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Physical exercises.-Weighing with sensitive balances; determination of the specific gravity of liquids with areometers, pycnometers, and Mohr balance, and of solid bodies; controlling measuring and weighing instruments used in the dairy laboratory, and butyrometers; determination of boiling point.
Chemical exercises.- Reactions on metal and remnants of acids important to butter and cheese making; application of it to qualitative examination; quantitative determinations, principally volumetric (alkali, acidi, and oxydimetry); in connection with this, making and preparing normal solutions; some analytic determinations of weight; determinations of fat with the extraction apparatus of Soxhlett; determination of nitrogen according to Kjeldahl; examination of norton water, qualitative examination, determination of the degree of hardness, determination of the percentage of organic ingredients, iron determination.
To be admitted to the school it is required that the pupils should be 19 years of age and that they should have been employed for two years at a factory for manufacturing butter and cheese or at a farm butter factory and a farm cheese factory, and that they should be able to produce a certificate, satisfactory to the director, proving that they are conversant with the practice of the profession. The general culture that is deemed indispensable is shown in the following qualifications for entrance:
For arithmetic: Proficiency in ciphering with whole numbers, vulgar and decimal fractions, and in solving problems; knowledge of the metric system.
For algebra : Proficiency in addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and involution of algebraic expressions, also in fractions and in solving simple equations involving one or two unknown quantities.
For geometry: Proficiency in solving problems about the congruence of triangles, properties of parallelogram, rectangle, square, rhombus, and trapezium, and in making constructions.
For physics: A distinct conception of the simplest physical notions and phenomena and their applications, such as law of Archimedes, specific gravity, levers, atmospheric pressure, thermometers, state of matter, coagulation, liquefaction, evaporation, and condensation.
For botany: Proficiency in the main points of the interior and exterior construction and the feeding and propagation of the higher plants, as well as knowledge of some important families of plants.
For zoology: Proficiency in the main points of the interior and exterior make-up of the body and the circulation of the blood, the feeding and respiration of man, and of the principal domestic animals.
For geography: Knowledge of our country with regard to the provinces with their principal places, the chief routes of communication by land and water; the nature of the soil and the relative business and products; knowledge of our colonies, as to their situation, the islands, and some places and products of the largest islands; knowledge of the different states of Europe and their principal places, mountains, and rivers, as well as some articles of export; a general survey of the other parts of the world, as to their situation, principal countries, and places.
For Dutch: Knowledge of the principal parts of grammar, viz, the kinds of words and parts of the simple and compound sentence, the principal rules of orthography, and the elements of the formation of words, writing a composition without spelling mistakes and mistakes against the language worth mentioning; reading a not too easy piece of prose or of poetry well, and explanation of the same.
For English: Knowledge of the principal parts of the grammar; correct application of the grammar when translating a not too difficult piece of prose or some sentence from Dutch; reading and translation of a simple piece of prose; a proper pronunciation.
For French: Knowledge of the principal parts of the grammar, more especially the conjugation of the verbs (regular and irregular) the past participle, the present participle, the subjunctive; correct application of the grammar when translating a not too difficult piece of prose or some sentences from Dutch; reading and translation of a simple piece of prose and a proper pronunciation.
For German: Knowledge of the principal parts of the grammar, as to the changes in form of the article, the noun, the adjective, the pronoun, the number, the conjugation and use of the verbs (weak, strong, and irregular), the indirect speech, the adverb, the conjunction and the preposition, correct application of the grammar when translating a not too difficult piece of prose or some sentences from Dutch; reading and translation of a simple piece of prose; a proper pronunciation.
Exemptions can be granted to persons holding certificates of schools guaranteeing at least an education which comes up to the above-mentioned standard.
During the course, the pupils of the first class, six weeks in summer, and those of the second Class, a month in spring, must be practically at work in a dairy factory; during that period the director of the school remains in touch with them and the manager of the dairy factory issues a statement concerning their work.
The director of the school is a scientifically trained agriculturist, who has had previous experience as a dairy adviser and as a higher official of a cooperative dairy association. The head teacher is an agricultural engineer, who has also studied at the agricultural university. Besides these there are different teachers for the separate subjects, most of whom possess a certificate of secondary instruction. In all there are 12 teachers.
At the end of the second year a final examination is held by the staff of the school in the presence of a committee consisting of three dairy experts and the inspector to the agricultural instruction. From this examination it must appear that the instruction at the school has been successfully followed and assimilated, and that the statement concerning the practical work in the dairy factory is satisfactory. The certificate of the school is given when the grade is satisfactory.
From the preceding account it is clear that at this school the plan is adhered to, that practice must not be learned at school, but at a well-conducted, ordinary practical dairy factory, and that the school, connecting itself as much as possible with practice, furnishes instruction that is essential to understand everything that is done at the factory.
During the time of its existence the Government dairy school was attended by 230 pupils, 164 of whom obtained the final certificate. An average of a little more than 10 young men a year are graduated from the school. These, as we may trust, are properly prepared for the task waiting for them, as manager of a dairy factory and most of whom, certainly, after a transition period, are employed as such.
THE PROFESSIONAL SCHOOL OF CHEESE MAKING AT HOORN.
This school purposes to efficiently prepare young men professionally for cheese makers at North Holland cheese factories. In this Province there exists pretty generally a system of joint cheese factories working in a cooperative manner.
These factories are not large enough to be able to carry the expense of a dairy factory established on a larger scale, because the factory generally restricts itself to the making of Edam cheese and whey butter.
The purpose of the above-mentioned school is to prepare the head cheese makers, who are at the same time technically responsible for the product, in an efficient way for their work.
The practical education is here, too, in an ordinary factory. One of the requirements for admission is that a pupil should have worked for a year as cheese maker at a factory, so that a tolerably important practical exercise has been guaranteed.
At the professional school, instruction is given by the provincial dairy expert and his chief assistant, in the theoretical knowledge of milk and cheese making and the principal parts of butter making, in connection with practical exercises in the examination of the composition of milk and its use for cheese making.
Another requirement for admission is that the pupil should be at least 17 years old and has received lower instruction with success, which must be proved at the entrance examination.
During the theoretical course, which lasts three terms of three months each on two afternoons a week, for two hours, the pupils are always at work at the factory.
During that time they are supervised by the principal of the school and a member of the regulating committee, and must keep books in a technical way. The judgment about these things is taken into account, when at the end of the course, it must be decided whether the certificate for cheese maker can be granted. The subjects taught at the theoretical lessons are the following: Composition of milk, qualities of its constituent parts and of the milk
itself. Determination of the Sp. G.; the fat percentage; the dry substance. Influence on the quantity of milk produce, and the percentage of fat
Pressing, taking away of the cloth and the border, salting and brining.
Some parts of butter making. In the first three months subjects 1 to 9 are discussed; in the following three months 10 to 14; and in the last three months the remaining subjects.
Besides the pupils who are following the professton of cheese making, some “auditors" are admitted, who are interested in a proper insight into manufactural cheese making, because, afterwards, when they are farmers, they may, perhaps, be asked to perform the duty of a member of the board of a cooperative cheese factory.
These auditors can obtain a certificate, but not a certificate of cheese maker.
Since the establishment of the school in 1910, 10 courses were held, which were attended by 117 pupils. Ninety-one of these got the certificate.
This school supplies a want in the region where it has been established and is appreciated by the farmers, owners of the factories, as well as by the cheese makers and employees.
DAIRY INSTRUCTION AT OTHER AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES OF SECONDARY
At the secondary agricultural college at Groningen and at almost all agricultural winter schools, instruction is given in butter and cheese making, on the one hand, to give the pupils some notion of the principal parts of manufacturing butter and cheese, and, on the other hand, because at some future time, when employed as practical farmers, they ought to be impressed with the great importance of supplying well-produced and properly treated milk for manufacturing butter and cheese and for the use of milk as an article of food for man.
At the same time the importance of controlling the quantity and composition of the milk is discussed and, in connection with it, the importance of control associations and of breeding-control associations in order to increase the productivity of our dairy cattle, which enjoys already such a high reputation.
The details of practical butter and cheese making are not given much attention at these schools, because this part of the industry in the greater part of our country has been transferred completely from the farm to the creamery and cheese factory. More attention is paid to this part at the schools, situated in the sections in which cheese making is still, in smaller measure, carried on at the farm, viz, in North and South Holland and in the Province of Utrecht,
We attach a list of the subjects taught at the above-mentioned schools.
Composition and qualities of milk: Circumstances influencing the quantity and the quality; determination of specific gravity, fat percentage, and dry substance; milking and treatment of milk; bacteria
found in milk; principal parts of manufactural butter making; skimming, Pasteurizing, ripening, of cream; principal parts of cheese making; practical exercises in the examination of milk at the laboratory; making milk lists, milk registers, and calculations of produce.
At the secondary agricultural school at Groningen, which has a three years' course, about 60 hours are devoted in the second and third classes to butter and cheese making.
At most of the agricultural winter schools during the course of two half years in winter lessons are given during 50 to 70 hours and five practical lessons are devoted to the examination of milk.
At the schools at Schagen, Dordrecht, Utrecht, 100 hours are devoted during the whole course to butter and cheese making, and instruction in cheese making is extended, while at the same time more attention is paid to the examination of the quality of the milk for cheese making
INSTRUCTION AT THE AGRICULTURAL WINTER COURSES.
What has been said concerning instruction at the agricultural winter schools is, in the main, applicable to this teaching; however. we should take into consideration that, with a view to the much shorter time at disposal, the teaching of the subjects is a great deal more simple and is restricted to the prinicpal parts. At these courses, too, the courses in the farming sections devote more hours to the cattle-breeding subjects, including dairying.
INSTRUCTION AT SPECIAL COURSES, ESPECIALLY FOR WOMEN AND GIRLS.
In different places of our country courses in butter and cheese making and the treatment of milk, especially for women and girls, is in demand. Such is the case in the cheese-making region of South Holland where the milk is used for cheese making, and the theoretical basis for cheese making itself is, of course, especially discussed.
If possible, practical demonstrative lessons during these courses are given, during which cheese is made under the directions of a dairy expert or an official belonging to his office, whereby all parts of cheese making are taught.
And, moreover, in some parts, where the farmer's wife is principally charged with milk production and treatment of the milk, the why and wherefore of the rules that can be given for it is discussed and elucidated.
COURSES FOR MILKERS.
In different parts of our country in which milk production forms an important part of agriculture, instruction is at present given in good and efficient milking. This is done principally by means of practical lessons, given by a practical person, who has mastered the art of milking thoroughly and who has been fitted for it spe. cially at a training course established for this purpose and has been posted up in the knowledge of milk. Besides, a couple of theoreti