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PREPARING AND PRESERVING RENNET.
A calf should never be killed for the rennet at less than five days old, and ten days is better. Let the calf have a full meal of milk, and let him stand 16 to 18 hours, kill him, take out the rennet, turn the skin wrong side out, give it a shake, rub throughly with salt, turn it right side out, rub with salt, stretch on a small bow and hang up to dry.
To prepare it take one gallon for each skin, and at 90 degrees temperature, soak three days, stirring and rubbing the skins each day. Add a large quantity of salt and it is ready for use.
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS BY THE BOARD,
1. Our common stock cross d with Devon I consider the best for dairy purposes. 2. White clover decidedly the best variety of grass for butter and cheese.
3. Unless manures are carefully husbanded and judiciously applied, long grazing does injure land for dairy purposes. With careful husbandry and judicious management it does not.
4. From $25 to $30 per a re.
5. 70 degrees Fahr. A higher temperature tends to make a cheese strong flavored, and a lower temperature sometimes makes a cheese bitter in taste.
No. of cows work d 80 – teu to eleveu cheese made per day. No addition made of cream. A screw press is used and we intend to give each cheese six tons pressure.
E. C. cox's STATEMEXT.
To the Commiltee of Judges on Cheese :
The cheese that I bave offered for inspection was made between the 20th and 25th of June; No. of cows, 430; was made frou one milking only. No addition of cream. No rennet used with the curd. Pressed with a screw press-pressure not known. Pressed from 24 to 36 hours-prefer from 36 to 40 hours; then keep in a cool well ventilated room.
E. C. Cox.
c. 1. DUXBAR & sos's STATEMENT.
One cheese, made about July 12. 1863 No. of cows, 28. Made from two milkinge. No addition of cream. Rennet prepared with salt and water. Pressure, self-press.
Caps remain in two weeks, then remove and grease, turning every day.
1. Native cows.
HAMMON STEVEN'S STATEMENT.
My cheese was made the last of June and first of July, from the milk of 18 cows, at two milkings, with no addition of cream Reonet, when taken from the calf, turned and carefully washed in sweet whey or milk ; turn th`m back, salt well, stretch on a stick and hang by the stove until well dri d, then put in a bag or sack and bang in a dry place. Prepare two rennets in a gallon crock, filled with water, salt well, set in a cool place, and strain through a cloth when ready for use. I pri-ss with a lever. The amount of pressure is 1,500 pounds. Grease the surface when taken out of the hoop, and the balance when dry; turo it every day, rubbing it frequently with lard or butter.
I consider the native breed of cows the best ; they produce an equal amount of butter and cheege that a large blooded cow will, with about two thirds the expense of keeping. Best grass for pasture is timothy and white clover. Long continued pasturing exhausts, and the wild and June grass runs out the tame and produces less feed. In this section $20 would be about an average ; some farms would be profitable at higher and some lower; about 75 degrees is the right temperature for curing cheese. In a higher temperature they would be likely to mould and sour. I set milk in a vat over night, skim the thickest part of cream in the morning, then add morning's milk, cool or warm to 80 degrees ; add sufficient repnet to fetch curd in 30 minutes, then break curd fine, raise the beat moderatelely to 100 degrees, stirring the curd frequently, draw off whey ; one teacup of salt to 18 pounds ; cool to 80 degrees ; press and preserve as above stated, and you have such a cheese as I make.
STATEMENT AS TO ELDRIDGE'S CHEESE.
The four cheese exhibited were made June 13, 14, 15 and 16. He keeps 200 cows. The cheese is made from two milkings. All the cream is worked into the cheese, Rennet is preserved with salt, and prepared by soaking in pure spring water. The cheese is pressed with iron screws, the amount of presure very beavy, but not ascertained. The best cows we have are a cross of the Durham and common stock. Our grasses are common-dou't know wbich are the best. Dairying properly managed improves land. The price per acre for which land can be profitably used for dairy purposes depends on the quality. The proper temperature of a room for curing cheese is 70 degrees Fabr.
The milk at night is put into a tin vat. The tio vat is put into a wooden vat, which is about two inches larger each way. This space is filled with cold spring water aud the milk gently stirred until reduced to 60 degrees Fabr. Then the water is left to run all night ari uid the milk. The cream in the morning is mixed with milk by straining and stirring The reudet is put in after morning milk is put in and the heat raised to 80 degrees Fahr It is left quiet for about 40 minutes, or until the curd breaks with sharp corners by passing the fingers through it The curd is then thoroughly broken with the havds. The most of the whey is then drawn off with a siphon. The beat is then raised to 100 degrees Fahr. and left to cook about an hour. The balance of the whey is then drawn off. The curd is put into a drainer and salted, about ope pound of fine dairy salt to 40 pounds of curd. It is then put into presses and presse d about three hours, when it is taken out and bandaged and put back into the press to remain until the next day. When first taken out of press the cheese is thorougly greased and removed to the curing room, where they are turned every day and rubbed.
John I. ELDRIDGE.
To the Hon. Judges on Cheese, at the Ohio State Fair, 1863:
The two cheese over one year old, exhibited by me, were made on May 27th and June 1st, '62, and the five under one year old, on the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th days of June. Each cheese was made from the milk of 38 cows, at two milkings, with no addition of cream.
MODE OF PREPARING AND PRESERVING RENNET.
The calves are killed when five days old, with an empty stomach, which is usually about 18 hours after sucking. More cheese can be made from a rennet taken from a calf soon after sucking and saved with the contents, but the fl wor will not be as good. When tak n out, the rennets are thoroughly salted and stretched on hoops to dry-care being taken to bang ib'm so as to drip as little as possible. Reavets are not fit for use until one year old or over. When wanted for use, half a dozen dried repnets are soaked 24 beurs in one gallon of soft water, with as much salt added as will dissolve; the skins are then taken out, and afterwards soaked again antil the strength is exhausted. The liquor thus prepared will be of uniform strength, and, after using from it once or twice, the amount required to bring the cheese in proper time will be ascertained.
ANSWER TO QUESTIONS.
1. The native breed of cows, or a cross between the native and Devon, are generally better adapted for dairying than either the Shorthorn or Devon.
2. Our pastures are principally stocked with June grass, wbite clover and red top, which probably furnishes as good pasturage for making cheese, as any kind we have.
3. Think it will improve if rightly managed.
4. The price depends much upon the situation and quality of soil, whether supplied with suitable buildings or not, &c. In this vicinity it would probably range from $25 to $35 per
6. From 70 to 75 degrees is the proper temperature for & room for curing cheese. If the heat is less than this, more time will be required for curing; if greater the cheese is apt to get "huffy," and require considerable attention.
6. Good aparatus for making cheese is an important item in dairying. A person may get along with an old fashioned cheese tub, press and a kettle, yet the saving of time, fuel and labor in using convenient fixtures would soon pay for the extra expense. We use " H. A. Roe's Premium Cheese Val and Heater,” which undoubtedly combines more advantages than any other apparatus introduced. As fast as the night's milk is taken into the dairy room it is strained into the vat, and well cooled by turning cold water into the water chamber. When the water becomes warm, it is drawn off, and more cold water turned in ; with this process the milk is kept sweet and rich, and but little cream rises over night. In the morning the milk is strained into the same vat with the milk of the night before, and a fire kindled in the beater about 20 minutes before time for setting, the temperature being then from 84 to 85 degrees; enough rennet is added to curdle the milk in about 45 minutes. As soon as the card is well formed it is thoroughly broken with an instrument made for that purpose; this being done, the curd is allowed to settle a few minutes, when the fire is agaia started, raising, gradually, the temperature to 100 and 102 deg. ; the heat is then checked by the damper, so as not to rise above that point ; the curd is well stirred and broken during the first part of the heating process. When the curd is sufficiently scalded the water is drawn off, and afterwards the whey. After the whey is drained off and broken up, the salt is put in, at the rate of a teacup full to 14 pounds of pressed cheese. After putting in the press it is thoroughly pressed two days, being turoed in from two to three hours, also the next morning. It is impossible to have a rule which will always produce uniform results—as much depends upon the milk, weather &c. How and when to do this can only be learned by experience and careful observation.
H. F. GIDDINGS.
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON CHEESE.
In making our report for this class, your committee would state that the display of cheese on exhibition was very fine, and the composition so close that it was with dificulty we came to conclusions satisfactory to our-elves, and that we have done entire justice we can hardly hope. In fact, except in one or two instances of different manufacture, the competition was so close, that had the specimens been all from one dairy, they would have done credit to that dairy from their uniformity. We award as follows:
Best cheese, one year old and over, entry No. 11, 1. F. Giddings, Lindenville, O.
do 9, E. C. Cox, Mesopotamia, O.
1st best cheese, one year old, entry 3, Harmon Stevens, Sheffield, Lorain county, 0. 2d best
do 6, S. E. & H. W. Carter, Leroy, 0. In coming to the conclusion and making the awards we have, we have been governed by the general appearance, the quality for cutting, and also fitness for transportation ; in other words for handling and merchantable purposes. As the very large proportion of the amount manu factured, must necessarily be transported to a greater or less distance, this is a considertion of importance. If but one of these qualities were taken into account, a different conclusion might have been reached. For instance, the Ohio State Dairy cheese must be very rich for cutting, but apparently might fail in handling ; while entry No. 2, to which the committee award 1st best in lot of cheese, appear well as both cutters and handlers. As has been intimated, every lot was good and every specimen creditable-one thing which caused some little difficulty in aiming at correct conclusions, arose from the classifications adopted by the Board. The manufacture of cheese is annually gaining in attention and importance in the northest counties of the State, and in the system of manufacture there has, within a year or two past, been a great change. Formerly each farmer made his own cheese, upon the farm, in dairies of'from ten to a hundred cows; now a number unite together, building a factory, or individuals build such factories, purchasing the milk, or taking it to make up at so much by the pound. In this mode of manufacture, a somewhat different description of cheese is made, having some advantages farmer dairies cannot have. The suggestion we wish to make is, that in view of the magnitude of this Interest and increasing its importance, such a classification be hereafter made as will enable “ factory "cheese to compete only with "factory” cheese, and “farm dairy” with “farm dairy."
BUTTER, BREAD, ETC.
In the class of Batter, Bread, &c., there were 64 entries, the following are the awards, and the statements of the exhibiters : Best lot 10 lbs. batter in rolls, Mrs. G. S. King, Madison...
$10 20 best do. Mrs. W. Brown, Rockport.....
5 Best lot not less than 25 lbs., made in May or June, Mrs. R. Hawkins, Rockport.
10 20 best do. Mrs. M. A. Robb, Olmstead
5 Best tub or firkin not less than 50 lbs., made any time, Frank Oakes, Brecksville
10 20 best do. H. Lane, Geneva, Ohio......
BREAD AND CEREAL FOOD.
Best 3 loaves baker's bread not less than 48 hours old, John Truber, Cleveland..... $3 Best biscuit, Mrs. S. W. Whipple, Cleveland......
2 Best soda biscuit, Mrs. Sarah W. Whipple, Cleveland
2 Best 3 loaves domestic white bread, not less than 48 hours old, Mrs. W. Brown, East Rockport........
3 Best domestic corn bread, Mrs. W. G. Smith, Cleveland...
3 Best domestio rye bread, Mrs. G. Perrine, Milan, 0....... Best domestic brown bread, Mrs. G. Perrine, Milan, 0....... Best 6 hams, Mitchel & Ladd, Cincinnati... Best half bbl. mess pork, B. Stedman, Cleveland, Best half bbl. beef, B. Stedman....
AWARDING COMMITTEX.-C. C. Wick, Miss Louisa Sumner, Mrs. Smith Grimes, Mrs. O. Water
STATEMENT OF R. BAKER.—Two jars butter made from two cows from 10th to 20th of June. The cows were fed on grass only. Milk strained into tin pans, and remained 36 hours; then skimmed, and the eream churned in Dewitt's Ther. Churn; used three-fourths of an ounce of Liv. erpool salt to one pound of butter. No other ingredients used. F STATEMENT OF WM. HURST.-Ten pounds butter in rolls, made September 12th, from seven COWB; no other feed but grass. Milk strained in ten quart tin pans; kept thirty-six hours in cellar, with plenty of air circulating through, Churned in a box churn; buttermilk freed from it with a ladle ; no water used. Used fine Liverpool salt, three-fourths of an ounce to the pound ; no other substance used.
STATEMENT OF HAMMON STEVENS.- My butter was made the last of June; my new butter last week of June, from 18 cows. A small mess of wheat bran and whey was given to each cow twice a day; the milk set over night in a cheese vat. Churned in a stone churn, butter washed with cool water. Salt to suit the taste with Ashton salt. No other substances used.
My mode of managing bees at present is very simple. I have had three different patent hives ; I put my bees into a box hive with a hole two inches in the top, and set them in a house made for that purpose, with one side open. This box was put on top of the hive the early part of May, and taken off the first of September.
H. STEVENS. STATEMENT OF MRS. S. W. DILLE.—Ten pounds of butter in rolls. Made on the 12th day of September, 1863, from six cows, grass fed. Milk set in tin pans; skimmed and churned as soon as the milk soured, in a crank churn of “Foss patent.” The milk worked free from the butter by hand with ladle. Salt, one and one-half ounce to the pound, common barrel salt. No other substance used.
HONEY, PRESERVES, PICKLES, ETC. In the class of Honey, Preserves, Pickles, &c., there were 175 entries, on which the following awards were made: Best 10 lbs honey, E. Holly, Warrensville....
$5 20 best, W. A. Flanders, Shelby....
3 Best collection of preserves, Mrs. J. H. Sargent, Cleveland.
5 Best pickled cucumbers, Mrs. J. H. Sargent, Cleveland....
1. Best pickled peaches, Mrs. M. A. Robb....
1 Best pickled tomatoes, Mrs. M. A. Robb,..
1 Best pickled butternuts, Mrs. M. O. Spring, Geneva..
1 Best pickled melons, Mrs. Minuse, Milan....
1 Best pickled onions, Mrs. M. J. Blair, Cleveland......
1 Best preserved blackberries, Mrs. M. Church, Painesville.
1 Best preserved raspberries, Mrs. M. A. Robb, Olmstead.......
1 Best preserved tomatoes, Mrs. M. Church, Painesville....,
1 Best preserved peaches in cans and jars, Mrs. J. H. Sargent, Cleveland..
1 Best preserved pairs, Mrs. J. H. Sargent, Cleveland.....
1 Best preserved gooseberries, Mrs. M. O. Spring, Geneva.
1 Best preserved quinces, Mrs. J. H. Sargent, Cleveland..
1 Best currant jelly, Mrs. J. H. Sargent, Cleveland.....
1 Best gallon apple jelly, Mrs. J. H. Sargent
1 Best pickled gherkins, Mrs. J. H. Sargent, Cleveland...
1 Best tomato catsup, Mrs. Minuse, Milan... Best cucumber catsup, Mrs. M. A. Robb, Olmstead
AWARDING COMMITTEE-D. W. C. Sawyer, Mrs. J. T. Newton, Mrs. D. W. C. Sawyer, Mrs. E. E. Pennywell.