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the change of dairy farming into manufactural dairying had come about in Friesland.

Nor could this school maintain its position; for want of pupils it was discontinued in 1900. Different causes are sure to have cooperated to its failure, and, perhaps, one of these causes is that the school gave too much attention to dairy farming (which was, indeed, gradually disappearing) and too little to dairy manufacturing.


For some time special professional instruction in butter and cheese making fell into abeyance in our country, till, in 1904, it was resolved to establish a Government dairy school, which is still in existence. At this school the system of a combination of practical and theoretical instruction was abandoned. To be admitted to this school it would, henceforth, be required that the applicants should have worked a certain time at an ordinary dairy factory, and that they should be practically at work, for some time, during the course of the school.

Besides, the teaching at the school aimed at preparing the pupils for dairy manufacturing, including an education to become manager of a dairy factory. It became more and more evident that in a large part of our country dairying, at any rate butter making and mixed butter and cheese making, was moving in the direction of specialization at factories, and consequently there would be an increasing want of well-informed managers of such factories.

The school has now been in existence about 19 years and is regularly attended by a moderate number of pupils. In this form it appears to supply a want, and it can send out, every year, a moderate number of young men, who have been properly prepared to act as managers after some further introduction into practice.

In the course of some years the educational curriculum of the school has been supplemented a little and the entrance requirements both with regard to examination and to practice have been made slightly more difficult. At present the situation is as follows:

Theoretical instruction at the school is given in the following subjects:

a. Mathematics.
b. Physics and mechanics and knowledge of implements.
c. Chemistry.
d. Dairying
e. Bacteriology.
f. Scientific system of f eding and hygiene of cattle.
g. The elements of political economy.
h. Bookkeeping and commercial arithmetic.
i. Knowledge of laws.
k. Economical geography.
1. Dutch language and commercial correspondence.
m. German language and commercial correspondence.
n. English language and commercial correspondence.
o. French language and commercial correspondence.
p. Technical drawing.
9. First aid in industrial accidents.
r. Physical exercise.

Of the subjects mentioned under m, n, and o, at least one, at the option of the pupil, must be studied; the other subjects are obligatory for those wishing to obtain the final certificate of the school.

The following will give further information about the extent and kind of teaching


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Dairying.First class, two hours a week and practical exercises; second class, seven hours a week and practical exercises.

First class : Main constituents of milk; determination of specific gravity and fat percentage; milk production; control of the milk and dairy products; complete composition and qualities of milk; different methods of analyzing milk; detection of adulteration; abnormalities of milk; examination of abnormal milk; milking, treatment of the milk at the place of production and transport to the factory; butter making; skimming according to different systems; centrifugal skimming; practical exercises.

Second class: Butter making, treatment of cream, churning, further manipulation of butter, qualities and composition, defects, test, conservation, and packing of butter; cheese making, cheese ripening, defects of cheese; properties and use of the by-products of butter and cheese making; sale of milk for direct consumption; manufacturing of milk for children; equipment of a dairy factory; how the factory must be managed, technical bookkeeping, different ways of payment for milk, different charges, sale of the products; butter act, butter control; butter and cheese making as a branch of agriculture, different directions for butter and cheese making; main points in the history of butter and cheese making; practical exercises.

Bacteriology.First class, two hours a week.

Historical introduction; morphology, cytology and biology of lower organisms; breeding methods; different kinds of bacteria, ferments, and molds important for butter and cheese making; pathogenic germs; Pasteurizing; sterilizing; means of disinfection; enzymes, bacteriological and biological milk examination.

Chemistry.–First class, three hours a week and practical exercises; second class, two hours a week and practical exercises.

First class : Physical and chemical phenomena ; discussion of important elements; combination phenomena; oxides; sulphides; halogenous combinations; acids and bases; phenomena of reduction and displacement; salts; chemical laws and theories; how these are applied to analysis of salt; practical exercises.

Second class : Organic chemistry, carbohydrates, alcohols, aldehydes, organic acids, ethers, esters, fats, hydrates of carbon, aromatic substances, and albumens. These combinations will be amply discussed, as they are of great importance in butter and cheese making. Repetition and extension of what has been taught. Practical exercises and examination of substances important to butter and cheese making.

Physics and mechanics.-First class, three hours a week and practical exercises; second class, three hours a week.

First class : General physical qualities of the bodies; equilibrium and motion of liquids, more elaborate discussion of specific gravity and determination of it; equilibrium and motion of gases, more elaborate discussion of pumps and manometers; heat, expansion of bodies when heated and application of the same, phenomena occurring by change of state, measuring of heat quantities, origin and transmission of heat; principles of mechanics, equable, varying, and circular motion; composition and resolution of forces; central forces: center of gravity in connection with equilibrium; simple mechanical powers, lever, pulley, windlass, inclined plane and screw; elaborate discussions of cheese presses and measuring and weighing instruments used in dairying; practical exercises.

Second class: Elaborate discussion of the steam engine and other motors, boilers, transmissions; refrigerators; Pasteurizing apparatus ; main points of electricity, especially with a view to electric lighting and propelling force.

Mathematics.-First class, two hours; second class, one hour a week.

Repetition, amplification and continuation of what was formerly taught in connection with what is necessary for tuition in physics and mechanics.

Scientific system of feeling and hygiene of cattle:-First class, two hours; second class, one hour a week.

First class: The body of cattle and the functions of the different organs; maintenance of animals, stable arrangement; some cattle diseases, veterinary government supervision in our country; constituent parts of the animal body; ingredients of the food.

Second class: Digestion of the food and transmutation of it in the body: food ratio; feeding stuffs: feeding of milk cows when turned out to grass; stable feed in transition periods.

Bookkeeping and commercial arithmetic.-First class, three hours; second class, three hours a week.

First class: Bookkeeping by single entry; discussion of the theory of bookkeeping by double entry; use of memorandum book, journal and ledger; balancing of accounts; balance account and profit and loss account; entries of bills of exchange, consignments and commission business; introduction into the use of auxiliary books. The matter learned applied to the bookkeeping of a dairy factory, for account of one person; commercial arithmetic; calculations in the goods trade in general and that in the butter and cheese trade in particular; interest; account current, average values.

Second class: Bookkeeping on the monthly method; how depreciations and reserves are dealt with; bookkeeping of partnerships and cooperative associations applied to dairying; administration of branch concerns; commercial arithmetic; division of profit and loss; something about our monetary system and that of our neighbors; stocks and bills of exchange.

Knowledge of laws. First and second classes, one hour a week.

First class: Elements of the Dutch frame of government; the principal provisions of our Civil Code, particularly concerning right of contract, labor contract, and evidence.

Second class: Elements of merchant act, bankruptcy act, cooperation act, public health act (embracing all measures for the removal of nuisances), act concerning public safety, labor act, accidents act. act concerning professions and steam engineering act.

Political economy. First and second classes, one hour a week.

First class: History of political economy; main principals of exchange value; production and division.

Second class: Mediums of exchange; banking and credit system; some important questions of political economy.

Economical geography. First and second classes, one hour a week.

First class: Introduction; the earth as a celestial body; division of land and water; climate; the soil; the inhabitants of the earth: natural products; location of metals; collective products; products of cattle breeding; agricultural products; estate farming; industry.

Second class : Traffic by sea ; ports and routes by water; railway traffic; commerce, colonial powers; repetition and extension of sonie parts; in particular, discussion of the world's production of and trade in dairy products.

Dutch commercial correspondence.-First and second classes, one hour a week.

Introduction into commercial correspondence; letter writing: correspondence concerning buying and selling; reading commercial subjects.

Second class: Correspondence concerning buying and selling; transport, insurance, and payment; writing of invoice bills, bills of exchange, circulars, letters concerning application for a situation. inquiry, and recommendation; correspondence in particular relating to dairy trade and dairy factory.

English commercial correspondence and professional literature.- First class, 2 hours; second class, one hour a week.

First class: Introduction into commercial correspondence; circulars; letters of recommendation and credit; requests for information; answers to advertisements; shipping affairs; commercial letters proper (purchase, sale, consignments c. a.); continuation of the preceding, and in particular correspondence about money affairs (credit, bills of exchange, summons for payment, insurance, account current).

Second class: Testimonials; notes; market reports; general repetition; letters relating especially to the pupils' profession.

Reading about dairy subjects in the two classes.

French commercial correspondence and professional literature First class, two hours; second class, one hour a week.

First class : Introduction into commercial correspondence; circulars, recommendations, letters of credit, offers of service, information, consignments, orders and how executed; payments, account current, correspondence with creditors and debtors, bankruptcy, insurance, shipping affairs, agencies.

Second class : Market reports, telegrams, advertisements, models, and formulas; correspendence of a dairy factory with foreign countries.

Reading about dairy subjects in the two classes. German commercial correspondence and professional literature.First class, two hours; second class, 1 hour a week.

First class : Introduction into commercial correspondence; circulars, information, recommendations, letters of credit, letters about account current, on money matters, on bankruptcy; every now and then a composition on subjects relating to dairying.

Second cĪass: Export trade; dispatch of goods; insurance, shipping affairs; letters on goods trade; market reports; letters concerning dairying; compositions on the same subject. Something about commercial practice and commercial nomenclature.

Reading about dairy subjects in the two classes.
Technical drawing.–First and second classes, 2 hours a week.

Simple geometrical and projection drawing from sketches, prints, and objects; reading architectural and mechanical drawings.

First aid for trade accidents.--Second class, one hour.

Structure of the human body; first-aid treatment for injuries; practical exercises.

Physical exercise. First and second classes, one hour a week.


Dairy matters.-(a) Examination of whole milk, skimmed milk, milk serum, cream, buttermilk, and whey; fat determination, especially according to the Gerber method; this mehod compared with others (Soxhlett, Gottlieb-Röse, etc.); determination of specific weight; examination of adulterations; determination of the degree of acidity; alcoholic reaction, cooking test, curdling test; fermentation test, dirt determination, enzyme reactions; how to distinguish boiled milk from unboiled milk.

(6) Examination of butter and of butter substitutes; determination of the refractometer number; determination of the percentage of volatile fatty acids (Leffmann-Beam method); fat determination according to Gerber and Gottlieb-Röse; determination of the salt percentage; determination of water percentage.

(c) Cheese examination; determination of fat according to Van Gulik, Bondzynski, and Gottlieb-Röse; determination of water percentage.

(d) Examination of auxiliary substances; salt, water percentage, chlorine percentage; qualitative examination for iron, magnesium, etc.; soda, percentage and purity; rennet, determination of strength, examination in the fermentation apparatus; amyl alcohol and sulphuric acid.

Physics and chemistry.—The practical exercises for these subjects serve principally to prepare the exercise in dairy matters.

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