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breeding in-and-in, or a crossing for certain purposes with other races, is at least very problematical.

Such breeds are often very difficult to classify, because, according to their peculiarities, they may be numbered among several tribes or breeds.

The formation of a kind, or rather breed, may also take place in another way, namely, by the intermixture of the blood of animals of different races, or in other words, by cross breeding. When individuals of different races or tribes are bred together, the result will be mixed productions, mongrels or agricultural bastards, which are only half-bloods in the beginning, but gradually, if bred together continually among themselves, they will in the course of time assume a fixed type. If such crosses are bred in a certain tendency, and fed, kept and used for certain purposes, it is mụch easier to produce animals in larger numbers, wþich will possess a fixed type of breed after the lapse of a certain period of time, but temporarily only; for animals of such breeds will lack, in their first generations, the capability of transmitting their qualities with certainty; and hence the opinion that animals belonging to a particular kind, do not possess the power of certain hereditary transmission, and, therefore, are deemed less valuable for breeding purposes. But, after the lapse of a period of time, a breed formed in this way will attain constancy in the hereditary transmission, and this the sooner and more certainly the more the production of the new breed is furthered by a systematical method of breeding, keeping, feeding and using the animals, and by a favorable soil and climate. From such limited breeds very extensive kinds, and even tribes and races, may originate in the course of time. Instance :-the Triesdorf resp. Ansbach tribes, and almost all of the recent English breeds of cattle. But if such amalgamations of tribes occur among the animals ad libitum, or are not judiciously regulated, or if they are not kept fed and used for that purpose, such animals will not retain their fixity or permanence of type for a long period of time, and a constancy of certain hereditary transmission can scarcely be expected from them. Instance: Many poor breeds of so-called native cattle, in which the mongrel character will always be presented.

Finally, by family is understood the near related offspring of one and the same pair of parents which were continually used as breeders among themselves.

Instead of family, the term cattle staple may also be used, and is used, locally however, in many parts of the European continent.

By a continued breeding in the family, according to properly applied principles of breeding, distinct breeds may gradually be produced.

What is understood by intermediate tribe or race, is apparent from what has been said on tribes. This term designates such tribes as have been produced by the continued amalgamation of two or more races, tribes or breeds, and thus possess the qualities of them in common.

Lastly, a VARIETY presents striking variations only from any type of race, which appear like freaks of nature, and sometimes are constantly trans mitted, so that if such animals are consistently bred among themselves, distinct breeds may successively be produced. Such varieties are represented by the so-called polled breeds cattle of England and other countries,


The development of animals is dependent upon the soil and local conditions where they live. Vegetation on which cattle must live, depends on the condition of the soil, moisture and climate; and on thisthe nature of the soil, the prevailing temperature and other things—all animals, and also cattle are depending as long as they live in a free state of nature, wholly independent of the influence of man.

All races of cattle formed in this way are thus to be considered natural races,

in contradistinction to other races whose peculiar qualities were produced by artificial influences, and which, therefore, may be designated as cultivated races.

Origin of natural races.-It remains, of course, uncertain whether our domestic cattle, when they gradually originated among the order of creatures, were equal at all places where they were created, and were changed successively, or whether they presented different characteristics from the commencement? Be that as it may, this much is certain that in the long period of time which has elapsed until our day, they gradually assumed, through external influences, the various properties shown at the present day. The soil, climate, nutriment and other things, certainly ex. erted their influence upon the formation of natural races.

The soil has an influence upon the formation of races, in so far as every where on good, fertile and sufficiently moist ground, there will spring up a luxuriant and nutritive vegetation, securing during all seasons a wholesome and suitable nutriment for the animals existing there. Where there exists such a vegetation, large, powerful cattle originate, which will fatten easily and produce much milk. But a dry, sandy soil will produce a smaller number of plants, and few varieties only; they are generally not sufficiently nutritive, and hence in such regions there are found small and light cattle excelling neither by their copious production of milk, nor their fattening qualities. The nature of the soil exerts a very great influence, 80 that animals living in an uneven, mountainous country, possess more powerful limbs, and are more agile and enduring in their locomotion ; further, tbey have well-developed lungs, so that their functions are appropriate to the movements of the animals requiring greater exertion. But animals liv. ing in level countries have less powerful extremities, not well adapted for running; even short marches will make them tired, and their breathing difficult; because their locomotion on the level soil required no great exertion of the extremities and lungs.

Heat and cold exert a great influence upon plants and animals, and, therefore, as a necessary consequence, upon the formation of particular races. Animals of the same species living in different climates often present considerable differences. In hot climates, the animals remain smaller and possess the so-called dry structure, because their organization is formed of fine compact bones and powerful muscles, but produces very little fat. Animals imported into this climate from regions of a temperate climate will change in respect to skin and hair as well as to color and instinct. In the hot climate of Cuba the cattle have thin hair and often are entirely bare, and the imported dogs have become brown and smaller. The geese and hens lay smaller eggs, (Rowlin). In Syria, the cats, rabbits and goats have very long and soft hair; in Corsica, the horses, dogs and other ani. mals become speckled; in Paraguay our domestic cat, since its importation 300 years ago, has become smaller, the trunk much thinner, the limbs more puny, the hair shorter, more glossy, thinner and lying close to the skin. It seldom pairs with freshly imported specimens. In the Paraguayan sheep the character of the Spanish sheep has wholly disappeared; they are smaller, the wool short and very rough, and the mutton lean and white, But the influence of the cold climate at far north or on high mountains is apparent in the small size and mostly compact form of the animals, a change of color, harder skin and thicker hair. The hogs of the Paramos have curley hair, and the wild cattle there, living at an elevation of 7,500 feet, have a thicker skin than those in the valleys. The African house dogs are hairless, or have thin hair only, but when transported in more northern climates, hair again appears on them after several generations.

The amount of vapor in the air and the dryness and moisture of the soil, likewise have a powerful influence. The atmosphere always contains vapors, a proper amount of which is necessary for animals. But when it is in too limited quantities, plants as well as animals, obtain too little of it, and the consequence is a too copious perspiration through the skin, but for the former, a defective development causing a want of proper nutriment for the animals. The plants and animals of moister countries and regions excel those of drier climates by their more rapid growth and larger size. Even the hair of many animals becomes coarser and rougher in wet climates; hence very fine sheep gradually lose their fineness of wool. A larger amount of moisture is necessary for cattle which thrive well in wet climates, as is known to be the case in the countries bounded by the North Sea, and many mountains where the atmospheric precipitations are copious.

The organization of animals depends on these influences, and when they are not changed in the course of time, the external and internal character. istics of the animals must remain constant. Thus it is explained why countries enjoying the same climate have the same or at least homogeneous native animals.

But cattle transferred from one region into another where the influences are different, will immediately change their exterior and interior characteristics, and this for the better or worse, according as the new place of abode is more or less conducive to their well-being than the former; and even smaller differences of climate exert a visible influence upon animals living in a state of nature.

The original native country of animals is considered to be the natural area for their spread or propagation, allowing, of course, in its centre or at several places the most perfect development of the race in question. Such a natural area is of different extent; either it forms a contiguous territory, or is sometimes separated by intervening areas in which other races are spread. The boundaries of these areas may be divided into horizontal and vertical. The former are northern and southern, and the latter ascending, mostly pretty well defined. At the periphery or the boundary line of other regions of a different nature the perfection of the races will disappear, and the purity and beauty of the races will be impaired, and other forms originate, as mentioned on a preceding page.

But in their native countries the characteristics of the natural races are often the more difficult to efface through the artificial influences of feeding and keeping, the older these races are. It is scarcely possible wholly to efface all those interior and exterior characteristics, or when the attempt is successful, it is only for a short time or in individual cases, and the original soon reappears.


RACES. With the improvements in agriculture and cattle breeding, an attempt was made to establish new races; and more recently the English have in an eminent degree succeeded in producing races, or rather tribes and breeds, fully adapted to the various demands of agriculture and national economy.

Through a proper and judicious system of feeding and keeping cattle, it is almost always possible to a certain degree to protect them from the un

favorable infuences of the climate, and to produce upon the same soil and under the same climatic conditions, tribes of animals of a different form and structure. By a constant system of in-and-in breeding, or more especially by a properly regulated method of crossing, or by the breeding of animals aocording to a definite plan; thus by à certain kind of food of a certain chemical composition, given in larger or smaller quantities, by giving more voluminous or concentrated food, in a wet and prepared, or in a dry and natural state, man may exert a very powerful influence upon the pro duction of certain definite animal forms and their useful qualities. In this ro spect astonishing results may be obtained within a short time, by keeping them warmer or cooler in stables, or wholly in the open air, by keeping them alternately, at the proper times, in the stable or on the pasture, and by employing all available means to establish a certain desired useful quality

In the natural way, namely, by the uninterrupted natural influences up on the animals, new races are gradually formed only when the animals migrate into regions of a different nature, but artificial races are produced in a much shorter time, if the soil and climate are not too unfavorable to the plan pursued; for every impediment is removed, and every thing employed conducive to the development of the animals for the purpose

of attaining certain desirable qualities. As the sculptor, in clay or stone, &c., forms his ideals

, so likewise, the rational breeder will succeed in gradually producing animals of different forms and nature, if he is able constantly to fulfill the conditions necessary for that purpose. In this respect, the doctrine of animal production has of late justly been termed "zootechnics." The breeder may, to a certain degree, overcome the climatic influences in producing certain animal qualities, if he persistently pursues a definite and correct system of breeding, and possesses protecting stables, suitable pastures and food and fodder. But if the one or the other factor is disregarded or entirely absent, he will be less successful; and finally, if every thing is left to nature, all the various tribes will soon present but one type, namely, that produced by the existing natural factors; for man can never overcome nature, but attain great results only when he understands her laws, knows how she works and changes, and constantly observes and follows her operations.

From this point of view, the long continued dispute may be considered as decided, as to whether the climate alone exerts its influence upon the formation of races or tribes, which many deny altogether, and are inclined to hold the formation of races to be dependent solely upon the option and action of man.

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