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Sampford Arundell in predicto com Somerset

Valor per annum cum liiij iiijd de redditu

assise tenenencium ibidem Et cum xijd de perquisitis curie et aliis proficuis ibidem communibus annis

8

d summa clara. lv

inj Summa totalis possessionum temporalium dicte abbatic per an.

clara, £169 ls. 9d.

Besides these there were:

Possessiones spirituales,” i.e. tithes, &c., a total of £197 3s. 1d.: showing the money income of the Abbey to have been at least £366 4s. 10d.

3

Out of these receipts we find the Abbey had to pay to the Bishop 3 of Exeter 26s 8d; also to the Abbey of Dunkeswell annually £9 185. 8d., rather a large sum in the time of the Valor Eccl. Hen. VIII.4

There had also been "a chantry of cvje viia, founded by the late prioress and convent of Canonleghe to fynde a priest to pray for the sowle of one Aysheforde of Aysheforde in the parish church of Burlescom, out of the manor of Canonleghe, parcell of the possessions of the late priory of Canonleghe.”5

In conclusion the writer desires to tender his sincere thanks to the Rev. Prebendary F. C. Hingeston-Randolph for the quarry of materials he has provided for the sketch

5

here given.

3 OLIVER, Monasticon, p. 422. * Op. cit. p. 398. 5 Chantry Rolls of Dev. & Cornwall, 37 Hen. VIII. (1546).

ON SOME NEW OR RARE MARINE ANIMALS RECENTLY DISCOVERED ON THE COAST

OF DEVONSHIRE.

BY WALTER GARSTANG, M.A.,
Naturalist on the Staf of the Marine Biological Association.

(Read at Plymouth, July, 1892.)

THERE are four English counties which have earned a historic fame in the annals of British Marine Zoology; and, curiously enough, they form two areas situated on widely separated coasts, at the north-eastern and south-western extremities of England. I need hardly add that these four famous counties are Northumberland and Durham, and Devonshire and Cornwall.

With the north-eastern area will always be associated the names of Johnston, Alder, Hancock, Norman, and others belonging to that famous band of Tyneside naturalists whose thorough and accurate researches are known to every marine zoologist. Canon Norman is still among us, the foremost of the British marine zoologists of to-day, and ever ready to help with his wide experience those younger men who are following him in the pursuit of one of the most fascinating branches of scientific knowledge.

No less fortunate have Devon and Cornwall been in the possession of such a series of eminent marine zoologists as Montagu, Couch, Clark, Gosse, and Bate. But these men, whose successful researches have rendered their names so famous, are now no more. Their place has been taken by new men; and it is upon these workers that the reputation of the West must now depend. In order, therefore, to maintain that general interest which is so great a factor in the advancement of every branch of knowledge, I would like to suggest, through the means afforded by the Devonshire Association, that every step should be taken which will

VOL. XXIV.

2 B

tend towards an increased freedom of intercourse between individual naturalists and between different societies. Under the conditions of mutual help and friendly co-operation enthusiasm spreads, and work, instead of being largely wasted, is directed towards wise and useful ends.

In order to indicate what a wide field of knowledge still remains unknown in spite of the fruitful labours and valuable discoveries of our predecessors, I will give here a brief account of some of the more interesting additions to the Devonshire fauna which have been made by means of the Marine Biological Association since its establishment at Plymouth four years ago. It will be seen that the list includes not only interesting forms which have not before been found on the coasts of Devonshire, but a number of genera and species which are new to science. These discoveries are an indication of success in work which should encourage all those in the West to whom shore-collecting, dredging, and tow-netting offer a delightful means of studying the varied and wonderful problems of animal life.

CELENTERATA.

HYDROZOA. TUBICLAVA CORNUCOPIÆ, Norman.

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3), xiii. p. 82. I found a large colony of this rare Hydroid (consisting of

from 90 to 100 polyps) in material dredged in about 15 fathoms' water on June 10th last. The colony covers almost the whole of the upper side of the shell of an Aporrhaïs pes-pelicani, tenanted by a Phascolion strombi. Apart from the difference of habit, there are several interesting differences of structure between my specimens and those originally described by Norman from the Shetlands. The lines of growth encircling the hydrothecæ nowhere project so as to assume a ridge-like form, as shown in Norman's figure. The polyps and blastostyles arise from a continuous carpet-like crust, whereas in Norman's specimens the base had the form of a branched, creeping stolon. The difference, however, is rather apparent than real; for it is already known that the retiform stolon of young Podocoryne colonies becomes converted during further growth into an expanded

encrusting base. I have also noticed that the blastostyles invariably possess

a slender terminal portion, with a slightly dilated apex, which is prolonged beyond the mulberry-like mass of gonophores, except when contracted. It is an interesting vestigial structure, being homologous with the tentacular portion of a digestive polyp; and its discovery in T. cornucopice reduces the gap between this species and T. lucerna. I can thus support both Norman and Hincks in their remarks on the generic position of this interest

ing form. HALOIKEMA LANKESTERII, G. C. Bourne. This Hydroid, the type of a new genus, was described by

Mr. Bourne (Jour. M. B. A. i. 1890, p. 395, pl. xxvi.) from specimens found by me in 1889 and 1890 in different parts of Plymouth Sound. According to Mr. Bourne's description, it is closely allied to the genus Halecium, but differs from it in the following respects. The stems are erect, jointed, and sparingly branched. The hydrothecæ are tubular, with a slightly everted rim, and are sometimes borne on a short pedicel. The hydranths are very large, elongated, fusiform, with a single circlet of 16 to 20 filiform tentacles, and absoutely non-retractile. Both hydranths and cænosarc are of a characteristic deep brown colour. The original specimens were dredged in 5-7 fathoms of water, attached to loose stones; and I have since obtained additional specimens, a description of which is deferred

until colonies with gonophores make their appearance. SAPHENIA MIRABILIS, Str. Wright. Several hundreds of this rare and interesting Medusa were

captured by Mr. Cunningham (Jour. M. B. A. ii. p. 194) in a large tow-net worked off the Eddystone on July 16th, 1891. The species is characterised by the depressed form of its umbrella, the presence of only two extensile tentacles, and a very extensile peduncle which is several times as long as the breadth of the umbrella. The diameter of the umbrella in the largest specimens was

about 12 mm. We have taken it again this year. MUGGIÆA ATLANTICA, J. T. Cunningham (sp.). This is a new species of Siphonophore which made its

appearance in large quantities in the neighbourhood of Plymouth in the autumn of 1891. It differs from M. Kochii, as Mr. Cunningham has shown (Jour. M. B. A. ii., 1892, pp. 212–215, 2 figs.), in possessing a much larger hydroecium, which extends to one third the height of the nectosac, and in the extent of the somatocyst, the upper end of which, with its contained oleocyst, is above the apex of the nectosac. From Mr. Cunningham's remarks it appears probable that this elegant Siphonophore has a geographical range extending as far south as the Canary Islands. It is probably the species obtained by Mr. Bourne on his cruise in H.M.S. Research off the south-west coast of Ireland.

CTENOPHORA. BOLINA HYDATINA, Chun. Towards the end of last May Mr. T. H. Riches discovered

a number of lobate Ctenophores, apparently belonging to this species, in the tow-net gatherings taken in Plymouth Sound. On May 26th only two or three were present; next day they were abundant; while on the 28th they were again reduced in numbers, and have not since been seen. Although Hormiphora plumosa is usually plentiful off our coasts in the summer months, this is the first time that a species of the Ctenophora Lobata has been recorded from our southern shores. Off the east coast of Scotland Prof. McIntosh has also recorded the abundant occurrence of lobate Ctenophores, which he has referred to the species Lesueuria vitrea of Milne-Edwards.

ANTHOZOA. ELOACTIS MAZELI, Jourdan (sp.).

Ilyanthus Mazeli, Jourd. Ann. des Sci. Nat. x. 1880, p. 41.

Eloactis Mazelii, Andres, Die Actinien, 1884, p. 248. A single specimen of this remarkable Actinian, which is

now for the first time recorded as a member of the British fauna, was dredged in 20 fathoms on June 28th this year. It bears a striking superficial resemblance to Ilyanthus Mitchellii, as figured by Gosse, but is perfectly distinct from it. It is at once characterised by the possession of exactly 20 tentacles, which are arranged in two cycles of 10 each. The tentacles of the outer cycle project outwards; those of the inner cycle are only three-quarters as long as those of the outer cycle, and project upwards. The tentacles of the two cycles alternate with one another in position. They possess remarkably little power of retraction or prehension. The column of my specimen is of a uniform bright

vermilion-orange, marked by slightly paler vertical lines (caused by the mesenteries), which run down from the interspaces between the tentacles. Between every pair of

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