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The moment soon came for him to His wish was satisfied. He disexercise a weighty influence among appeared on the 1st of December the champions of the cause which he 1872; and while the police agents had from conviction embraced, and of the Spanish Government were to which he was devoting his whole confining their vigilance to Bayonne energies. In spite of the occasional and St Jean de Luz, in the neighdispersion of petty bands in divers bourhood of which he was supposed parts, the Convention of Amorovieta, to be, the first news the public which in truth chiefly concerned had of him was, that he was preachBiscay, the discouragement of many ing the “Holy War" in every vilfriends of the cause, and the equivo- lage of Guipuzcoa, levying contrical conduct of the Prince himself, butions, and stopping trains almost for whom they had taken the field, within sight of San Sebastian ; and or more than half ruined themselves the Government found, to their deep and their families by large gifts of mortification, that Serrano's diplomoney-Saballs, with the desperate macy had gone for nothing, and that tenacity characteristic of the Cata- the civil war had broken out with lan, would not admit, however more vigour than ever in the northappearances might be, that the cause west. This last audacious act of was hopeless. It is true that in Santa Cruz was a death-blow to the Biscay and a portion of Guipuzcoa dynasty of Savoy. The excitement and Alava order seemed to be was intense on both sides ; the restored; but Saballs continued Radicals were furious, the hopes of to hold his ground against all the Carlists stronger than ever, and the force the Madrid Government their enthusiasm more ardent. It could send against him. And whilst spread from village to village, and the official journal told, according to the cry “To arms! to arms !” sent its wont, lie after lie-that he was out by Goiriena from Biscay, and driven ignominiously, and with great by Ollo from Navarre, was respondloss, across the frontier—that the ed to from the mountains. It remnant of his band and himself was on this occasion that Santa were, on touching the French soil, Cruz put forth all his powers of disarmed, and arrested by the French persuasion, and all his zeal. He authorities, and sent on as prisoners went from town to town, from valto Perpignan--and that the struggle ley to valley, from house to house, was now really at an end in the exhorting, encouraging, remonstratnorth-east as well as in the Basque ing, and threatening. He harangued provinces, - Saballs was not only congregations in the old Basque holding his own with far inferior tongue, so full of imagery, as they resources, but was actually beating, left the church after mass : be called one after the other, the dunces who upon the young men who could be dared to face him. Santa Cruz, too, spared from the labours of the field, never despaired_indeed, he seemed to defend, with arms in their hands, not to know what despairwas. Even “the cause of God, religion, their in the worst days he had never fal- king, and the ancient indepentered for an instant in his belief of dence of their native province.” final success, and he now saw that He did more than preach. He laid he must rouse once more the old aside the cassock, and put himself as spirit of Guipuzcoa. “Had I but a chief at the head of some 500 men; fifty men,” he wrote to his friends and by him these hasty levies “but fifty resolute fellows to follow were soon made soldiers well fitted me, I should not hesitate to cross for the warfare in which the the frontier, and try the game again." Spaniards of the mountain excel. Not half the number were armed or acquired the power of sleeping equipped when he first mustered standing, his back to a rock, and them. Before long all had excel- his liead and hands resting on a lent muskets, and a plentiful sup- thick knotted stick which he seldom ply of ammunition ; and the uni- lays aside. But even this he does not forms of the mobilised nationals of enjoy until he has made his rounds, France, laid aside after the peace visited his sentries, and sees that with Germany, were bought up by everything is in perfect order for his agents. The compact band was the night, and in security. After organised, armed, and equipped out two or three hours' sleep, he is again of resources raised by Santa Cruz on foot, gives the signal, when every himself in France and Spain. man starts up ready to go whither
The partisans who acknowledged soever their chief orders withthe Guipuzcoan priest as their out asking questions. He is never leader go by the name of the Black tired, and yet no one gets over Legion-Legion negra. It is com- more ground than he, or in less posed of vigorous young men, time. No one can say exactly all natives of the province, many of where he is. He has been known whom have rarely passed the night to spend part of a night in a village in a town. Their absolute devotion
on the extreme frontier, and when to their chief is proved by the his pursuers reach it, knocked up fact that not one was tempted by with fatigue, they learn that he is the reward of 50,000 reals (£500) twenty or thirty miles in the interior. offered for the capture of Santa Every officer sent out after him Cruz, dead or alive ; and 50,000 comes back as he went, after a wildreals are
a fortune to a Basque goose chase for many a league. He peasant. The most complete order seems to know by instinct when and discipline are enforced in his and where an ambuscade is laid ; little army. In the evening, when and not only does he baffle his the day's work is over, the enemy pursuers, but often turns their own distant, the hour for repose at ambuscade against them. hand, and the rations eaten, at Before the guerilla warfare coma given signal those rough men menced, while Santa Cruz was leadassemble round their chief, once ing a quiet life in his parish of more their priest, to hear prayers Hernialde, he was of a slight deliread, in which they all join. Their cate frame, and looked like an inprayer is for “King Charles VII. ; valid. Since then he has grown for Spain, now delivered over to the stout and strong: exercise, constant demon of anarchy ; for those who living in the open air, and ever-rehave died in battle, and for those curring danger, he seems to thrive on. who may yet fall in the cause of the The abstemiousness he had always king. And then, wrapped up in practised he has never departed their mantas, which serve as cloak from. In person he is under the or blanket, they lay themselves down middle stature ; his features dark to sleep, each with his loaded mus- and irregular, and rather commonket by his side, ready to start up place; but his small black eyes, at the slightest notice; while men deep set, glow from out thick eyeare stationed as sentries at regular brows, and indicate the fiery energy intervals, to give warning of ap- that burns within. When he took proaching danger. Of the famous the field as a chief of partisans, he, Curé Merino, it used to be said that as has been observed, quite laid he slept as soundly on horseback as aside the clerical costume; for the in a bed of down. Santa Cruz has long black cassock, the black cloak, and the enormous hat of the Spanish which are the accompaniment of priest, would be inconvenient in civil war everywhere, and particucampaigning, and dangerous. He larly in Spain, it is affirmed that assumed the dress worn by the his private conduct is without peasants—the low vest of strong reproach. There is, however, one brown cloth, the red sash round act of his which many friends of the waist, the loose-fitting breeches the cause he is engaged in have of the mountaineer of Navarre, justly denounced in the strongest reaching to the knee, the legs en- terms — the shooting of a young veloped in black gaiters, and the woman who, he alleges, was caught feet protected by the sandals or conveying despatches from the alpargatas of the country. Before officer commanding the troops, close-shaven, like all Spanish priests was known to be a spy, and who not missionaries, or of the monastic had received a sum of money to orders, he has let his beard and betray him to his enemy, as well as moustache grow, the restless life he the alcalde of a village after the leads compelling him to forego the combat of Aya. This deed proluxury of the razor. He carries in duced such sensation that Santa his belt a pair of loaded revolvers, Cruz addressed the following letand in his hand the thick stick ter to the Carlist paper that pubwhich is as necessary a part of the lished a well-deserved censure on equipment of a Basque peasant as his conduct:the shillelah to an Irishman. His
“ March 13, 1873. head-dress is the boina or flat cloth " In a late number of your jourcap, white in colour, with a blue nal I read a letter from à Guipuztassel in the centre, which, accord- coan correspondent which you seem ing to the fancy of the wearer, may to approve, since you stigmatise my be of woollen, silk, or silver fringe. mode of acting during this rude His body-guard is composed of ten campaign, opened by me in the or twelve stalwart youths from month of December last. You say his native village, who accompany that the Carlists of Guipuzcoa are him in all his expeditions, armed painfully affected by certain barand equipped like himself, and pre- barous acts committed by one of pared to execute any orders he may the chiefs of the party in this progive them. They are true to him vince; alluding, no doubt, to the heart and soul; and it would be a execution of a woman of the high dangerous experiment for any one lands. That chief is the person to tamper with their fidelity, or who writes these lines; and he has to even remotely suggest the ad- a right to ask, who are the men of vantage of betraying him. He the Carlist party? who is the author has unbounded confidence in them. of the letter? who is the writer who They have known each other from composes diatribes by his fireside infancy, and they regard him at the moment when, pursued by not only as their chief and their the enemy's columns through the friend, but, in spite of the irregular snow, I am hunted to the death ? life he leads, as their pastor. His Does your correspondent imagine partisans say that since the time of that, from a caprice of indescribable the Navarrese hero Mina there has barbarity, it is a pleasure to me to been no captain of guerillas who, in take the life of one of God's creaso short a space of time, and with tures ? Do you know why I orsuch small means at his disposal, dered the woman and other guilty has done so much for the national persons to be executed? Is it then cause.
Apart from the excesses so precious, the life of a wretch who, availing herself of her title of we must act with severity, and Carlist, betrays the volunteers of eradicate the evil; but the punishGod and of the king, and carries ment is only inflicted for offences of despatches from the enemy sewn the most heinous character. up in her dress ? Are these Carlists
6 MANUEL SANTA CRUZ." aware how much suffering and peril we endure for the final triumph of our Buffon says, "le style c'est cause? If they know nothing about l'homme,” and the preceding justifiit, let them hold their tongues, cation shows as well as anything else and not sow division amongst the character of the fanatical priest us; let them hold their tongues, —of one cruel indeed, but ready to and not excite the volunteers endure all that he inflicts on others. against the chiefs who hourly ex- Those chiefs of partisans are cerpose their lives for the success of tainly guilty of acts of ferocity, and the cause and the defeat of the it should be borne in mind that Revolution ; let them keep silent, reckless disregard of life is not and leave dishonest manquvres to confined to one party exclusively. those who have not the courage to Both sides have much to answer put their names to what they write. for in this respect. The summary It is not true that our friends in executions by drumhead courtthis province blame me. Those martial, or by no court-martial at friends desire to finish with the an- all, and simply on identification of archists, with the deputies who those who had taken up arms for offer large rewards for our heads, Don Carlos in the seven years' war, with our despots and our tyrants; were commenced by military auand they ought to know that if I thorities commanding, in the name acted as I did, it was because I could of Isabella II., then a child of four not do otherwise. All my young years old, under the regency of her volunteers approve me. Those mother Queen Christina. These brave young men are disposed to executions were indeed fearfully shed the last drop of their blood avenged by Zumalacarreguy, whose by my side ;-on one condition, natural severity kept in submission however
that I relieve them from the troops and the inhabitants of the spies who plot our ruin; the spies the revolted districts ; and increased of the enemy, of whom some are spies to such extent that the English through fear, and others for money : Government had to interfere, and it is the Basques who pay for both. imposed on both parties a convention
“It is said that the Carlist party, by which prisoners belonging to who have nobly carried on the war regular troops on both sides were, up to the present day, despite a in the Basque provinces, allowed thousand calumnies, have a right quarter. It must be said, however, to require that the cause shall not that when the Carlist commander be dishonoured. You know how in proposed to extend the benefits of May last certain volunteers gave up the convention to the districts south thousands of muskets—and this of the Ebro, and, in fact, wherever
one of the most shameful Carlist bands were in arms, General pages of Carlism. We must have Cordova (Luis), then at the head of no second Amorovieta. I am justi- the army of the north, refused to fied by the laws of war in punish- allow it to have effect outside the ing spies, and still more in punish- limits of the Basque provinces and ing those who push their treason Navarre. A Christino General comso far as to surrender their flag. manding a district in Catalonia, shot My volunteers are convinced that the aged mother of Cabrera, and
he, too, terribly retaliated for a crime Queen,' and who transferred their committed precisely on the same services to her uncle. In the preground as those alleged by Santa sent day, the overthrow and expulCruz—espionage, and conveying de- sion of Isabella, after thirty-five spatches to and from the enemy. years of acknowledged sovereignty,
To those who may feel surprised not by Carlists who had accepted the that, after many years' submission to Convention of Bergara, but by men the rule of a constitutional sove- who had never worn any uniform reign, Basques and Navarrese should but hers, who never took oaths butto still befound to combat for thegrand- her, and who paid with base ingratson of the Prince whose cause had itude the favours she had often been virtually lost even before the foolishly lavished upon them, regreat defection of Bergara, we may leased men of honour from the obobserve that the inhabitants of a ligations they had contracted on country like Spain, intersected by that occasion, and till then obchains and groups of mountains, are served. Elio and gentlemen like him the last to accept important changes pledged their allegiance to Isabella in government, allegiance, or religion. of Bourbon, but not to the Duke of The Highlanders of Spain have Aosta, and least of all to the Republic, adhered to the cause of Don Carlos, which, reasonably or otherwise, they as the Highlanders of Scotland ad- abhor. Another powerful cause of hered to that of Charles Stuart, long the spread of Carlism we may discern after their repudiation by the majority as well in the social decomposition of the nation, and as the primitive prevailing in many parts of Spain, as Vendeans behind their woods and in the demoralisation of the army ; marshes clung to the elder branch and for that demoralisation the heads of the Bourbons. The Basques are of the army themselves are mainly rea brave, hardy, obstinate race, sponsible. It took, indeed, many as proved in ancient and modern years of mismanagement to destroy times by their resistance to the the solidity of organisation, and the Roman invaders, to the Moors, and other admirable qualities which disto the French ; and in protracted tinguished the soldiers of Alva and contest, even when there remains Farnese ;-respect for superior rank slight chance of success, they have and merit, submission to discipline, no superiors, perhaps no equals. The and patience in suffering, for which constant practice of smuggling ad- the armies of Spain were in those mirably fits them for guerilla war- days famous. By systematically fare; they come to the fight already fomenting revolts in quarters, giving veterans; and in power of endur- promotion as a premium for mutiny, ance and activity, they are not rewarding superior officers for polisurpassed by any others of their tical services or military treason, class in Europe. One of the prin- the old traditions have been long cipal causes of the success of the since forgotten—and not only forgotCarlists in the first year of the war, ten, but matters have reached that after the death of Ferdinand VII., point at which the Spanish army is was to be found in the numerous now become little more than a lifeless desertions of the troops, and the en- body, which the habit of occasional forced retirement of officers of merit fighting and the presence of insuspected of disaffection to the new surgents can hardly galvanise. Miliorder of things, and in the volun- tary sedition promoted by military tary resignation of others, who would chiefs dates from a period antecenot swear allegiance to the infant dent to the Carlist war. The revolt VOL. CXIV.—NO. DCXCIII.