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length in regard to these new grapes, describing the most valuable and promising ones ; but his remarks being in substance the same as already published in this and other journals, it is not necessary to occupy space with them bere further than to say that, as the result of his experiments with a large number of these seedlings, he gives the preference to the following six, in the order here named: Nog. 3, 15, 19, 33, 4, 9. No. 3 be considers best of all he has yet tested. It ripens with the Delaware.
ALLEN'S HYBRID.-Mr. Elliott spoke well of it as an amateur variety; had doubts whether it is a hybrid; perhaps only a seedling from a foreign sort. Mr. Campbell likes the fruit-good deal like Chassellas-bas not mildewed as yet-seems as hardy as Isabella—fruit too delicate for market ; season a little later than Delaware. Mr. Patterson bad found it very good in Michigan.
ADIRONDAC.—Mr. Elliott spoke of this new grape as promising to be the best early hardy grape known-the vine as bardy as the Delaware, and a vigorous grower; fruit of fine size and quality; very early and productive; not yet fruited in Ohio.
CREVELING.—Mr. Campbell bad fruited it, and finds it a pretty good early grape -better than Hartford Prolific and quite as early.
Mr. Campbell gave a brief account of his experiments in raising new varieties of grapes from seed, mentioning several byl rids that be thinks may prove of value, but which bave not been sufficiently tested as yet. See an article from his pen in the Report of the Department of Agriculture for 1862. Remarks were also made on quite a number of other new grapes, but too little was known respecting them by Persone present to make it worth while to publish what was said. --Sec'y.
ON GRAPE CLIMATE AND CULTURE.
The proximity of this meeting to the famous grape regions of Kelley's Island and the adjacent coasts of Lake Erie, secured the attendance of quite a number of gentlemen engaged in this branch of horticulture, and nearly a whole day was devoted to discussions on the soil and climate best adapted for grape growing, modes of culture, training, pruning, &c.
J. W. Scott, Esq., read a paper on the peculiarity of the climate of this grape region, as compared with the vine-growing districts of Europe and other parts of this country, giving statistics from the Smithsonian reports of the fall of rain in different parts of the year, &c. The average amount of rain during the summer months is found to be, at Cincinnati, 14 inches ; Cleveland, 10 inches; Ann Arbor, 8 inches ; Sandusky and Toledo, about 9 inches. He attributes the remarkable success of the grape in this region to several causes: the excellence of the soil-calcareous, marley clay, naturally dry or easily drained; the climate sufficiently warm to ripen the fruit; moderate fall of rain, and seldom heavy dews or fogs during the latter part of summer and early autumn; the blossoming of the vines being retarded in spring by the coldness of the water in the lake, absorbing the warmth of the air till danger of late frosts is over, and the ripening time being prolonged in the fall by the warmth of the lake keeping off early frosts.
Mr. Scott referred to a valuable essay on the Climatology of American Grape Vines,
by J. S. Lippincott of N. J., published in the Report of the Department of Agricul. ture, and from which he read the following extracts :
“ It has been demonstrated that at those localities where the summer mean temperature falls below 67° the wine grape will not ripen its fruit so as to produce wine of any valuable quality; 65° mean summer temperature is the lowest that will permit the vine. Extremes of humidity and dryness are exceedingly injurious to the wine grape. (He quotes Blodgett's Climatology.) Throughout the Northern States the fall of rain during the summer varies from 9 to 14 inches. • The region over which the fall of 9 to 10 inches of summer rain extends includes all the localities where the cultivation of the vịne, in the Northern section of our country, has been attended with the largest share of success.” At Cincinnati and St. Louis the summer fall of rain is about 14 inches.
“ Temperature as affected by the Lakes.-In May, the water of the lower lakes, one foot below the surface, is but 7o above the freezing point. Its temperature rises gradually to that of the atmosphere the latter part of July, and above it in August. In September it is nearly three degrees warmer, and to the middle of October it retains the temperature of 539, which is 60 ahove that of the air along the southern shore. The region around the southwest shores of Lake Erie, Blodgett says, corresponds more nearly than any other section of our country to the wine-growing regions of the Rhine.”
In reference to the distance inland from the lake, which these advantages extended, considerable difference of opinion prevailed. Mr. Dewey, of Sandusky, thought that an average of about a mile was as far as could be relied on. Mr. Scott thought two miles would be safe if the soil was good, but in going towards Cleveland from Sandusky, the character of the soil changes to a sandy loam, which is not as favorable for grapes, especially for making wine. This was followed by remarks of similar import by Mr. Kelley, of the Island, Mr. Elliott, of Cleveland, and a number of others.
Soils.—Mr. Dewey said the Catawba grapes grown on sandy lands east of the Huron River ripened well, apparently, but were not as sweet as those grown at Sandusky, and on the Island—the latter showing 90° or 92° by the saccharometer, and the former only 750 or 80°. Mr. Elliott said that 75 to 80 was about the average of the Catawba must at Cleveland, and which bad been regarded as making fair wine. He would like to see some rule established in regard to the strength of the must requisite for making good wine. Dr. Warder said at Cincinnati the range was from about 75 to 90°.
Mr. E., respecting soils, said he believed facts prove that clayey soils are best for grapes, especially for wine. One reason probably is, such soils do not start up the heat and growth so early in spring as warm, sandy soils, and they retain the heat longer in the fall.
Mr. Kelley said, Mr. Addison Kelley once used stable manure on a portion of his vineyard, and it caused the fruit to speck and rot for several years. Plaster is found to have no effect on the Island.
Mr. Dewey had tried slaughter-house manure and lime mixed, a shovelful to a vine, on a vineyard of one acre, with very good results. Mr. McKelvey said no manure was generally used around Sandusky, and the best vineyards were on the poorest land. Mr. Barney preferred to be near the lime rock.
Mr. Elliott said no manure was often used around Cleveland; when it had been tried it usually caused mildew on the fruit and vines.
PREPARATION OF Soil.—Mr. Kelley said the first requisite was to drain the land thoroughly—he makes the drains about 40 feet apart. Next plows as deeply as possible, say 15 to 18 inches. Trenching with the spade is not practised in that region, por deemed of advantage. Mr. Elliott said trenching is not now practised around Cleveland, and is not necessary if land is well drained. It was formerly thought that sloping hill-sides were requisite for vineyards, but that was a mistake ; most of the vineyards in Cayaboga county, and also around Sandusky, are on level lands.
In planting young grape-vines Mr. Kelley recommended cutting off all the surface roots, as if left to grow the lower roots will die and all will be surface roots, to the detriment of the vine. [Is that fact, or only theory ? - Sec'y.] Dr. Warder said another reason for preventing the growth of surface roots is, they are apt to be in the way of the plow or cultivator, in tilling.
The distance apart for setting the vines on the Island is about 6 X 8 feet, which is a little over 900 to the acre. This is allowing the vines more space than has been the practice at Cincinnati, and most other places.
Note.—The discussion on planting, training, and pruning the vines is not published here, as the information may be found in better form in the Patent Office Report for 1861, and in several other publications. ---Sec'y.
ON PLUM CULTURE AND THE CURCULIO.
Mr. Bateham inquired whether any progress could be reported in the cultivation of plums in Ohio, or in discovering a mode of preventing the ravages of the curculio. Mr. Scott said the best remedy for the curculio was to cut down all the plum trees and not plant any more ; we can easily do without them. Mr. B. said he was not disposed to give up the contest so readily; for his part, if he had suitable land and opportunity he would as soon plant an orchard of plum trees with an expectation of profit as any other kind of fruit. He referred to the practice of Messrs. Ellwanger and Barry of Rochester, and their success, by the jarring method. Their plum orchard is on a level piece of ground, convenient to the house and workshops. It is a part of their system to spade the ground each spring, then roll it hard and smooth, just as the trees are in blossom, or when the insects begin to appear. It is kept hard and smooth during the summer, so that the fallen fruit can easily be gathered up and burned. Then during the three or four weeks that the little Turks" are about, the trees aro jarred two or three times a day with a blow from a mallet having an Indiarubber cushion on its face, to prevent injury to the bark, a catcher in the form of a light frame with muslin stretched on it being first spread under the tree, on to which the insects drop, and from which they are transferred to a pail of scalding water.
This process is quite simple and easy, and very little expense compared with the
value of the crop, when a good number of trees are concerned, as would be the case where cultivated for market; but for half a dozen or so trces, as in a private yard or garden, of course it won't pay.
Mr. -inquired if the practice of digging the ground and beating and rolling it bard, when the trees were in blossom, was not the substance of the Mathews Remedy for the curculio, of which there was a good deal of talk some years ago?
Mr. Fabnestock said that he was a personal friend of Mr. Mathews, and was one of the committee to whom he imparted a knowledge of his remedy for the purpose of having it tested and the result made known. That committee, of whom Mr. Barry was also a member, had never been satisfied that the remedy was sufficiently effective to answer the expectations of the publie or the desires of the inventor; and now that so long time has elapsed he believed there was no object to be accomplished by keeping the matter secret. In fact it was already pretty extensively known, as we have just learned, and is a part of the method practised by Ellwanger and Barry, to wit, spading the ground under the trees, turning it over as deeply as can be done, and beating it bard just before the insects ascend the trees in the spring. At this time, it was claimed, the insects would be very near the surface of the ground, and if buried 4 to 8 inches deep and the ground made hard above them, they were unable to make their way out. Mr. F. was of the opinion that if this was properly done at the right time, it was of considerable advantage, and no doubt contributed materially to the success of Messrs. Ellwanger and Barry, although they probably relied mainly on the jarring of the trees afterwards.
Mr. A. G. Hanford, of Columbus, spoke of the contrivance of Dr. Hull of Alton, III., for jarring plum trees. He has a light, folding frame, covered with cotton cloth, with an opening on one side to admit the body of the tree; this is placed on top of a sort of wheelbarrow so constructed that it can be wheeled from one tree to another, and striking against the tree cause sufficient jar, by its momentum, the frame or catcher being at the same time brought into position without the operator having to let go the handles of the barrow, except occasionally to empty out the insects.
Mr. Nelson said he had tried the jarring process pretty thoroughly without success -did not think it would pay. Mr. Storrs bad succeeded so well with it that he had to prop up bis plum trees to prevent their breaking down with fruit. Mr. Lyon bad seen good results from jarring ; said the curculio often stings apples, as seen by its mark, but he thinks the worm does not live so as to come to maturity there, as he never could find a live one of considerable size in an apple ; and the wound always seemed to have healed. He also thought the worms did not generally come to maturity in cherries, the fruit ripening too early for them.
Dr. Lungren, of Toledo, said he had paid much attention to the habits of the curculio; he found that it was not disposed to fly from tree to tree, except when disturbed, or in search of the proper nidus for its eggs. He had considerable faith in Mathews' remedy, and also in jarring; but the latter would need to be continued for a longer period than three or four weeks, for he had discovered a second crop of the insects, depositing eggs, as late as the 1st of July; but probably this second brood is not often 80 numerous as to cause much damage, especially as fruit is then so far advanced.
BLACK KNOT IN PLUM TREES.—Mr. Storrs said he formerly lived in Cortland Co., N. Y., and there the black knot very generally prevailed, as it does in many other parts of that State ; be bad recently seen it very bad in Western Pennsylvania, around Erie and Gerard; but he had not seen any of it in Ohio; he could not tell wby it should prevail in those States and not in this; had noticed that it was, seemingly, worst in cold, clayey lands, where beech and hemlock timber prevails ; he was not aware that the cause of the disease, or the remedy, bad as yet been discovered.
Mr. Elliott, Mr. Stowe, ard several others were familiar with the disease, but had never seen it in Obio except in young trees brought from the East, and then it did not spread. Dr. Warder said the opinion had been put forth that this disease was caused by the curculio depositing its eggs in the young branches, when it could not find fruit ; but this idea was erroneous and soon abandoned. The eggs of the curculio and other insects may have been found in the soft, pulpy substance produced by the disease, but that was an effect and not a cause of the evil. The real cause had not been discovered ; and no better remedy was known than cutting off the affected parts and burning them. Similar disease exists in some kinds of forest trees, as the scrub oak, in certain parts of the country.
ELECTION OF OFFICERS.
The Committee on Election made the following recommendation of officers for the ensuing year:
For President-Dr. J. A. WARDER, of Cincinnati.
Committee Ad Interim-G. W. Campbell, of Delaware ; S. B. Marshall, Massillon; F. R. Elliott, Cleveland ; J. R. Miller, Springfield, with the abore officers.
The report of the Committee was confirmed by the meeting, and the officers recommended were elected.
RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED. Mr. Elliott, of Cleveland, offered the following rosolution, which was unanimously adopted by the Society :
Resolved, That the President, Vice President, and Secretary of the Ohio Pomological Society be a Committee empowered in the name of this Society to petition the State Legislature for a grant of money sufficient to pay the traveling expenses of the Ad-Interim Committee, in examining, comparing and preparing a report on early and late summer fruits, or such as cannot be brought together for examination at our regular annual meetings.
Mr. Bateham offered the following, which was also adopted :
Resolved, That the Committee Ad-Interim be requested to make a report on Strawberries and other summer fruits, the coming season, from observations made by them