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child, and because of the habit started in these fresh-air homes, they are oftentimes persuaded to take the milk in their homes.
Slide 13 gives the type of diet suggested for the pregnant woman. Again we have a quart of milk. I think the best educational work is done where milk is represented as part of the ordinary diet.
Slide 14 shows the increase in the use of milk through education. These figures are taken from a restricted area. Out of about 292 who were getting a cup or less of milk a day, drinking coffee for breakfast, dinner, and supper, in three months' time we were able to decrease the number of children from 292 to 39 who were getting insufficient milk. This figure represents a summary of a small number, but the same holds true for all our work.
Chairman STANLEY. Are there any questions you'd like to ask Miss Gillett?
Mr. C. L. SMITH (agriculturist, Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation Co., Union Pacific System, Portland, Oreg.). I would like to say just a word. I have had considerable experience along that line in the schools of the country, and I find that a great many children have a distaste for milk. They don't want to drink milk. But they can be taught the use of milk by combining it with other foods, and what struck me as most fortunate in what this lady had to say is the combination of milk with other foods, like milk soups. I have known children who would refuse to drink clear milk and yet they were glad to get a soup. In the same way, you can combine milk in cooking with the various vegetables, milk gravy and things of that kind. They can be educated to the use of milk by combining it with the other foods, where it would take a long time to educate them to use milk without combining it with something else.
The mistake I have found in these campaigns is that they talk about milk alone, without milk in combination, and then those who don't care for it find ready objection. I suggest, in putting on a milk campaign, they emphasize the fact that milk is a most important factor in a diet composed of various things, because in my workmore with domestic animals than children-I emphasize it forcibly wherever I can.
Where these other foods are mixed with milk people can be taught to use it much more quickly than they can in a campaign for milk alone.
Chairman STANLEY. “ The work of the Canadian Department of Agriculture in increasing the consumption of milk," will be presented by Miss Helen G. Campbell, demonstrator and lecturer of the dairy and cold storage branch, Department of Agriculture, Canada. [Applause.]
THE WORK OF THE CANADIAN DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN
INCREASING THE CONSUMPTION OF MILK.
Miss HELEN G. CAMPBELL, dairy and cold storage branch, Canadian Department
of Agriculture, Ottawa, Canada.
It is a privilege for a visitor from another country to see and hear so much of the excellent work which is being done in the United States to increase the consumption of dairy products. The National Dairy Council and Dairy Division are, I am sure, very proud of the tributes which have been voiced by the great child welfare associations of this country, for we deeply appreciate in Canada the confidence of similar organizations and their testimony to the value of work along this line being carried on by the Department of Agriculture. The paper which I am about to read gives in a rather general way the reasons for including these activities in the dairy and cold storage branch, an outline of the work as it is conducted, and the respects in which it has contributed to public health.
An industry which, by the character and quality of its products, contributes to the health of the population is an important one. Dairying on this account is one of the chief industries. It has a great commercial importance, representing large investments, and it is of great economic importance, as it is an industry which more than any other makes use of roughage which otherwise would he wasted, and converts it into valuable products. Its greatest importance, however, is in the food which it makes available for human consumption.
The standard in judging the importance of any business should be the extent of the service which it renders; and by providing foods of the highest nutritive quality, the dairy industry is performing splendid service and contributing to public health and national development. The use of dairy products is conducive to better health, and every educational activity which stimulates an interest in their nutritional value will result in two things: Advancement of child welfare and public health, and most effective advertising. To help a child gain or maintain health is the most practical way of furthering public health, and the healthy child is the best advertisement of the dairy industry.
The purpose of advertising is to tell the public about some article and arouse their interest sufficiently to induce them to make use of it. The force and power of advertising is well known, although we do not realize how much we learn from it and how greatly our opinions are formed and influenced by it. It is a tremendous force; and when employed to promote the use of some good and useful product, it is of vast service and educational value.
The town crier of olden times was really the official advertiser, but since then there has been great development along this line, until now business men realize that much of their success depends on telling the public of the goods they handle. More and more they realize, too, that advertising is not of much value unless based on honesty and integrity, but, backed by the guaranty “money back if not as represented," it has built great businesses and reputations for fair dealing all over the world. One of the first principles of success is to call attention, not so much to the article for sale as to the service which it gives, and better health for the child and the family is the service which the dairy industry has to offer. The clearer the realization of this fact on the part of the public and of those engaged in the industry, the more direct will be its value to the child and to public and national life.
No industry can perform a more valuable service than that of contributing to the solution of public health problems. Public health is not only the most important question in any country, but it is also the biggest business proposition. Disease and sickness cost annually
a very large sum of money, as well as a great deal of suffering, and many other attendant evils, a large percentage of which could be saved if the public had a better understanding of the prevention of disease. An index to the importance of the question lies in the fact that the League of Nations has a more thorough and well-defined program in public health than it has in any of its other sections. It is receiving the attention of doctors, nurses, club members, and individual workers, and it demands the interest and support of each individual. Every woman in the home is a public health worker if she realizes her responsibility in guarding the health of her family, and if she trains her children in good health habits. The question of child welfare is important enough to receive the attention of all governments. There are departments of health with child welfare divisions in each of the Provinces of Canada, as well as in the Dominion Government, and other departments of the Government are contributing toward the welfare of the child, as are also many organizations, voluntary and otherwise, in various urban centers ani rural communities.
The educational work being carried on by the dairy branch of the Dominion Department of Agriculture was undertaken in response to a need for greater information regarding the food value of dairy products and the bearing which these foods have upon the public health.
Great advance has been made in the science of nutrition during the past 10 years, and experiments and investigations have greatly enhanced the reputation of dairy products. Much of the undernourishment prevalent among school children is due to a faulty diet, the chief defect of which is an insufficient amount of milk and green vegetables, and the dissemination of information regarding these facts seemed to the dairy commissioner important enough to warrant the creation of a division which has this for its object. The newer findings of nutrition experimentation would be almost valueless unless they were properly brought to the attention of the public, and advertising of the right sort has a very real place in bringing scientific facts to the attention of the woman who prepares the meals for her family. It is important to teach good food habits to children, but the best results can not be obtained unless parents are taught, at the same time, the value and importance of their children forming good food habits.
The educational activity of this branch serves a useful purpose by emphasizing to parents the fact that in giving their children moral and physical training--in teaching them to be honest, truthful, and upright, and in teaching them proper health habits——they will find it equally true in each case that "What ye sow, that shall ye also reap. The mother and housekeeper decides what her family shall have for dinner; and because this is so, she is one of the important determining factors in the nation's health. If she thoroughly understands the relationship between proper food and good health, she is very much more likely to make a wise selection of food than she is if she has no understanding of the part which food plays in the physical well-being of her family, and if she is unaware to what extent “morality rests upon a sanitary and nutritive basis.”
The woman in the home with no active interest in scientific research may not know anything about amino acids and complete
proteins, but if she does know that the proteins in milk are of particular importance to the physical development of her child, and that in combination with other foods they make them more useful to the body, she is likely to see that her children get an additional supply. If she knows that milk is not only a valuable food for producing energy, but also that it contains essentials for growth and development and that it is an economical food, she is much more apt to give it prominence in the menus she prepares. If she can be shown that milk is one of the most important foods for the development of teeth and is made to realize the importance of an adequate supply, not only in the diet of young children, but in her own diet, she is willing to go to some pains to see that enough is used. People want to be healthy, and usually the only thing necessary is to convince them of the most effective means to that end—which proves the value of the right kind of advertising. The prevalent belief that drugs and patent medicines have such importance for physical well-being should be counteracted by education as to the proper place and real value of the various foods at our command. It is the object of the Dominion dairy branch, by the work of this division, to call attention and arouse interest in the value of milk and milk products and incidentally of other suitable foods—green vegetables, cereals, etc.
It is realized that the success and value of this work will depend on how useful it is to other organizations which have the welfare of the child at heart, and work has been done in close cooperation with child welfare, public health, and educational bodies-Dominion, provincial, and municipal departments of health, provincial departments of agriculture, schools of home economics, national and local child welfare associations, etc. The publications which have been issued by this division have been prepared primarily for the mother and home maker, to clearly point out the different reasons why milk and milk products should be the nucleus around which the diet is built. Distribution of these has been made chiefly by such organizations as have been mentioned. They are sent upon request to teachers, to public health workers, visiting nurses, officers of men's and women's clubs, etc., to place
, in homes where they will be of service. The Roman Catholic clergy are staunch and powerful allies in educating the public along these lines, and have distributed many thousands with the added word of commendation which gives to the message greater interest and greater weight.
Exhibits have been arranged for those to whom the strongest appeal is a visualization of the subject. They have been prepared at the request of home and school clubs, school trustees associations, child welfare associations, etc., as well as erected at the vari. ous fairs and exhibitions. The requests for information and assistance following each exhibit show they have been of great value in directing attention to the subject and in arousing a greater interest in the consumption of dairy products. These displays have been reproduced on a smaller scale by public health nurses, and other local educational effort along this line in urban and rural communities has been stimulated and assisted by material prepared by this division. There is, in Canada, a very strong and active organization of rural women, the Women's Institute, which
has contributed much toward the improvement of conditions in the country. This organization has done much to improve the quality of the milk supply and to increase the use of dairy products in rural communities where the consumption of milk is relatively small. Undernourishment is a problem not only of the cities but of the country districts as well, and the energy of institute members in combating this evil has resulted in much benefit to the rural child.
School officials are realizing more clearly than ever before the relationship between health and mental ability. “A sound mind in a sound body" is the ideal of broad-minded educators, and school inspectors and teachers frequently request the cooperation of this division in presenting to the children'the message of the value of milk, thus helping to lay the physical foundation without which educational advantages count for little. Teachers welcome the cooperation of this division and are interested in any method of presentation which makes this phase of health education more appealing to the children. One teacher tells of a little chap in her class who listened to a story in which the building of his body was compared to the building of a house--the carrying out of every health rule adding a shingle to the roof and the breaking of any rule taking off shingle. A few days after this, he noticed a boy who had just joined his class, buying coca-cola and candy at recess, and rushed to his teacher in great excitement to say, “Teacher, that new kid's rippin? the shingles off his roof.” [Applause.]
Poster and essay competitions arranged by the dairy branch and conducted as part of the regular school program have resulted in great interest and surprisingly good work. These posters are loaneu to teachers and extension workers who find them most useful in giring an impetus to similar endeavor in other communities. A doctor, requesting them for display at the sanatarium of which he has charge, remarked: "Milk is such an important item in the diet of the sick and convalescent that we want to interest the older boys and girls in the subject."
The distribution of milk in many schools has led to very satisfactory results in the correction of health habits and the improvement of the physical condition of many children. The mere distribution of milk does not meet all the demands of the undernourished child, but it has an important place in the school program, and it is not too much to hope that it will, in many places, be the basis of a thorough health education prograin, the need for which is apparent when we consider the extent of undernourishment among school children. The success of the school health program, whether conducted by the grade teacher, the household science teacher, the nutrition worker, or the school nurse, depends very much in securing no only the interest and cooperation of the child, but the cooperation of the home. Concurrent with activities in the schools, cooperation is given to local women's organizations and other bodies interested in health education, and there is conducted a program of education to reach the adults in the community as well as the children. By these activities and by means of motion pictures, slides, demonstrations. etc., salient facts of the value of these foods and the necessity for a satisfactory diet have been brought to the attention of the consuming