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loquutum, adeò dextrè divinæ Paginde sensum exposuit.

Sic plus literaria illius quies prosit hominibus, quam aliorum sudor, et irrequietus labor. O foelicem Academiam, quæ tam regali deposito superbire gestit! Desinite tandem fugitiva aliorum Inventa, subtiles, et inanes Metaphysices Abstractiones curiosiùs venari. Istiusmodi enim literæ ad virtutem doctoribus parùm profuerunt: Postulare videtur vestri Judicii maturitas, ingenii acumen, animi robur, ut non tam Scholæ studeatis, quàm Reipublicæ. Volvenda et revolvenda sunt.

Nocturna versanda manu, versanda diurná, haud Varronis alicujus, *sed Regis mol.uua Sectámou Opera, quæ vos peregrinantes, et veluti in Patriâ hospites domum perducent, ut unde, qui, et ubi sitis, explora'tum habeatis. Hic docetur Ars omnium pulcherrima, Imperare scilicet et Parere. Hic discatis frigere sine usu disputationes, nisi in mediam proferatis lucem, quæ in hâc umbratili' Exercitatione disseruntur. Cùm igitur digni tanto honore, tantaque reperti sitis fælicitate, ut initium et finis studiorum à Voce Imperatoriâ procedant, conatus vestros pulcherrima spes foveat, posse etiam et vos (si Solis et Apollinis Yestri ductum sequamini) ad honores, et dignitates designari. Academia distinguitur Scholis, clarescit Collegiis, foret disciplinis, at ut ab Authore, ita ab hoc opere Nomen tuetur. : Bibliotheca non erit literarum Ædificium, sed Miraculum, quia hunc Orbis totius Thesaurum continebit. Ipsi veterum libri gloria spoliati, senio, et vetustate squalidi, novo hoc Radio protinus resplen

Quocirca circumferte hanc famæ vestræ Facem, ut diffusiori luceat radio. Cujus enim industrian non exacuat tam luculentum Favoris auxilium ? Quisquamne erit, qui ætatem inerti solvet otio, cum Principis labores et studia quotidie in oculis, et manibus versentur? Quisquamne erit, qui ingenium situ et sordibus obsolescere patietur, cùm cogitärit Principi, sive in Curia, sive in Senatu, unum utrobique negotium Legere, et Scribere ? Æstuat hic Oratio, et læto, liberóque motu ardet evagari; sed reprimam stili pertinaciam, ne iu alienam videar involare messem ; quod tamen minimè timendum est Laudatori tanti Regis; Nam cùm omnia effundant omnes, semper novus veniat Laudator Ejus, tantam facultatem, et copiam suppeditat dictorum, factorúmque Amplitudo. Quid superest ( Academici, usque ad invidiam fælicissimi) nisi ut Cæleste hoc Ancile Bodleiano Mnemosynes Fano consecretis ?

Diridite muros, et mænia pandite circum

Sacra canant rates. nos, Fælix Palladium sacrata sistimus Arce, Oratio habita in Domo Convocationis Oxon. Maii. 29. 1620.

cùm Sereniss. R. Jac. Opera sua Acad. dono dederit: à Rio CHARDO GARDINER, ex Æde Christi A. M. Oratore. Publica Deputato.

descent.

Sic

De salvo, et incolumi Regis CAROLI Reditu ad Oxonium a

asperâ Murtis Pugnâ circa Collem, Edge-Hill vocatum, é ampliori Ædis Christi Areâ, Gratulatio Octob. 29. 1642.

Dabis veniam, Regum Augustissime, si deplorato, et propè exp rans Academia vix erigat oculos præ dolore nadidos, præ pudor solo defixos, ad Serenitatis Vestræ lucem intuendam. Proh Fidem Undique prorumpit immanis belli intestini furor, passimi irrepuu vafra, et perfida ingenia, adeò ut de salute vestra simus sollicit etiam dum loquimur. Aciem instruere in tutelam nec penes Aca demnicos, nec fas: imò eò res delapsa est, ut nobis inerinibus plant religio sit, circumforaneo cuilibet sicario cædem minitanti inulta: præbere cervices : Ac si 'non vivatur in Regno CAROLINO, sed (quod intimè in votis est scelere, et egestate perditis) in magno quodan Latrocinio.' Præstò tamen est Legio Fulminatrix, nimirum densa Precum et Lachrymarum agmina, quæ contra, nec mare, nec tellus, nec conjuratæ Inferorum portæ attollent cristas. Hæ sunt machina Academicæ, hæc propugnacula, et munimenta Ecclesiæ pro incolumitate Vestrâ. Adest etiam in procinctu tota Stagiritæ cohors, Grex Aristotelicus, qui non solum Intentionali conceptuum obsequio, sed omni Rerum conamine, et totis Prædicamentorum Classibus Tuam colit Majestatem Nec immeritò : Quicquid enim Tibi evenit, nostrum est, participamus dolores æquè ac gaudia. Si magno conatui alma, pax arriserit, agimus triumphum ; sin inauspicatiùs (quòd absit) succedant omnia, res ad manticam venit, actum est de doctrinæ incrementis, et universo Musarum populo. Quocirca cum prelii nuperrimi constans fama increbuisset in quo satis patuit quantam animi celsitatem gereret pectus vestrum mansuetum, et generosum) contrahebantur animi in singultus, et suspiria, peç quidquam nobis sincerum, et firmum supererat præter Votum. Totos artus invasit tremor, ne spectatissimam Personam vestram, ardenteni, et alacrem in arenă consistentem, Alterum latus Principe CAROLO stipante, Alterum Duce Eboracensi, nequissimus quispiam Insidiator in extremum induceret discrimen. Nunc auten, Majestate Vestra salvà visa, in liberiores expatiamur gratulationes : quippe quò magis solliciti fuimus ex tuo periculo, eò fusiùs lætamur tuâ salute, et sic ipso fruimur mcrore. Quàin suspicimus affectûs Vestri fidem! Quàm agnoscimus indefessam indulgentiæ pertinaciam ! Satis mirari non possumus favoris vestri statas vices. Alii eâdem aurà, quà spem erigunt, destruuut; Tu is es, qui, quod dicis, statuis, et superni Moderatoris exemplo, atque auxilio, dicendo facis. Officiosi istius gaudii pensum imperavit mihi communis Salutantium turba, quâ distenta fervent atria : aliquam etiam religiosæ mentis victimam immolare jussit privatæ observantiæ conscientia. Siquidem in isto rerum turbine placuit Candori Vestro me perturbatum, et in latibulis abditum extrahere in lucem et solem spectandæ vestræ Clientela. Expansâ tituli dignitate, indies crescentia procudam officia, et nostrum perenne obsequium, nec moram agnoscet, nec terminum. Non est instituti nostri orationis cursun! productiori filo extendere. Brevitas semper grata, in hisce difficultatibus necessaria : supersedebo itaque Rhe. toricari, et quod nostri muneris est, Oratoris sancti partes agam.

Crescat Imperii Vestri Majestas, augeatur magnifica Regiæ stirpis gloria, secundo semper veharis flatu ; Agri, Urbes, singulæ ditionis Vestre ore, ac anguli deponant simultates, et in veterem coëant rever rentiam: Germinent fides altis radicibus, existimatio foris, Pax Reipublicæ, et opulenta serenitas coalescant, ac, ut verbo complectar omnia,

Serus in Cælum redeas, diuque

Lætus intersis populo Britanno.
Sic Acad. Oxon. nomine peroravit RICHARDUS GARDINER,

Ex de Christi.

BIBLICAL CRITICISM.

The idea which J. H. M. S. suggested in his note, in No. XIII. with respect to that Crux Criticorum, Gen. xxxvi. 24., has occu. pied a great portion of the little leisure which I have ; and if you think the following remarks, borrowed and original, upon D'a worthy of insertion, they are at your service.

J. M. J. H.M.S. says, “ Cannot this word be supposed to be the same with that in Deut. ii. 10. and 11.?” This query, which he does not support by any argument, but which is in direct opposition to the doctrine laid down by M. S. M. induced me to have recourse to Poole, to see if there existed any grounds for such a supposition. I thought, from the slight notice which M. S. M. has taken of this prince of commentators, that his judgment would be in favor of the interpretation of this word, by our word mules, and turned to him more with the idea of seeing whether any one had attempted to defend the rendering of it by Emim, or Giants, than with any hopes of finding him of that way of thinking ; but judge my surprise, when I found him clearly and positively declaring, that his opinion exactly coincided with that of J. H. M. S. I believe that

any
other
person

would have drawn the deduction that I did from M.S. M.'s mention of the « learned Poole,” (see Classical Journal, Vol. vi. p. 39.); but the judgment of that Colossus of Biblical Criticism shall be given in his own words; and in giving them, I shall make no apology for transcribing the whole of the passage, as far as relates to the question, whether D'hy should be rendered mules or giants, lest I should be considered guilty of the faults which I reprobate in M. S. M.

After stating, and disproving in the clearest manner, the renderings seas, water, and warm waters, and observing, fourthly, that others express the Hebrew word by the corresponding Greek

fetters, and thus form it into 'Iapely, (possibly for the reason given by M. S. M. in his note,) he proceeds thus: “5. Alii mulos vertunt; ita Hebræi in Paul. Fagium, Kimhi in Munster :Abenmel. in Drusium : ita Targum Jon. et Bereshith Rabba 5. 8. et Rabbini Juda et Jarchi, et Pomar. Aquin. omnesque Hebræi recentiores, et Persa et Arabica Vers. et omnes ferè interpretes et lexicographi : Bocharti Hieroz. 1. 2. 21. 239. Ita Munsterus, Fagius, Vatablus, Grotius, Pagninus, Oleaster, Tigurinus, Junius et Tremellius, Ainsworthus et Piscator.” A host of names, which to oppose seems rashness. Junius, Piscator, and the Versio Belgica, add as an explanation to the phrase mulos invenit, i. e. Artem excogitavit, quâ ex admissurâ equi et asinæ muli procrearentur” -. Probatur ex eo,” says one annotator, “ quod invenisse dicitur, &c. cum pasceret asinos.”

These form the whole of the authorities for the opinion, that by the word day we are to understand mules.

The arguments against these shall now be adduced :-and to begin with the slight remark made at the end of them: “Non placet (sc. hæcce probatio) aliis-Boufrerius dicit, quasi verò quicquid homo reperit inter pascendum asinos, id omne ad asinos debeat pertinere-Et Bochartus scribit, non ex solis asinis procreantur muli; equorum autem nulla hic mentio.” But the great assertion which I make is, that og cannot signify mules. This, I think, will appear from the three following arguments : the first of which only, though he must have been aware of the existence of them all, M. S. M. attempts to controvert. De cannot signify mules, « Sic probatur: lmo. quia illa vox nusquam mulos significat, (quod docent Bochartus et alii); muli autem D'779 dicuntur Hoc omnibus notissimum est. 2ndo. Non diceretur invenisse mulos Ana, quia xxa, licet in S. S. exstet locis plus 400, nusquam significat excogitare quod non est, sed reperire rem jan exstantem. 3tio. Probabile est mulorum usum in illis locis non fuisse tam vetustum: nam in armentis et gregibus Abrahami, Isaaci, et Jacobi, et aliorum (Num. xxxi. Jos. vi. Jud. vi. 1 Sam. xv. &c.) censentur, cameli, equi, &c. at muli nusquam--nec ante Davidis tempora, ut docet Bochartus, leguntur mulis usi."

These three arguments are, I think, sufficient to show, that dybe cannot be rendered mules, even though so great a host of commentators propose or defend such an interpretation. I now

1

Instead of reading “ita ó Ag. Sym. et Th. in Boch. Hier. 242. 30.” as in M. S.M's. Ietter, read “ita ó Aq. Sym. et Th. in Boch. Hier. 1. 2. 21. 242.30.á is used to express the Septuagint version.

מים quod tamen Fagius trahit ad mulos , qui) ,גבריא vertit

,אֲמִים scribunt , vel אֵימים rum 1nomen Hebraei vel cum Jod

proceed, in the words of Poole, to lay down some reasons why we should render it Emim or Giants. His words are “ Onkelos

), (, dicuntur, vel ab Orx robore, (quòd onera gravia ferunt,) vel ab

a terrore) vid. Fag. Transl: præcip. V. T. coll. Sed Chaldæam vocem, ut bene monet Rivetus, ubique pro gigantibus usurpat. Bochartus ipse vertit gigantes ; et eodem recidit, quod Samaritanà versio reddit, Emæos, quia hi inter gigantes erant, Deut. ii, 10, 11. Illis itaque Jemim iidem sunt qui Emim, quo

nomen , , sine Jod. Prius si sequamur, dicendum, in die excidisse si cujus excisionis permulta dentur exempla; “et, ut idem est Aram, Matth. i. 3., qui Ram, Ruth iv. 19. ; idem locus D'ATD=X, 1 Sam. xvii. 1. et 09109, 1 Par. xi. 13. ; iidem populi Aramim et Ramim, 2 Par. xxii. 5. ita Emæi, vel cum X, DONT, vel sine X, 0999, dici potuisse constat.

At si sequamur posterius, diz erit pro d'ag, · et x permutatis.” Cujus mutationis exempla perscribere inutile foret. « Adde quòd D'P'XT hodie legitur in Hebræo exemplari qui Parisiis editus est charactere Samaritano."

These arguments seem to me to have great weight: if they can be confuted, I shall be happy to see M. S. M. reply to them; for though they express my ideas on the subject, and are therefore pleasing to me, still “magis amica veritas.

But to proceed with Poole_“Si sic igitur intelligas," says he, « loci, alioqui obscuri et intricati, sensus apertus erit et percommodus. Hos Emæos invenisse dicitur Ana, phrasi Hebraïca: hoc est, vel in eos incidit, vel etiam irruit in illos ex improviso. Ita verbum inveniendi sumitur Jud. i. 5., 1 Sam. xxxi. 3., et multis aliis locis. Aut igitur paratas insidias virtute suâ elusit, aut magnâ clade eos affecit. Et hoc eò fit verisimilius, quod Emæi Horis vicini erant (ut constat ex Gen. xiv. 5, 6., et præcipuè ex Deut. ii. 9, 10, 11, 12.) ut nihil tam proclive fuit, quàm hos illorum, aut illos horum fines invadere.”

M.S.M. will perceive that these arguments are borrowed, but surely he cannot object to my stating the whole of the arguments on both sides, as given by such a writer as Poole, when he himself selects, and for the sake of appearance affixes, Poole's name to such part of his

commentary upon this passage as may suit his own opinion. The extract, too, is made so unfairly, that it reminds us of the quotation from the Psalms, “ There is no God ;" for the

part which M. S.M. has brought forward as having received the approbation of Poole, is the very part which that candid com

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