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reason, improves the beautiful part of our species in every thing that is laudable ; so nothing is more destructive to them, when it is governed by vanity and folly." --Addison, ibid.
Here the whole Sentence is divided into two parts by the Semicolon; each of which parts is a Compounded Member, divided into its Simple Members by the Comma.
A Member of a Sentence, whether Simple or Compounded, which of itself would make a complete Sentence, and so requires a greater pause than a Semicolon, yet is followed by an additional part making a more full and perfect Sense, may be distinguished by a Colon.
EXAMPLE: “ Were all books reduced to their quintessence, many a bulky author would make his appearance in a per paper : there would be scarce any such thing in nature as 'a folio: the works of an age would be contained on a few shelves : not to mention millions of volumes, that would be utterly annihilated."— Addison, Spect. No. 124.
Here the whole Sentence is divided into four parts by Colons: the first and last of which are Compounded Members, each divided by a Comma; the second and third are Simple Members.
When a Semicolon has preceded, and a greater pause is still necessary; a Colon may be employed, though the Sentence be incomplete.
The Colon is also commonly used, when an Example, or a Speech, is introduced.
When a Sentence is so far perfectly finished, as not to be connected in construction with the following Sentence, it is marked with a Period.
In all cases, the proportion of the several Points in respect to one another is rather to be regarded, than their supposed precise quantity, or proper office, when taken separately.
Is this the confidence you gave me?
Shall be unsaid for me.-Milton. Syllogism is made use of to discover a fallacy cunningly wrapt up in a smooth period.-Locke.
For the assistance of memories, the first word of every period in every page may be written in distinct colours.--Watts.
Colon, n. s. A point (:) used to mark a pause greater than that of a comma, and less than that of a period. Its use is not very exactly fixed; nor is it very necessary, being confounded by most with the semicolon. It was used, before punctuation was refined, to mark almost any sense less than a period. To apply it properly, we should place it, perhaps, only where the sense is continued without dependence of grammar or construction ; as,
I love him, I despise him: I have long ceased to trust, but shall never forbear to succour him.
SEMICOLON, n. s. Half a colon; a point made thus (;) to note a greater pause than that of a comma.
Comma, n. s. The point which notes the distinction of clauses and order of construction in the sentence: marked thus (,)
Commas and points they set exactly right.—Pope. Parenthesis, n. s. A sentence so included in another sentence, as that it may be taken out, without injuring the sense of that which encloses it, being commonly marked thus, ()
In vain is my person excepted by a parenthesis of words, when so many are armed against me with swords.-King Charles.
In his Indian relations, are contained strange and incredible accounts; he is seldom mentioned without a derogatory parenthesis, in any author. --Brown.
Thou shalt be seen,
Don't suffer every occasional thought to carry you away into a long parenthesis, and thus stretch out your discourse, and divert you from the point in hand.-Watt's Logick.
INTERROGATION, n. s. [interrogation, Fr. interrogatio, Lat.)
1. The act of questioning.
Does Job serve God for nought?
INTERROGATIVE, n. . A pronoun used in asking quest
Who? What? Which? Whether? INTERJECTION, n. s. [interjection, Fr. interjectio, Lat.] A part of speech that discovers the mind to be seized or affected with some passion: such as are in English,
O! Alas! Ah Clarke's Latin Grammar. Their wild natural notes, when they would express their passions, are at the best but like natural interjections, to discover their passions or impressions.—Hales' Origin of Mankind.
To BREAK, v. a. pret. I broke or brake; part. pass. broke, or broken, [Saxon.] To stop; to make cease.
Break their talk, mistress Quickly; my kinsman shall speak for himself.-Shakspeare.
Break, n. s. [from the verb.]
All modern trash is
to note a pause, or omission.
could not find it there;-Dr. Dibdin kindly answered a letter to me on the subject :-upon consideration I come to the conclusion that Johnson is not of sufficient authority to attribute the work to Wynkyn de Worde, and that some error may have crept into his statement. Dr. Dibdin
“ in the absence of the book it is impossible to pronounce an accurate opinion upon the type. Wynkyn de Worde is not unlikely to have been the printer, as he printed a great many grammatical works, and Jodocus Badius Ascensius, the director of the Lyons press, was among the most celebrated Grammarians and Editors of ancient classics of the day.” Without passing an opinion on the subject, I will give what Johnson says upon the subject, and the extract itself, verbatim, leaving every reader to form his own opinion on the matter. “ASCENSIUS DECLYNSONS WITH PLAYNE EXPOSITOR.
Without date, place, or printer's name. Quarto. "The above is a head Title, which occurs on sign. A; but the work is without Title-page, Date, Printer's name, or Device; and it is ascribed to Wynkyn de Worde from a peculiar type which is found in the Ortus Vocabularum, by the same Printer. It extends to pin sixes; after which are an Epilogue, and “address to the young learners to consider diligently the rules of pointing,” &c. The following is an amusing extract containing the ancient method of Punctuation :
“ OF THE CRAFT OF POYNTING. “ Therbe fiue maner pontys, and diuisions most vside with cunnyng men: the which, if they be wel vsid, make the sentens very light, and esy to vnderstond both to the reder, & the herer, & they be these : virgil, come, parenthesis, playnt poynt, and interrogatif
. A virgil is a sclender stryke: lenynge forwarde thiswyse, be tokynynge a lytyl, short rest without any perfetnes yet of sentens: as betwene the fiue poyntis a fore rehersid. A come is with tway titils thiswyse: betokynyng a lenger rest: and the sentens yet ether is vnperfet : or els, if it be perfet: ther cummith more after, longyng to it: the which more comynly can not be perfect by itself without at the lest summat of it: that gothe a fore. A parenthesis is with tway crokyd virgils: as an olde mone,
& a neu bely to bely: the whiche be set theton afore the begynyng, and thetother after the latyr ende of a clause: comyng within another clause: that may be perfet: thof the clause, so comyng betwene : wer awey and therfore it is sowndyne comynly a note lower, than the vtter clause. yf the sentens cannot be perfet without the ynner clause, then stede of the first crokyde virgil a streght virgil wol do very wel: and stede of the later must nedis be a come. A playne poynt is with won tittll thiswyse, & it cumeth after the ende of al the whole sentens betokinyng a longe rest. An interrogatif is with tway titils; the vpper rysyng this wyse ? & it cumeth after the ende of a whole reason: wheryn ther is sum question axside. the whiche ende of the reson, triying as it were for an answare: risyth vpwarde. we haue made these rulis in englisshe: by cause they be as profitable, and necessary to be kepte in euery mother tunge, as in latin. Sethyn we (as we wolde to god : euery precher wolde do) haue kepte owre rulis bothe in owre englisshe, and latyn: what nede we, sethyn owre own be sufficient vnogh: to put any other exemplis."
A judicious friend, who has perused my proof sheets, suggests that the examples in the body of the work, are not sufficiently numerous: to remedy this defect, extracts, from different authors, are copied to a letter and to a point, and in juxtaposition the same extracts are placed, pointed in accordance with the principles contended for.
Before the work of an author is quoted as an authority for pointing, we ought to know that he attended to the pointing of some one edition of that work, and that that edition has been followed in the one we make use of: the names of the authors of the following quotations, are only added to shew that the extracts have been collected from many different quarters :