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the comparative advantages of rotative cropping as pursued under the varying series of crops; the capacity of new plants or trees for acclimation; the analysis of soils and water; the chemical composition of manures, natural and artificial, with experiments designed to test the comparative effects on crops of different kinds; the adaptation and value of grasses and forage plants; the composition and digestibility of the different kinds of food for domestic animals; the scientific and economic questions involved in the production of butter and cheese; and sach other researches or experiments bearing directly on the agricultural industry of the United States as may in each case be deemed advisable, having due regard to the varying conditions and needs of the respective States and Territories.
Under the Adams Act, which grants $15,000 to each State, the work must be confined to original research. The funds provided under this act are therefore used for the more fundamental scientific work of the stations. For a considerable period the work of the stations was chiefly on problems relating to plant and animal production. In recent years increasing attention has been given to studies connected with cost of production, marketing, standardization of products, and other economic problems.
In addition to their experimental work, many of the stations have carried on analytical and other work connected with State control of fertilizers, food, feeding stuffs, seeds, diseases of plants and animals, etc. The present tendency is to lodge such work more fully in the State departments of agriculture.
The headquarters of the stations are as a rule at the State agricultural colleges, where the more important work in laboratories, greenhouses, barns, and fields is carried on. There are, however, many special investigations and experiments in different localities, including a considerable number of experiments in cooperation with farmers.
The results of the station work are disseminated through annual reports and popular and scientific bulletins, which are transmitted in the mails free. In 1921 the stations issued 400 publications and their mailing lists aggregated 1,000,000 addresses. Summaries of these publications and other information regarding the stations are also widely circulated through the agricultural and other journals. Station officers, State and county extension agents, and cooperating farmers give information and demonstrations to large numbers of farming people at meetings, through correspondence. telephone messages, visits to farms, and in other ways.
AGENCIES FOR RESEARCH IN DAIRYING AND DAIRY HUSBANDRY.
In the Bureau of Animal Industry of the Department of Agriculture is a Dairy Division, which investigates problems concerning the breeding, feeding, and management of dairy cattle and the care and handling of milk and manufacture of its different products. Herds of dairy cattle are maintained as an aid to production studies, and research laboratories and a factory are available for the study of manufacturing processes. When new methods or new products have been perfected these are introduced into the various states through appropriate State agencies. The division is also charged with details of administration of the laws concerning the inspection of factories making renovated or processed butter.
Work relating to dairy animals or products is also carried on by this bureau through divisions of field inspection (including matters relating to the transportation, importation, and quarantine of animals), tuberculosis eradication, cattle-tick eradication in the Southern States, and animal pathology.
Other bureaus dealing with matters relating to dairying or dairy husbandry are the Bureau of Plant Industry (through its division of cereal and forage-crop investigations, dry-land and irrigation agriculture, foreign seed and plant introduction), Bureau of Chemistry (in its food control laboratory), and Bureau of Agricultural Economics (through its divisions of farm management and cost of production, dairy and poultry products, statistical and historical research, agricultural cooperation, and crop estimates), and Bureau of Home Economics (through its studies of utilization of dairy products in human diets).
The Office of Experiment Stations maintains a department of dairying and dairy farming in Experiment Station Record, and other departments of this journal contain many abstracts of articles relating to dairying and dairy husbandry.
The agricultural experiment stations in the several States generally have one or more scientific workers devoting themselves to investigations relating to dairying or dairy husbandry. The number of such workers in 1922 was 105. In a classified list of projects carried on by the stations in 1921, compiled by the Office of Experiment Stations, out of 4,718 projects 151 dealt with dairy cattle and 118 with dairy products. These included breeding, feeding of calves and heifers, comparison of many feeding stuffs in rations for dairy cows, protein supplements, herd management, cost of milk production, studies on milk secretion and production, experiments with milking machines, chemistry and bacteriology of dairy products, butter making, cheese making, ice cream studies, milk composition, handling and marketing, etc.
HIGHER EDUCATION IN AGRICULTURE.
The institutions for higher education in agriculture are of two types: (1) Colleges of agriculture in universities, and (2) separate colleges in which instruction in agriculture is combined with instruction in mechanic arts, home economics, and a variety of other subjects. The courses in agriculture in these two types of institutions do not vary materially. Their number and range depend chiefly on the income, equipment, and size of the agricultural faculty. College courses in agriculture are given chiefly in the public land-grant colleges and universities, but a number of private institutions also offer such courses.
The colleges are under control of boards of trustees. The chief executive officer is a president, under whom is very often a dean in immediate charge of the agricultural work. The number of professors and assistant teachers of agriculture varies greatly, but the larger and more wealthy institutions now have agricultural faculties of 50 or more teachers. In 1922 the agricultural faculties aggregated over 2,500 persons and there were about 28,000 students. These institutions are in general equipped with a number of substantial buildings and large farms used for agricultural instruction, herds of different kinds of animals, special scientific apparatus, farm ma. chinery, agricultural libraries, etc., in addition to the equipment used for instruction in natural sciences, languages, mathematics, and other subjects usually included in college courses.
There are at present 48 State institutions in which college instruction is given to white students and 17 colleges for colored students in the Southern States. Similar institutions are maintained in Porto Rico, Hawaii, and the Philippines.
The data available at this time indicate that about $10,000,000 was used for agricultural instruction in these colleges in 1921. They annually receive $2,500,000 from the Federal Treasury but only part of this money is used for the teaching of agricultural subjects.
Under the head of agriculture, instruction is given in plant proJuction (including agronomy, horticulture, and forestry), animal production, agricultural technology (e. g., dairying, sugar making), rural engineering, rural economics, and sociology. There is also instruction regarding plant and animal diseases, injurious and beneficial insects, and predatory animals. In the agricultural courses special emphasis is laid on those subjects most important to the agriculture of the region in which the college is located. Thus dairy farming is emphasized in the Northeastern States, cotton farming in some Southern States, the growing of wheat, maize, and other cereals in the North-Central States, dry farming and irrigation in the Western States, fruit growing in the Pacific Coast States and Florida.
Combined with the instruction in agriculture, courses are given in natural sciences, mathematics, languages, history, political and social science, etc., in order that the graduate in agriculture may have a liberal as well as a practical education.
The amount of time devoted to agricultural subjects during the regular four-year course varies in different colleges, but averages about 40 per cent. In some colleges emphasis is laid on the fundamental sciences during the first two years, but the present tendency is to give a considerable amount of agricultural work in those years. There is much elective work during the third and fourth years, in which the student is expected to give special attention to some subject of particular interest to him and to combine with this a group of studies to make a well-rounded course. This group system of electives is now much more favored than a system of free electives, which often results in too narrow specialization or too superficial work on too many subjects.
The regular college courses in agriculture are based on four years of study in a secondary (high) school and seven or eight years in an elementary school. The entrance requirements on this basis include instruction in English, mathematics, history, and elementary science, usually combined with Latin, or a modern language, or agriculture. The giving of entrance credit for agriculture is a comparatively new thing and thus far only a few students have satisfied the requirements in this subject.
In recent years the agricultural colleges have undertaken the professional training of teachers of agriculture and for this purpose have established departments of agricultural education. Courses in educational psychology and the principles and methods of teaching, with special reference to the teaching of agriculture, are given, usually in the third and fourth years of the college course. Teachers in service are also given opportunities for professional advancemen! by means of short courses, particularly in connection with the summer term of school.
Since the passage of the Smith-Hughes Vocational Education Act in 1917 the agricultural colleges have been designated to carry out the provisions of that act relating to the training of teachers of agriculture. This has greatly strengthened their departments of agricultural education.
The four-year courses in agriculture ordinarily lead to the degree of bachelor of science (in agriculture). Graduate courses are now given in a number of the colleges leading to the degree of master of science or doctor of philosophy. Persons preparing to become investigators, teachers, or agricultural experts are recommended to take graduate courses.
Many of the colleges offer short courses of a more practical kind for students engaged in farming or elementary teaching. These vary in length from a week to two years and are usually held in the winter or summer.
HIGHER EDUCATION IN DAIRYING AND DAIRY HUSBANDRY.
Dairying and dairy husbandry are taught in most of the agricultural colleges. In 1922 there were more than 150 dairy teachers in these institutions. Either both subjects are taught in a department of dairying or dairy husbandry, or dairy husbandry is taught in the animal husbandry "department, and only subjects pertinent to the handling and manufacture of milk and its products are treated in a department of dairy industry or dairying. Such subjects as dairy chemistry, dairy bacteriology, or biology may be given in the other departments.
The amount of instruction in dairying and the available equipment in different institutions varies widely, depending on the financial condition of the institution, the demand for dairy teaching within the State and the general thoroughness of the instruction offered at each particular college. In general, however, each institution usually has available for teaching purposes a dairy herd containing representatives of several dairy breeds. Some institutions have exceptionally good herds of over 100 animals, containing many individuals with highly advanced registry records. The college herds are not only used for instruction in judging, but in many institutions they afford a source of practical experience for students in milking, feed ing, and caring for dairy cattle. This practical experience is supplementary to the more theoretical courses in dairy husbandry. Besides this, students are usually required or recommended to take general courses in animal feeding and animal breeding.
The principles and practice of handling and manufacturing milk and its products are given in variable numbers of courses. The courses emphasized are usually on subjects which receive the most practical attention in the State. For instance, at the Massachusetts Agricultural College special courses in market milk and butter making are given, but the manufacture of the other milk products is taken up in one combined course. New York and California have one or more special courses for each product and Wisconsin has several courses in cheese making, but the other milk products are given in combined courses.
The dairy departments usually have laboratories as nearly on a commercial basis as possible, where at least the milk from the college herd is taken care of by pasteurizing and selling it; separating it and making butter; or making it into cheese, ice cream, powdered, evaporated, or condensed milk, or other milk products. This furnishes an excellent opportunity for students to obtain practical experience under near commercial conditions. In addition to the instruction and practical training given at the institutions, the students obtain further information by supervised visits to neighboring dairy herds, commercial milk stations, condenseries, creameries, cheese factories, ice-cream plants, etc. Practice in city milk inspection is often obtained by inspecting the milk delivered in the college town.
Judging teams from some institutions also represent them at dairy cattle and dairy product shows, and in some cases entire classes are required to attend the shows.
Many of the agricultural colleges give graduate work in dairying or dairy husbandry toward M. S. or Ph. D. degrees. This graduate work is often directly under the supervision of a school or department dealing with all the graduate work of the institution. Special courses and seminars designed for graduate students are given in the dairy departments in most cases. Graduate students are usually required to complete a definite piece of research work and prepare a thesis on this subject.
Most of the colleges also give short courses in dairy husbandry or dairying. The University of Wisconsin, for example, has special winter dairy courses of 12 weeks for dairymen with experience, a summer dairy course of 10 weeks for inexperienced persons, and a short course in agriculture including dairying of two winter terms of 15 weeks each, besides special courses for teachers in the summer session and a two years' course in which students with practical experience elect subjects given in the four-year course. The University of Minnesota gives specialized short courses of one or two weeks duration for ice-cream operators, creamery operators, milk-plant operators, and cheese-plant operators.
During the past year large amounts of money have been appropriated or expended for the construction of new dairy buildings and dairy barns at the State agricultural colleges. A new dairy building costing nearly $600,000, with equipment, is being completed at Cornell University in New York. Dairy buildings costing over $225,000 are being constructed at Davis, Calif., connected with the University of California, and at the Minnesota Agricultural College, while $150,000 has been appropriated for a new dairy and animal husbandry building at the New Jersey Agricultural College, and $100,000 for a dairy building at the Maryland Agricultural College. Additions to the present dairy buildings or new dairy barns have been made at the State agricultural colleges of Kansas, Missouri, West Virginia, Virginia, Indiana, Nebraska, Louisiana, and Okla