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having obtained the victory, and release the pris- at the occurrence, and in a letter to Colbert, one oners they have taken in battle.

of the Ministers of Louis the Fourteenth, speaks “ Our Outouacs of the Point of the Holy Ghost in condemnation of this discharge of a cannon by [La Pointe, now Bayfield] had to the present time a Brother attached to the Jesuit Mission. kept up a kind of peace with them, but affairs From this period, the missions of the Church of having become embroiled during last winter, and Rome, near Lake Superior, began to wane. Shea, some murders having been committed on both a devout historian of that church, writes: “In sides, our savages had reason to apprehend that 1680, Father Enjalran was apparently alone at the storm would soon burst upon them, and judged Green Bay, and Pierson at Mackinaw; the latter that it was safer for them to leave the place, which mission still comprising the two villages, Huron in fact they did in the spring."

and Kiskakon. Of the other missions, neither Marquette, on the 13th of September, 1669, Le Clerq nor Hennepin, the Recollect, writers of writes : “ The Nadouessi are the Iroquois of this the West at this time, makes any mention, or in country. * * * they lie northwest of the Mission any way alludes to their existence, and La Honof the Holy Ghost [La Pointe, the modern Bay- | tan mentions the Jesuit missions only to ridicule field] and we have not yet visited them, having them." confined ourselves to the conversion of the Otta- The Pigeon River, a part of the northern bounwas."

dary of Minnesota, was called on the French maps Soon after this, hostilities began between the Grosellier's River, after the first explorer of MinSioux and the Hurons and Ottawas of La Pointe, nesota, whose career, with his associate Radisson, and the former compelled their foes to seek an- became quite prominent in connection with the other resting place, toward the eastern extremity Hudson Bay region. of Lake Superior, and at length they pitched A disagreement occurring between Groselliers their tents at Mackinaw.

and his partners in Quebec, he proceeded to Paris, In 1674, some Sioux warriors came down to and from thence to London, where he was introSault Saint Marie, to make a treaty of peace with duced to the nephew of Charles I., who led the adjacent tribes. A friend of the Abbe de Galli- cavalry charge against Fairfax and Cromwell at nee wrote that a council was had at the fort to Naseby, afterwards commander of the English which “the Nadouessioux sent twelve deputies, fleet. The Prince listened with pleasure to the and the others forty. During the conference, narrative of travel, and endorsed the plans for one of the latter, knife in hand, drew near the prosecuting the fur trade and seeking a northbreast of one of the Nadouessioux, who showed west passage to Asia. The scientific men of Engsurprise at the movement; when the Indian with land were also full of the enterprise, in the hope the knife reproached him for cowardice. The that it would increase a knowledge of nature. Nadouessioux said he was not afraid, when the The Secretary of the Royal Society wrote to Robother planted the knife in his heart, and killed ert Boyle, the distinguished philosopher, a too him. All the savages then engaged in conflict, sanguine letter. His words were: Surely I need and the Nadouessioux bravely defended them- not tell you from hence what is said here, with selves, but, overwhelmed by numbers, nine of great joy, of the discovery of a northwest passage; them were killed. The two who survived rushed and by two Englishmen and one Frenchman into the chapel, and closed the door. Here they represented to his Majesty at Oxford, and anfound munitions of war, and fired guns at their swered by the grant of a vessel to sail into Hudenemies, who became anxious to burn down the son's Bay and channel into the South Sea." chapel, but the Jesuits would not permit it, be- The ship Nonsuch was fitted out, in charge of cause they had their skins stored between its roof Captain Zachary Gillam, a son of one of the eariy and ceiling. In this extremity, a Jesuit, Louis settlers of Boston; and in this vessel Groselliers Le Boeme, advised that a cannon should be point- and Radisson left the Thames, in June, 1668, and ed at the door, which was discharged, and the two in September reached a tributary of Hudson's brave Sioux were killed.”

Bay. The next year, by way of Boston, they reGovernor Frontenac of Canada, was indignant turned to England, and in 1670, a trading com

pany was chartered, still known among venerable English corporations as “ The Hudson's Bay Company."

The Reverend Mother of the Incarnation, Superior of the Ursulines of Quebec, in a letter of the 27th of August, 1670, writes thus :

" It was about this time that a Frenchman of our Touraine, named des Groselliers, married in this country, and as he had not been successful in making a fortune, was seized with a fancy to

He has taken possession of this great region for the King of England, and for his personal benefit A publication for the benefit of this French adventurer, has been made in England. He was a youth when he arrived here, and his wife and children are yet here.”

Talon, Intendent of Justice in Canada, in a dispatch to Colbert, Minister of the Colonial Department of France, wrote on the 10th of November, 1670, that he has received intelligence that two

go to New England to better his condition. Ile English vessels are approaching Hudson's Bay,

excited a hope among the English that he had found a passage to the Sea of the North. With this expectation, he was sent as an envoy to England. where there was given to him, a vessel, with crew and every thing necessary for the voyage. With these advantages, he put to sea, and in place of the usual route, which others had taken in vain, he sailed in another direction, and searched so wide, that he found the grand Bay of the North. He found large population, and filled his ship or ships with peltries of great value. * * *

and adds : “ After reflecting on all the nations that might have penetrated as far north as that, I can alight on only the English, who, under the guidance of a man named Des Grozellers, formerly an inhabitant of Canada, might possibly have attempted that navigation." After

years of service on the shores of Hudson's Bay, either with English or French trading companies, the old explorer died in Canada, and it has been said that his son went to England, where he was living in 1696, in receipt of a pension.

CHAPTER II.

EARLY MENTION OF LAKE SUPERIOR COPPER.

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Sagard, A D. 1636, on Copper Minek.-Boucher, A. D. 1640, Describes Lako Supe “But farther towards the west on the same
rior Copper. - Jesut Relations, A. D. 1666-67.-Copper on Isle Royals. - Ilall-
Breed Voyageur Goes to France with Talon.-Jolliet and Perrot Search for north shore, is the island most famous for copper,
Copper.--St. Lusson Plants the French Arms at Sault St. Marie.-Copper at

Minong (Isle Royale). This island is twenty-five Ontanagon and Head of Lake Superior,

leagues in length; it is seven from the mainland, Before white men had explored the shores of and sixty from the head of the lake. Nearly all Lake Superior, Indians had brought to the tra- around the island, on the water's edge, pieces of ding posts of the St. Lawrence River, specimens of copper are found mixed with pebbles, but especopper from that region. Sagard, in his History cially on the side which is opposite the south, of Canada, published in 1636, at Paris, writes : and principally in a certain bay, which is near "There are mines of copper which might be made the northeast exposure to the great lake. * profitable, if th were inhabitants and work- “Advancing to the head of the lake (Fon du men who would labor faithfully. That would be Lac) and returning one day's journey by the south done if colonies were established. About eighty coast, there is seen on the edge of the water, a or one hundred leagues from the lIurons, there rock of copper weighing seven or eight hundred is a mine of copper, from which Truchemont pounds, and is so hard that steel can hardly cut it, Brusle showed me an ingot, on his return from a but when it is heated it cuts as easily as lead. voyage which he made to the neighboring nation." Near Point Chagouamigong (Sha - gah - wah- mik

Pierre Boucher, grandfather of Sieur de la Ve- ong, near Bayfield] where a mission was establishrendrye, the explorer of the lakes of the northern ed rocks of copper and plates of the same metal boundary of Minnesota, in a volume published were found. *** Returning still toward the A. D. 1640, also at Paris, writes : “In Lake Su- mouth of the lake, following the coast on the south perior there is a great island, lifly or one hundred as twenty leagues from the place last mentioned, leagues in circumference, in which there is a very we enter the river called Nantaouagan (Ontonabeautiful mine of copper. There are other places gon] on which is a hill where stones and copper in those quarters, where there are similar mines; fall into the water or upon the earth. They are so I learned from four or five Frenchmen, who readily found. lately returned. They were gone three years, “Three years since we received a piece which without finding an opportunity to return; they was brought from this place, which weighed a told me that they had seen an ingot of copper all hundred pounds, and we sent it to Quebec to Mr. refined which was on the coast, and weighed more Talon. It is not certain exactly where this was than eight hundred pounds, according to their es- broken from. We think it was from the forks of timate. They said that the savages, on passing the river; others, that it was from near the lake, it, made a fire on it, after which they cut off pie- and dug up.' ces with their axes.”

Talon, Intendent of Justice in Canada, visited In the Jesuit Relations of 1666-67, there is this France, taking a half-breed voyageur with him, description of Isle Royale: “ Advancing to a and while in Paris, wrote on the 26th of Februplace called the Grand Anse, we meet with an ary, 1669, to Colbert, the Minister of the Marine island, three leagues from land, which is cele- Department, “ that this voyageur had penetrated brated for the metal which is found there, and among the western nations farther than any other for the thunder which takes place there; for they Frenchman, and had seen the copper mine on say it always thunders there.

Lake Huron. (Superior?] The man offers to go

to that mine, and explore, either by sea, or by between two high hills, the plain above which lake and river, the communication supposed to feeds the lakes, and receives a great deal of snow, exist between Canada and the South Sea, or to which, in melting, forms torrents which wash the the regions of Hudson's Bay.”

borders of this river, composed of solid gravel, As soon as Talon returned to Canada he com- which is rolled down by it. missioned Jolliet and Pere [Perrot] to search for “The gravel at the bottom of this, hardens itthe mines of copper on the upper Lakes. Jolliet self, and assumes different shapes, such as those received an outfit of four hundred livres, and four pebbles which I send to Mr. Bellinzany. My canoes, and Perrot one thousand livres. Minis- opinion is that these pebbles, rounded and carried ister Colbert wrote from Paris to Talon, in Feb- off by the rapid waters, then have a tendency to ruary, 1671, approving of the search for copper, become copper, by the influence of the sun's rays in these words : “ The resolution you have taken which they absorb, and to form other nuggets of to send Sieur de La Salle toward the south, and metal similar to those which I send to Sieur de Sieur de St. Lusson to the north, to discover the Bellinzany, found by the Sieur de Saint Lus: on, South Sea passage, is very good, but the principal | about four hundred leagues, at some distance from thing you ought to apply yourself in discoveries the mouth of the river. of this nature, is to look for the copper mine. “He hoped by the frequent journeys of the

“ Were this mine discovered, and its utility savages, and French who are beginning to travel evident, it would be an assured means to attract by these routes, to discern the source of producseveral Frenchmen from old, to New France." tion."

On the 14th of June, 1671, Saint Lusson at Sault Governor Denonville, of Canada, sixteen years St. Marie, planted the arms of France, in the pres- after the above circumstances, wrote: “The copence of Nicholas Perrot, who acted as interpreter per, a sample of which I sent M. Arnou, is found on the occasion; the Sieur Jolliet ; Pierre Moreau at the head of Lake Superior. The body of the or Sieur de la Taupine ; a soldier of the garrison mine has not yet been discovered. I have seen of Quebec, and several other Frenchmen.

one of our voyageurs who assures me that, some Talon, in announcing Saint Lusson's explora- fifteen months ago he saw a lump of two hundred tions to Colbert, on the 2d of November, 1671, weight, as yellow as gold, in a river which falls wrote from Quebec : • The copper which I send into Lake Superior. When heated, it could be from Lake Superior and the river Nantaouagan cut with an axe; but the superstitious Indians, [Ontonagon) proves that there is a mine on the regarding this boulder as a good spirit, would border of some stream, which produces this ma- never permit him to take any of it away. His terial as pure as one could wish. More than opinion is that the frost undermined this piece, twenty Frenchmen have seen one lump at the and that the mine is in that river. He has promlake, which they estimate weighs more than eight ised to search for it on his way back.” hundred pounds. The Jesuit Fathers among

the

In the year 1730, there was some correspondOutaouas [Ou-taw-waws] use an anvil of this ma- ence with the authorities in France relative to terial, which wcighs about one hundred pounds. the discovery of copper at La Pointe, but, practiThere will be no rest until the source from whence cally, little was done by the French, in developing these detached lumps come is discovered.

the mineral wealth of Lake Superior. “The river Nantaouagan (Ontonagon] appears

CHAPTER III.

DU LUTH PLANTS THE FRENCH ARMS IN MINNESOTA

Da Lath's Relatives.-- Randin Visits Extremity of Lake Superior. - Du Luth adds that: he “ will not stir from the NadousPlants King's Arms.

Post at Kaministigoga. --Pierre MoreaF, alias La Taupine. -La Salle's Visit.-A Pilot Deserts to the Sioux Country.-uaffart, Du Luth's

sioux, until further orders, and, peace being conInterpreter.--Descent of the River St. Croix.--Meets Father Hennepin.-Crit.

cluded, he will set up the King's Arms; lest the icised by La Salle.-Trades with New England. --Visits France.--In Command at Yackinaw.-Frenchmen Murdered at Keweenaw.--Du Luth Arrests and English and other Europeans settled towards Shoots Murderers.-Builds Fort above Detroit, - With Indian Allies in the Seneca War.--Du Luth's Brother.- Cadillac Defends the Brandy Trade.-- Du

California, take possession of the country.” Lath Disapproves of Selling Brandy to the Indians.--In Command at Fort

On the second of July, 1679, he caused his Frontenac.-- Death.

Majesty's Arms to be planted in the great village In the year 1678, several prominent merchants of the Nadoussioux, called Kathio, where no of Quebec and Montreal, with the support of Frenchman had ever been, and at Songaskicons Governor Frontenac of Canada, formed a com- and Houetbatons, one hundred and twenty leagues pany to open trade with the Sioux of Minnesota, distant from the former, where he also set up the and a nephew of Patron, one of these merchants, •King's Arms. In a letter to Seignalay, published a brother-in-law of Sieur de Lusigny, an officer for the first time by Harrisse, he writes that it of the Governor's Guards, named Daniel Grey- was in the village of Izatys (Issati]. Upon Fransolon Du Luth (Doo-loo), a native of St. Germain quelin's map, the Mississippi branches into the en Laye, a few miles from Paris, although Lahon- Tintonha [Teeton Sioux]country, and not far from tan speaks of him as from Lyons, was made the here, he alleges, was seen a tree upon which was leader of the expedition. At the battle of Seneffe this legend: “ Arms of the King cut on this tree against the Prince of Orange, he was a gendarme, in the year 1679." and one of the King's guards.

He established a post at Kamanistigoya, which Du Luth was also a cousin of Henry Tonty, who was distant fifteen leagues from the Grand Porthad been in the revolution at Naples, to throw off age at the western extremity of Lake Superior; the Spanish dependence. Du Luth's name is va- and here, on the fifteenth of September, he held riously spelled in the documents of his day. Hen- a council with the Assenipoulaks (Assineboines] nepin writes, “Du Luth;” others, “Dulhut," and other tribes, and urged them to be at peace “Du Lhu," “ Du Lut,” “De Luth," “ Du Lud.” with the Sioux. During this summer, he dis

The temptation to procure valuable furs from patched Pierre Moreau, a celebrated voyageur, the Lake Superior region, contrary to the letter nicknamed La Taupine, with letters to Governor of the Canadian law, was very great; and more Frontenac, and valuable furs to the merchants. than one Governor winked at the contraband His arrival at Quebec, created some excitement. trade. Randin, who visited the extremity of It was charged that the Governor corresponded Lake Superior, distributed presents to the Sioux with Du Luth, and that he passed the beaver, and Ottawas in the name of Governor Frontenac, sent by him, in the name of merchants in his into secure the trade, and after his death, Du Luth terest. The Intendant of Justice, Du Chesneau, was sent to complete what he had begun. With à party of twenty, seventeen Frenchmen and of France, that “the man named La Taupine, a three Indians, he left Quebec on the first of famous coureur des bois, who set out in the month September, 1678, and on the fifth of April, 1679, of September of last year, 1678, to go to the OuDu Luth writes to Governor Frontenac, that he tawacs, with goods, and who has always been inis in the woods, about nine miles from Sault St. terested with the Governor, having returned this Marie, at the entrance of Lake Superior, and year, and I, being advised that he had traded in

th wrote to the Minister of the Colonial Department

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