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Dull pinkish-brown felsite, with sub-vitreous matrix developing
small porphyritic felspars and quartz—some of the former well
crystallized ; schorl fairly disseminated. Dull red felsite, with sub-vitreous matrix, and irregular development
of felspar and quartz; fairly disseminated schorl ; some of the
felspars show twinning. Pinkish-red pegmatite with patches of schorl; crystalline-granular
texture; felspar dull and partly kaolinised. In another example the base is mainly felspar of a more massive kind; and the schorl
is less frequent, in small rounded radiates. Yellowish-red pegmatite, some of the quartz blebs yellowish, some
what earthy matrix; there are several varieties of this rock, one
a distinct orange. Pinkish felsite, finely-granular earthy base with porphyritic felspars
and quartz blebs, and small circular nests of schorl. Cream-white felsite with compact sub-granular base (conchoidal
fracture) enclosing small imperfectly developed felspar crystals,
quartz granules and schorl needles. Very finely-granular schorlaceous pegmatite, light red, evidently
once a fine-grained granite, of a type which also occurs, containing in addition to the schorl a little black mica, and some porphyritic
quartz and felspar. Light red schorlaceous granite, granular texture with a few porphy
ritic felspars; some of the matrix felspars bright red. Irregular textured and veined schorlaceous pegmatite, pale red. Well-charactered pegmatite, chiefly granular, with a few porphyritio felspars, some twinned, and quartz masses.
Smaller felspar crystals bright red, contrasting strongly with the schorl; some
of the larger felspars zoned with red—a very pretty rock. Warm-brown porphyritic granite, glassy-granular matrix, black
mica. Coarse-textured schorlaceous granite, verging on greisen, abundance
of white mica, felspathic matter kaolinised; another example is
distinctly a griesen, in part. There are various examples of schorlite, two containing porphyritic
felspars, and a highly altered junction rock-a granular gneissose micaceous schist with development of schorl along the original lines of bedding.
A CHAPTER IN DEVONSHIRE HISTORY:
COUNTY DEFENCE IN 1794-97.
BY P. F. S. AMERY.
(Read at Plymouth, July, 1892.)
I Am indebted to Lord Clifford for the perusal of documents in his possession at Ugbrooke relating to the measures taken to place the county of Devon in a state of defence in 1794-7.
The records consist of the minutes and correspondence of the County Defence Committee, of which Lord Clifford's great-grandfather was the chairman, and they appear to have been finally deposited at Ugbrooke when the committee dissolved in 1797 or was superseded in 1798.
To fully understand the gravity of the occasion we must in some measure realise the state of England in 1794.
Mr. A. H. A. Hamilton, in a lecture on “Devonshire Volunteers," referring to that date, remarks: “The effect of the French Revolution was felt here. As early as 1792 elaborate plots were formed to supersede Parliament by a National Convention after the French model, and to abolish the monarchy. It was found necessary to suspend the Habeas Corpus Act. Great distress prevailed in the country. The rate of interest rose to 17 per cent. At the same time the prospect of invasion was always imminent. As early as 1793, Monge, the French Minister of Marine, threatened to make a descent on England with 50,000 caps of liberty, and to overthrow the Government of the country. Toulon, which we had assisted to garrison (and the Devonshire Regiment, it may be remarked, formed a part of the contingent), was forced to be evacuated.”
At this crisis the Government called on the different counties to take steps for the defence of the kingdom.
The Lord Lieutenant (Earl Fortescue) convened a meeting of the magistrates of Devon at Exeter for 22nd April, 1794.
The meeting was presided over by the High Sheriff, John Sarrell Pode, Esq., and the following suggestions were discussed and adopted :
1. To augment the militia by volunteer companies, as was practised in the last war; and by volunteers being added to existing companies.
2. To form volunteer companies in particular towns, especially those near the coast.
3. To raise volunteer troops of Fencible Cavalry-officers to have temporary rank only; arms, accoutrements, and clothing to be supplied by Government. Levy-money to be furnished by persons raising troops, and horses to be paid for at a reasonable price by the Government. Persons raising two troops to have temporary rank of major, or six troops of lieutenant-colonel.
4. Infantry companies to consist of 71 men, viz., 1 captain, 2 lieutenants, 3 sergeants, 3 corporals, 2 drummers, 60 privates; twenty men in each company to have firelocks, the remainder to be armed with pikes 8 feet long. Unless called out, not to be removed more than five miles from home. In time of invasion to act in the county only.
Resolved, ---“That we are ready at all times to stand forward in a Constitutional manner for the defence of the country. That this is a time of crisis. That a county committee be formed, and that all subscribers of £20 be members.
“That sub-committees be formed in different districts, to consist of subscribers of £5."
2nd May, 1794.—Sir Stafford H. Northcott, Sheriff, in the chair.
It was reported that subscriptions amounted in the county to £8,300 8s.; in City of Exeter to £1,239 12s.
16th May.—It was stated that the South Coast was most liable to immediate attack. Resolved to apply to the Government for an engineer officer to report; also for guns, carriages, and traces, that country horses might move them about. That volunteer artillery be raised to man the guns. Also advisable to raise volunteer infantry. That the offer of Exmouth to raise a company be accepted. That the offer of Cullompton be not accepted until it be decided whether any but seaport towns shall raise volunteers.
30th May.—Reported that Exmouth, having raised sixty men, nominated James Coldridge, Esq., to be captain ; Nicholas Barnwell, Esq., as lieutenant. That Mr. Alderman Kitson reported a roll of seventy men of the City of Exeter ready to learn military duty on the following terms, viz.—1st, to nominate their own officers ; 2nd, to be provided with arms and outfits ; 3rd, be paid if marched twenty miles from Exeter or called out.
These terms appear to have been accepted, as Colonel Mackenzie was appointed captain, Benjamin Honeycombe lieutenant, and Jonathan Burnet ensign. Major Taylor reported eighty men from Teignmouth. Rev. Mr. Jenkins, the same from Sidmouth. Sir Bouchier Wrey reported a company from Barnstaple.
It being resolved that inland towns be permitted to volunteer, subject to the decision of the War Office, Dr. Honeywood reported a company from Honiton, to which Major Winchester was nominated captain, James Townsend lieutenant, and E. Blagdon ensign.
Subscriptions were reported to date :-County, £11,665; City of Exeter, £1,390. It was resolved "that the Right Honourable Lord Clifford be chairman of the Internal Defence Committee, and that he preside at the next meeting on 10th June.”
10th June, 1794.- Lord Clifford in the chair.
The resolutions of former meetings were ratified. Many towns reported ready to raise companies.
Resolved not to encourage any situated more than six miles from the sea, owing to the scarcity of arms.
24th June.-Rolls of volunteers offering their services were presented from Plymouth, Torrington, Bideford, Newton Bushel, Axminster, and Cullompton. Subscriptions reported from county, £12,621; from the City of Exeter, £1,432; total, £14,053.
8th July.-Standards were ordered for troops of yeomanry. A company of infantry was accepted from Kenton.
13th August.- Mr. Cary applied for leave to raise a company of infantry and a battery of artillery at Torquay.
A correspondence with the War Office about accoutrements was read.
It was resolved that the following accoutrements were necessary for each man, viz. :—One pouch and shoulder-belt, one magazine-belt and bayonet-frog, one firelock-sling, one brass breastplate (plain).
3rd September.—A second company was accepted from Exeter.
7th October.—The committee ordered an inspection of the Southern corps by Colonel Mackenzie.
4th November.—Colonel Mackenzie reported on his inspection that the men were able to fire volleys, and saluted well.
7th January, 1795.- Returns showed that two troops of cavalry and twenty-three companies of infantry had been raised and equipped by subscription.
3rd March.—Sir Stafford H. Northcott in the chair.
The Lord Lieutenant, Earl Fortescue, ordered monthly returns from each corps.
7th April.—Lord Clifford in the chair.
“Resolved that the twelve companies in the eastern part of the county form a battalion under Colonel Mackenzie."
June 2nd.-Letter received from Colonel Orchard, of Hartland Abbey, that he had inspected his own regiment, viz., the corps at Fremington, Westleigh, Northam, Hartland, and two companies at Bideford. This appears to be the six Western companies of the North Battalion.
The work of the committee appears to have ended here, although it remained in existence.
5th April, 1796.-Lord Clifford in the chair. Returns showed
22 Companies of Infantry,}1,621 men.
In this year an attempt was made by the French to land in Ireland, which failed, and the expedition returned to Brest with the loss of four ships of the line and eight frigates.
Early in 1797 an expedition under Tate appeared in the Bristol Channel, off Ilfracombe, with the intention of burning Bristol. The North Devon Volunteers turned out with great VOL. XXIV.