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pretext the suppression was decreed ; that doom, however, fell upon it February 16, 1538-9, and on December 30 in the same year the king granted a lease for 21 years, at a rental of £23 14s. 2d., of the site and precincts of the late monastery of Canonsleigh, also the tithes of sheaf, and the rectories of Oakford and Burlescombe, to Thomas de Soulemont, of London, and thus the priory and abbey ignominiously finished a life which had then existed 353 years.

The inmates were not, as has been alleged, driven out into the world to beg or starve, but to each was assigned a pension for life, as follows:

£ To Elizabeth Fowell, Abbess . 40 0 0 per annum. Thomesyn Sutton, Prioress

5 0 0 Sabyne Cobilstone

4 0 0 Alice Bonde

4 0 0 Philuppe Fortescue

4 0 0 Helen Ayssheforde

4 0 0 Agnes Percy

4 0 0 Johane Bowyer

4 0 Margaret Sydenham

4 0 0 Elizabeth Chudeley

4 0 Agnes Bratton

4 0 0 Johane Abree

4 0 Elizabeth Carewe .

5 0 Margaret Pollerd.

5 0 Christian Holbene

4 0 0 Agnes Dulond

4 0 0 Mary Pomeroy

4 0 Sibell Fowell

2 0



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0 0 per annum.

The subsequent history of the place is a mere record of spoliation and destruction, which has left only just enough of ruin to keep alive the name of one of Devon's great religious houses.

In 1544 Henry VIII. granted the site to Sir John St. Leger, from whom it passed to the Columbs, who held it till 1658. From the latter it passed to a Mr. Smith, then to Sir William Breton, of London, who sold it in 1765 to Mr. John Browne. The mansion, which some of these purchasers had erected out of the spoils of the abbey, was finally demolished in 1821.

The Essex property was granted to Sir John Rainsforth in 1541; and the manor of Dunsford, with its church and rectory, was conveyed by Henry VIII. to Sir John Fulford and Mr. Henry Colles in 1544.

The following items are of interest as showing some of the sources whence the abbey got its income from endowments, as well as some of its liabilities :

(Abstract from Rentals of St. Nicholas Priory, Exeter ; anno regni

Edwardi IV. decimo sexto.)
Item de Abbatissa de Canonlegh pro redditu

unius exclusi (sluice) fixi ad terram domini
apud Dunsford, una libra piperis et in pecunia

per annum iijd. 1
Valor Eccles. temp. Hen. VIII.

Verus valor &c. predicte abbatie unde Elizabeth
Fowell est abattissa ejusdem domus. ?

£ d.
Manerium de Dunsford


2 Manerium de Rockebear .


8 0 Manerium de Netherton .

18 18 11 Manerium de Hockford

19 6 8 Manerium de Canonlegh.

30 16 11 Chilloman et South Tawton

2 12 5 Godelefford in comitatu Suffolk

7 18 0 Manytre in comitatu Essex

20 0 5 Mourdon in comitatu Dorset


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Among other items of detail are the following:
Seynt Margarettis Thorne in comitatu Somerset

Valor per annum cum lxxiijs de redditu assise

tenencium convencionariorum ibidemEx cum

Ixs de redditu terrarum dominicalium £ ibidem per annum Summa

iiij xiij Inde resolutum annuatim Anne regine Anglie et heredibus suis de quodam annuali redditu

xiijd Et eidem regine et heredibus suis pro hurdesylva [hurdsilver) per annum

job Et" Ricardo Warr militi et heredibus suis pro

capitali redditu exeunte de premissis per

iij" jd Et Edwardo Stradlyng et heredibus suis de quodam annuali redditu ibidem per annum

job Et archidiacono de Taunton et successoribus suis

de precio quatuor modis sigali pro quodam
annuali redditu exeunte de premissis per

iij. iiijd Summa solucionis vijixd Et remanet

iiij vs. iija 1 Oliver's Monasticon, p. 125.

? p. 232 et seq.


Sampford Arundell in predicto com Somerset

Valor per annum cum liiij iiijd de redditu

assise tenenencium ibidem Et cum xijd de perquisitis curie et aliis proficuis ibidem communibus annis

d summa clara .

lv iiij Summa totalis possessionum temporalium dicte abbatic per an.

clara, £169 1s. 9d.

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Besides these there were :

“Possessiones spirituales,” i.e. tithes, &c., a total of £197 3s. Id. : showing the money income of the Abbey to have been at least £366 4s. 10d.

Out of these receipts we find the Abbey had to pay to the Bishop 3 of Exeter 26% 84; also to the Abbey of Dunkeswell annually £9 18s. 8d., rather a large sum in the time of the Valor Eccl. Hen. VIII.4

There had also been "a chantry of cvjs viid, founded by the late prioress and convent of Canonleghe to fynde a priest to pray for the sowle of one Aysheforde of Aysheforde in the parish church of Burlescom, out of the manor of Canonlegbe, parcell of the possessions of the late priory of Canonleghe.”5

In conclusion the writer desires to tender his sincere thanks to the Rev. Prebendary F. C. Hingeston-Randolph for the quarry of materials he has provided for the sketch here given.

3 OLIVER, Monasticon, p. 422. 4 Op. cit. p. 398. Chantry Rolls of Dev. & Cornwall, 37 Hen. VIII. (1546).



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Naturalist on the Staf of the Marine Biological Association.

(Read at Plymouth, July, 1892.)

THERE are four English counties which have earned a historic fame in the annals of British Marine Zoology; and, curiously enough, they form two areas situated on widely separated coasts, at the north-eastern and south-western extremities of England. I need hardly add that these four famous counties are Northumberland and Durham, and Devonshire and Cornwall.

With the north-eastern area will always be associated the names of Johnston, Alder, Hancock, Norman, and others belonging to that famous band of Tyneside naturalists whose thorough and accurate researches are known to every marine zoologist. Canon Norman is still among us, the foremost of the British marine zoologists of to-day, and ever ready to help with his wide experience those younger men who are following him in the pursuit of one of the most fascinating branches of scientific knowledge.

No less fortunate have Devon and Cornwall been in the possession of such a series of eminent marine zoologists as Montagu, Couch, Clark, Gosse, and Bate. But these men, whose successful researches have rendered their names so famous, are now no more. Their place has been taken by new men; and it is upon these workers that the reputation of the West must now depend. In order, therefore, to maintain that general interest which is so great a factor in the advancement of every branch of knowledge, I would like to suggest, through the means afforded by the Devonshire Association, that every step should be taken which will VOL. XXIV.

2 B

tend towards an increased freedom of intercourse between individual naturalists and between different societies. Under the conditions of mutual help and friendly co-operation enthusiasm spreads, and work, instead of being largely wasted, is directed towards wise and useful ends.

In order to indicate what a wide field of knowledge still remains unknown in spite of the fruitful labours and valuable discoveries of our predecessors, I will give here a brief account of some of the more interesting additions to the Devonshire fauna which have been made by means of the Marine Biological Association since its establishment at Plymouth four years ago. It will be seen that the list includes not only interesting forms which have not before been found on the coasts of Devonshire, but a number of genera and species which are new to science. These discoveries are an indication of success in work which should encourage all those in the West to whom shore-collecting, dredging, and tow-netting offer a delightful means of studying the varied and wonderful problems of animal life.



Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3), xiii. p. 82. I found a large colony of this rare Hydroid (consisting of

from 90 to 100 polyps) in material dredged in about 15 fathoms' water on June 10th last. The colony covers almost the whole of the upper side of the shell of an Aporrhais pes-pelicani, tenanted by a Phascolion strombi. Apart from the difference of habit, there are several interesting differences of structure between my specimens and those originally described by Norman from the Shetlands. The lines of growth encircling the hydrothecæ nowhere project so as to assume a ridge-like form, as shown in Norman's figure. The polyps and blastostyles arise from a continuous carpet-like crust, whereas in Norman's specimens the base had the form of a branched, creeping stolon. The difference, however, is rather apparent than real; for it is already known that the retiform stolon of young Podocoryne colonies becomes converted during further growth into an expanded

encrusting base. I have also noticed that the blastostyles invariably possess

a slender terminal portion, with a slightly dilated apex,

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