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leading principles wliich run and Germany. They took through her productions are their denomination from the as follow :- That man is per- words of Paul, (Rom. vii. fectly free to resist or receive 2.–14.) and maintained that' divine grace.

That God is the true children of God were ever unchangeable love to- invested with the privilege of wards all his creatures, and a full and perfect freedom from does not inflict any arbitrary the jurisdiction of the law. punishment; but that the evils They were called by the Gerthey suffer are the natural mans and Flemish, Beghards consequences of sin. That and Beguttes, which was true religion consists not in name given to those who any outward forms of worship, make an extraordinary pronor systems of faith ; but in fession of piety and devotion. an entire resignation of the The sentiments taught by will to God.* See Mystics. this denomination were as fol

This lady was educated in low :—That all things flowed the Roman Catholic religion; by emanation from God, and but she declaimed equally were finally to return to their against the corruptions of the divine source. That rational church of Rome and those of souls were so many portions the reformed churches : hence of the supreme Deity ; and she was opposed and perse that the universe, considered cuted by both catholics and as one great whole, was God. protestants. She maintaiued That every man, by the power that there ought to be a gene- of contemplation, and by call-ral toleration of all religions. ing off' his mind from sensible

Those who are desirous of and terrestrial objects, might seeing a particular account of be united to the Deity in an the life and writings of this ineffable manner, and become lady, may consult an abridy- one with the Source and Pament of the “ Light of the rent of all things : and that World," published in seven- they who by long and assiteen hundred and eighty-six, duous meditation, had plungby the New Jerusalem church. ed themselves, as it were, into

BRETHREN AND SIS- an abyss of the divinity, acTERS OF THE FREE SPI. quired thereby a most glorious RIT. They, in the thirteenth and sublime liberty; and were century, gained ground im- not only delivered from the perceptibly in Italy, France, violence of sinful lusts, but * Dufresnoy's Chronological Tables, vol. ii. p. 233. Mosheim, vol.v. p. 64.

Light of the World, p. 27--450. Mrs. Bourignon's Letters.

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even from the common in BROWNISTS, the name stincts of nature.

given for some time to those From these, and such like' who were afterwards known doctrines, the brethren under in England and Holland under consideration drew this con- the denomination of Indepenclusion: That the person who dents. It arose from a Mr. Rohad ascended to God in this bert Brown, whose parents remanner, and was absorbed by sided in Rutlandshire, though contemplation in the abyss of he is said to have been born Deity, became thus a part at Northampton; and who of the Godhead-commenced from about fifteen hundred God—was the Son of God in and seventy-one to fifteen hunthe same sense and manner dred and ninety, was a teacher that Christ was; and was amongst them in England, and thereby raised to a glorious at Middleburgh, in Zealand. independence, and freed from He was a man of family, of the obligation of all laws, zeal, of some abilities, and human and divine..

had had a university educaIn consequence of this, they tion. The separation, howtreated with contempt the or- ever, does not appear to have dinances of the gospel, and originated in him: for by se- ' every external act of religious veral publications of those worship; looking upon prayer, times, it is clear that these fasting, baptism, and the sa- sentiments had, before his day, crament of the Lord's supper, been embraced, and professed as the first elements of piety, in England, and churches gaadapted to the capacity of thered on the plan of them.T children, and as of no sort of Nor did they call themselves use to the perfect man, whom Brownists ; but considered it long meditation had raised rather as a nick-name, given above all external things, and them by their adversaries. carried into the bosom and Nor did Brown continue with essence of the Deity. them; but, after all that he

They rejected with horror had preached and written every kind of industry and against the church, accepted labour, as an obstacle to di- a living in it, at Achurch, in vine contemplation, and to Northamptonshire. the ascent of the soul towards This denomination did not the Father of spirits.* , differ in point of doctrine from

* Mosheim, vol. iii. p. 122--124. + Examination of Barrow, Canne's Necessity of Separation, p. 153. Giffard's Plain Declaration, pp. 1, 2, Also Neal's Puritans, p. 428,


the church of England, or ing of repentance from dead from the other puritans ; but works, and faith in Christ; they apprehended that, ac- that the people, as the Lord cording to scripture, every gave grace, being first fitted church ought to be confined for, and made capable of ordiwithin the limits of a single nances, might afterwards have congregation, and have the communicated in the pure use compleat power of jurisdic- of them. Others, endeavourtion over its members, to be ing yet a farther reformation, exercised by the elders within have sued, and do sue to kings, itself, without being subject queens, and parliaments, for to the authority of bishops, the rooting out of prelacy, synods, presbyteries, or any and 'such evils as grow from ecclesiastical assembly, com- it; which, if obtained, would posed of the deputies from be the further profanation of different churches.

God's ordinances. Is it not Under this name, though strange that men in the rethey always disowned it, were : forming of the church should ranked the learned Henry forget the church, that is, the Ainsworth, author of the An- people ; and labour to set notations on the Pentateuch, Christ as a king over those to &c.; the famous John Robin- whom he hath not been a proson, a part of whose congre- phet? Men cannot submit to gation from Leyden, in Hol- the discipline of Christ, who land, made the first permanent have not first been prepared in settlement in North America; some measure by his doctrine, and the laborious Canne, the and taught with meekness to author of the Marginal Refe- submit to his yoke.”* rences to the Bible.

It has been observed by a " Much is said (say they) late advocate of this denomi. of the reformation of the nation, and who has corrected church. There has been in- many errors of former histodeed great reformation of the rians, “Our children at school things in the church ; but very are taught to read as their litile of the church, to speak lesson the account of the protruly and properly. The peo- testant sufferings, during the ple are the church; and to persecutions of Mary, of Garmake a reformed church, diner, and of Bonner; and there must first be a reformed thus from their infancy they people. This should have been imbibe a just abhorrence of endeavoured by the preach- their characters, and their

• J. Robinson's Justification of Separation, pp. 300, 301,

cause : but not all their fathers was, upon the whole, to say know that during the reign of the least, a doubtful characthe boasted Elizabeth, and by ter, it is highly probable that the direction of her reformed many things which his adverbishops, these loyal subjects saries allege of the extreme of her civil government were rigidness and bitterness of his not only branded with infamy, party, were true of him and the fate to which zealous and his followers, and which might consistent christians have in in part provoke the persecuevery age been subjected by tions which befel them. But the world, in a greater or less this does not appear to be the degree, but spoiled of their case with Ainsworth, Robingoods, committed close pri- son, Canne, &c.: and it is obsoners for years to dungeons, servable that the hottest perwithout being brought to trial; secution against the Brownists in which many of them pe- was after Brown had deserted rished by cold, hunger, and them. See Independents. contagion;* banished their native country, and abandon BUDNEIANS, a branch ed in a foreign land to obloquy of the Socinians, which apand want;t forced to prefer peared in the year fifteen hunexile in the American wilder- dred and eighty-nine; so callness, where, during the first ed from Simon Budnæus, who winter of their emigration, one maintained that Christ was half of them perished by fa- not begotten by any extraormine and disease; and finally, dinary act of divine power; the firmest and most distin- but that he was born like guished of them executed on other men in a natural way, gibbets, merely for the faith and that consequently he was once delivered to the saints.”|| not a proper object of divine

As Brown appears to have worship and adoration. I See been of a violent spirit, and Socinians.

* Strype's Annals, vol. ult. Epist. Viror. Proestant. &c. Bachus's Hist. of New England, vol. I. p. 40. Viz. Copping, Thacker, Greenwood, Barrow, Penry, and Dennis. || Some account of Mr. Henry Ainsworth, prefixed to a new edition of his two Treatises, printed at Edinburgh, 1789, p. 10. Mosheim, vol. iv. p. 199.


YAINIANS, a denomina- lixtins was also a name given'

tion which sprang up to those among the Lutherans about the year one hundred who followed the opinions of and thirty, so called on ac- George Calixtus, a celebrated count of their great respect divine in the seventeenth cenfor Cain. They pretended that tury, who endeavoured to the virtue 'which had produc- unite the. Romish, Lutheran, ed Abel, was of an order in- and Calvinistic churches in ferior to that which had pro- the bonds of charity and muduced Cain; and that this was tual benevolence. He mainthe reason why Cain had the tained, (1.) That the fundavictory over Abel, and killed mental doctrines of christiahim : for they admitted a great nity, by which he meant those number of genii, which they elementary principles whence called virtues, of different all its truths flow, were preranks and orders. They had served pure in all three coma great veneration for the in- munions, and were contained habitants of Sodom, Esau, in that ancient form of docCorah, Dathan, and Abiram ; trine that is vulgarly known and in particular for Judas, by thie name of the apostles’ under pretence that the death creed :-(2.) That the tenets of Jesus Christ had 'saved and opinions which had been mankind, and that he betray- constantly received by the ed him for that end. They ancient doctors during the even made use of a gospel of first five centuries, were to be Judas, to which they paid considered as of equal truth great respect.

and authority with the express The morals of this denomi- declarations and doctrines of nation were 'said to be the scripture." same with those of the Car CALVINISTS. [They depocratians.* See Carpocra- rive their name from John tians.

Calvin, an eminent reformer, CALIXTINS, a branch of who was born at Nogen, in the Hussites, in Bohemia and Picardy, in the year fifteen Moravia, in the fifteenth cen- hundred and nine. He first tury. The principal point in studied the civil law, and was which they differed from the afterwards made professor of church of Rome, was the use divinity at Geneva, in the of the chalice, (calix) or com- year fifteen hundred and thirmunicating in both kinds. Ca- ty-six. His genius, learning, * Historical Dictionary, vol. i. (See Cainians.) Broughton, vol. i. p. 190.

† Broughton, vol, i. p. 192. Plosheim, vol. iv. p. 150, 451,

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