincta, et aliis bonis artibus et litteris sub imperatorum Romanorum dominatione jacentibus et oppressis : Cicero enim omnes ejusmodi conatus ignorasse videtur; neque Quintilianus pro alio quam importunis molestorum hominum nugis habuisse. Multi tamen postea in ea arena sudarunt, atque demum, sexto post Chtistum natum seculo ineunte, Eugenius Phryx, qui Anastasio imperante jam senex Constantinopoli doeebat, έγραψε κωλομετρίας των μελικών Αισχύλου, Σοφοκλέους, και Ευριπίδου από δραμάτων πεντεκαίδεκα περί TOŨ TÍ Twixòy, nadsußáxzlov, x. 7. 1.;5 acumine quod ipsi pro

' ώστε και τους έμμετρους και των αδομένων ποιηται, και πολλούς των συγγραφέων υποθείς τα εκείνων έργα της αυτών μουσικής πεποιήσθαι. επιτα.

? Vide Athenæi l. x. c. lxxix, ed. Schweigh. locum obscurum sane et intellectu difficilem ; e quo tamen colligere licet quantum ex arte citharistæ sèu spoup.com 707010 distributio canticorum in strophas, antistrophas, et epodas dependeret.

3 A modis quibusdam cantu remoto, soluta videtur esse oratio, maximeque id in optimo quoque eorum poetarum qui awpixoi a Græcis nominantur, quos cum cantu spoliaveris, nuda pæne remanet oratio. Cic. orator.

4 In adeo molestos incidimus grammaticos, quam fuerunt qui lyricorum quæ. dam carmina in varias mensuras coegerunt. Quinctil. inst.

3 Suid. in v.

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NOTICE OF A SKETCH OF MODERN AND ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY FOR THE

USE of Schools, BY THE Rev. S. BUTLER, D. D. HEADMASTER OF THE ROYAL FREE GRAMMAR-SCHOOL OF SHREWSBURY. 1813. 8vo. pp. 246. Pr. 8s. 6d.

We are rejoiced to hear that this excellent little work has been already adopted in some large Schools, and we doubt not that the example will be followed by other respectable seminaries ; for, as Dr. Butler observes in his Preface, “Every person employed like himself in the classical education of youth, must be sensible how deplorably a book of this nature was wanted.” In the second part, the learned Doctor has given a short view of ancient geography, and has thus supplied a desideratum in public schools. He has “ endeavoured to make a dry catalogue of names interesting and useful by the application of history, chronology, and poetry; He has himself been cautious to examine the historical facts in the original authors, and to ascertain the chronological dates by reference to the best accessible authorities.” He “ has added two copious and separate indexes to each part.” “ For the groundwork of the first part he has chosen the maps and text of Pinkerton, for that of the second part those of D'Anville.”

« With a view to render this little publication more generally useful, he has prefixed a few of the most remarkable events in the Sacred, Grecian, and Roman history, copied from Dr. Blair's Chronology. They are for the most part the same with those prefixed to Dr. Lempriere's universally known and esteemed work, The Classical Dictionary, but with many omissions; as he conceived it essential to avoid increasing the size of his book, and wished principally to call the attention of the learner to the more remarkable events in their synchronisms. He has in one respect differed from the learned author of the Classical Dictionary, in accompanying the year before, or after Christ, with the Olympiad and year of Rome. This he knows from long experience to be a material advantage, and he wishes respectfully to suggest to the author of that excellent work his adoption of it in his future edi

“ It is essential also for another reason,” which he gives in a note on the chronological table.

115. when Dr. B. is speaking of Gallia braccata, so called from the bracchæ, or breeches, worn by the inhabitants,"

in a note : “ Breac is the Celtic word for a stripe: hence we need not doubt that these breeches were made of striped materials: hence also we may under

tions." In

page

he

says

stand what is meant by the virgati Duha, having a reference to their striped garments. Traces of this early apparel may yet be observed in the Scotch plaid, the patterns of which are always longitudinal and transverse stripes. The Highlanders are a Gaelic (i. e. a Celiic) race.”

We are decidedly of the same opinion, as Dr. Butler is, that bracce is derived from the Celtic word breac, “a stripe," and Dr. Butler might have proved his point from the classical writers themselves : thus Propertius says in L. iv. Eleg. x. 39.

Claudius Eridanum trajectos arcuit hostes,

Belgica cui vasti parma relata ducis
Virdumuri : Genus hic Rheno jactabut ab ipso,

Nobilis e tectis fundere gesi rotis.
Illi virgni is jaculuntis ab agmine braccis

Torquis ab incisa decid t unca gula. (Illi, as Jos. Scaliger here observes, ápxairūs pro illius) Phil. Beroaldus has here these remarks : “ Galli vestes gestant intonsas, variique coloris, quas braccas vocant: sagula gerunt virgata, hyeme crassiora, æstate subtiliora : auctor Diodorus in vi., et dixit Maro Virgatis lucent sagulis, quem locum exponens Serv. dixit Virgilium alludere ad Gallicam linguam, per quam virga purpura dicitur; virgatis ergo ac si diceret purpuratis : tu expone virgata sagula et virgatas braccas, quia quibusdam quasi virgis contexta erant et versicoloria.” Virga de fuco, quo tinguntur a barbaris corpora,—Valer. Flacc. L. II. v. 159. Nostrosque toros virgata tenebit, Et plaustro derepta nurus, h. e. corpore picto fucata, quo pertinet illud Ovid. De Ar. Am. iii. 269. Pallida purpureis tingat sua corpo a virgis," Forcellini Lex. totius Latinitatis. Virgatus-Quod virgas quasdam in longum, aut latum varia serie, et colore porrectum habet, virgatum dicitur, ut virgatæ vestes, virgata sagula, quæ discoloribus, tanquam currentibus regulis colorum et ductibus, varia cernuntur. Grammatici hac notione contenti non sunt, sed aiunt ad Gallorum etiam respectum esse linguam, quibus virga purpuram significat, ut virgata sint purpurea ; sed simplex intellectus et Latinus magis convenit: Valerius certe Flaccus Thracum mulieribus virgatas vestes tribuens, purpureas non intellexit, sed barbarorum ritu discolores, et veluti virgatis segmentis contextas (the verses are cited above, where also see the interpretation of them by Forcellinus): calathisci virgati, virgis contexti, Catull. Argon. Ixii. 319.” Gesneri Thes. Ling. Lat. Forcellinus adds, after having quoted the passage of Catullus, “h.e. texti e virgis varii coloris, Virg. Æn. viii

. v. 660. Virgatis lucent sagulis, h. e. maculis et plagulis in modum retis, et cancellorum distinctis, scaccati, alio nomine scutulatis.Virga properly signifies a stripe ; but the stripes, which were wrought into the garments of these barbarous nations, were generally purple; hence then, by a very natural transition, virga comes to sig

nify purple. Now Servius, mistaking, as he did, this metaphorical use of virga in the sense of purple for the proper signification of the word, says that Virgil alludes to the language of the Gauls, amongst whom virga signifies purple, because he knew that these sagala were considered as purple. Thus, to confirm the observation, we may cite the Germany of Tacitus, c. xvii. Tæmince sæpius lineis amictibus velantur, eosque purpura variant, i. e. purpur eis virgis, and Lipsius adds: “Bene ait sæpius : Diaconus in viris agnoscit L. iv. c. vii. Vestimenta eis (de priscis Longobardis, indubie Germanis) erant laxa et maxime linea, qualia AngliSaxones habere solent, ornata institis latioribus, vario colore contextis ; sed profecto quæ hic de variegatis latisque institis dicit, nos qui vidimus, scimus etiam nunc proprium amictum esse Germanicarum mulierum.” The reader will find in De La Cerda's note on Virg. Æn. viii. 660, some most admirable and erudite observations on the epithet virgatis as applied to sagulis : we shall present him with the whole of it;

“Propertius quoque L. iv. Eleg. ii. Virdomaro Regi Gallorum dat braccas virgatas : sed quæ sagula virgata ? in quibus sc. coLores distincti instar virgarum. Proprietate vocis usus Catull, yocans calathos ex virgis virgatos. Itaque intelligit poeta fuisse hæc sagula paßiutà, aut segmentata, vel picta, et versicoloria, ut satis indicat Sil. Nam tigrim feram virgatam vocat, loquens de equo Flaminii consulis, cujus equus instratus Caucaseam virgato corpore tigrim: Senec. quoque Hippolyt. virgatas tigres dixit, et in Octav. virgata ubera etiam de tigri. Sic ergo virgata sagula erunt versicoloria. Hom. scutum Sarpedonis exornat L. XII. II. xpucelous jábiosos Envexetiv, continuatis aureis virgis. Et ego credo has virgas esse, quæ eidem 11. II. dicuntur oipoin scuto Agamemnonis, i. e. viæ, semitæ. Addit Scalig. in Conjectan. aliud ad perfectam cognitionem formæ hujus, videlicet esse has virgas scutulas. Nam

quæ Diodorys loquens de sagis Gallorum vocat Tasveíc, i. e. laterculos, Plinius scutulas reddit. Atqui Diodor. hoc sagulum paßiutòv nominat, i. e. virgatum, et Pollux çabiceicés. Erat igitur hoc opus quadris velut laterculis distinctum. Plin. idem c. xlviii. L. vu. İnter artifices vestium, tum etiam, scutulis dividere, Gallia. Certe Liv. in funda scutale vocat illud, quod est in medio fundæ. Plinius quoque maculas et plagulas in retibus vocat scutulas, ut cum loquitur de cassibus araneorum. Quod addunt alii, interque illos Scalig. hæc dubiu, aut scutulas reticulatas fuisse, intellige (explicante Velsero L. I. Rerum Boicar.) sagula in tesse

prope speciem distincta, et interstincta, ut si quis plagas retium pictis tabellis solidaret. Hæc de forma [Heyne upon the passage of Virgil has these remarks : « Vestem intellige illa ipsa sagula ex auro facta, ab artifice (seu ut colorem luteum et flavum referret, seu quod auro textas vestes amarent Galli, cf. Silium iv.

latam

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