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which four months are devoted to practical exercises in the instruction dairy, and four months to chemical and bacteriological laboratory exercises. Together with the practical work there is theoretical instruction, and visits to dairies and butter exhibitions in order to study the different types of dairies and to gain practice in the judg. ment of butter. In addition to the subjects belonging purely to dairy practice, there is instruction in the use of boilers and steam engines, building and architectural designing, and the care of domestic animals, especially with regard to their feeding, inspection, and ailments. The course is concluded by examinations in the different subjects, the solving of simple practical experimental problems connected with laboratory investigations, and the giving of suggestions for the planning and equipment of different types of dairies.

The education of the male dairy staff, i. e., such as are intended to become principals and managers of dairies, also takes place at the Dairy Institute at Alnarp, and builds on a well-attested general school education and also, as a rule, several years' experience in dairy practice. On private initiative the last mentioned feature has been so organized that arrangements have been made with a number of approved model dairies which have undertaken to exercise a certain control over those learning the practical work and attesting on their behalf. The first year is thus devoted to determining whether the worker is, generally speaking, suited for promotion to further instruction. If this is the case, he is promoted to a three years' course of practical instruction, i. e., one year as a practical machine mechanic, one year as a practical butter maker, and one year as a practical cheese maker, after which he may apply for admission to the dairy college. The training here extends over one year. Practical exercises go together with theoretical instruction, all the pupils having in turn to carry out all the tasks in the instruction dairy under the direction of the teaching dairymen and the dairy manager. The last-mentioned person is also the teacher in milk treatment and dairy technique; about two to three hours every day are devoted to theoretical instruction. Laboratory exercises take place in connection with the practical work. In addition to the subjects belonging purely to dairy practice, instruction is given in writing, calculation, bookkeeping, the use of boilers and steam engines, building and design, and in the feeding, care, and ailments of domestic animals.

The education of female dairy staff or manageresses for the smaller dairies takes place at seven approved private dairies which are managed and equipped on model lines, situated in various parts of the country; it builds on a general school education and dairy praetice. The latter is aquired at a certain number of dairies, which, being subsidized by the State, undertake to receive practicing pupils. The college course itself lasts one year. The pupils have to carry out all the tasks in the teaching dairy under the direction of the dairy manageress, and also to take theoretical instruction, which is given partly by the nearest resident consulting expert, provided that he is not prevented from doing so by other duties, and partly by the dairy manageress.

The education of female domestic consulting experts and teachers for the colleges of domestic economy situated in various parts of the country is carried out at the colleges of domestic economy at Rimforsa and Brogarden, where a two years' course is given, including practical and theoretical instruction in the treatment of milk, as well as in all activities connected with rural domestic work. Among the requirements for entrance into these colleges of domestic economy at Rimforsa and Brogarden are a thorough and well-attested knowledge of rural domestic practice and a certificate from a higher grade girls' school.

All dairy instruction is subsidized by the State. For the course for consulting experts at Alnarp, 6 pupils at the most are accepted, and for the course for dairymen, at the same place, 20 to 30 pupils. The pupils' fees for these courses correspond approximately to the cost of their food. In each of the courses there is a free scholarship. In each of the women's dairy colleges about 8 pupils are accepted, all of whom study, free of charge, and receive some support in addition.



N. KJAERGAARD JENSEN, professor of dairying at the Royal Veterinary and

Agricultural High School, Copenhagen.

When speaking of the system of dairy education as pursued in Denmark, one must consider it in two parts, namely, the junior and the senior divisions. The junior provides factory and creamery managers who possess sound practical knowledge of the duties underlying the successful manufacture of dairy products; and the senior division is devoted to the training of students who will become graduates in dairying and specialize as lecturers in dairy colleges.

The junior division can again be divided into practical and theoretical instruction. Practical training was for many years entirely free and unrestricted in its application. A factory or creamery could have as many apprentices as it chose, and the period of apprenticeship was not stipulated in any way; neither was it compulsory for the apprentice to accept tuition in butter and cheese making, or for the instructor to provide the necessary training in this and other branches of dairy work.

The defects of this education attracted the attention of those having the welfare of Danish dairying at heart, and more particularly the Association of Dairy Managers, who, after an examination of the defects, decided on improvements. In 1910 the directing board of the association took the initiative into its own hands, and prepared a scheme embodying a four-year period of apprenticeship The scheme was promptly recognized as a forward step and heartily approved by the industry. No compulsion, however, was applied at first to bring the training under the direct supervision of the association, but from 1918 the four-year apprenticeship became compulsory, with the association as the governing body. The rules applied to the teachers of this subdivision of practical education may be interpreted as follows:

Each member of the Association of Danish Managers undertakes to instruct an apprentice in all practical dairy factory or creamery work, also in accountancy and recording, and the instruction is to be thorough and applicable to the profitable management of the vaious departments of dairying. It is also necessary that the instructor shall place at the disposal of the apprentice up-to-date literature on dairying, in order that he may exercise to the fullest extent such combined opportunities.

During the first year the full routine of work has to be done. The second year is devoted to buttermaking, the third to cheese making, and in the fourth year the apprentice learns the mechanical side of his training such as machinery, heating, cool temperatures, etc. It is not necessary for the apprentice to go through the four years' work in the order mentioned, but it is essential to include the branches of training referred to in the four years' course; also the apprenticeship must be done in two and not more than three first-class dairy factories or creameries. During the last three years the apprentice has to undertake the accountancy as well as all milk and produce records, and prove his competency in business transactions in no light manner.

At the close of the four years' apprenticeship, the future manager receives “a certificate of apprenticeship, signed by the board of the association."

As already stated, previous to 1918 every factory or creamery had the right to have as many apprentices as it chose, but from that year it was agreed by all the dairy organizations that the number of apprentices at each factory or creamery should be limited to the proportion of experienced managers, to insure at any given time efficiency in manufacture.

THEORETICAL EDUCATION. Theoretical education was inaugurated in 1887 by the late founder and president of the Ladelund Agricultural College, Mr. Niels Pedersen, who instituted a five-month course of theoretical education for future managers. The syllabus was chiefly devoted to chemistry, physics, management of domestic animals, and machinery, and was continued in conjunction with the agricultural course till 1910. It must be mentioned here that in 1892 also a shorter course was founded with a three-month educational program, which was later extended to four months. Besides the above-mentioned dairy college, Mr. Jorgen Pedersen, president of the Dalum Agricultural College, in 1899 also commenced a special dairying course beginning with a threemonth tuition and later prolonging same to four months. All these courses continued till 1910, when the dairy associations intervened, owing to the rapid development of the dairy industry. They approached the two existing colleges with a suggestion that a more comprehensive and thorough system of education was required, and it was agreed to have the period of training extended to eight months, namely, from September 1 to the end of April. This arrangement was brought into effect in both colleges from September 1, 1910, and is still in force. It was also decided to put the system of education in both colleges on an equal footing and have the students examined in every subject once a year in the presence of a body of controlling delegates representing the Danish Government and dairy organizations. The students in these colleges are instructed in theoretical and


practical chemistry and bacteriology, physics, mangement of domestic animals, machinery, commercial calculations, and accountancy; also attention is given to writing, arithmetic, drawing, and gymnastics.

The working day in such a college is arranged as follows: Lectures from 8 a. m. to noon, with 10 minutes' recreation between each lecture; from noon to 2 p. m. is allowed for dinner and recreation, and the lectures are continued from 2 to 6 p. m. In the evening the students must read and prepare themselves for the next day. They are enrolled to attend every lecture; and should something prevent a student from doing so, an instructor or the director of the college must be informed of the cause.


Up to the year 1904 all students who desired to become graduates or lecturers in dairying received the same theoretical education as an agricultural student, at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural High College in Copenhagen. The syllabus comprised chemistry, physics, geology, botany, zoology, anatomy, land mensuration and leveling, drawing, mathematics, cultivation of plants, horse breeding, management of domestic animals, agricultural bookkeeping, and general agriculture, as well as agricultural chemistry. The normal course continued about twenty months and two examinations were held. The first examination covered general education and took place after about nine months' attendance; the second examination was devoted to the remaining subjects and was held at the end of the course.

On September 1, 1904, a supplementary course for agricultural students wishing to graduate in dairying was founded. To attend this course it was compulsory for the student to possess sufficient knowledge of German and English to enable him to read books written in these languages.

Before being admitted to the examination following the last course, the student has to pass, first the agricultural examinations, as well as show evidence of high character. The period for this course is also 20 months, and includes the following subjects: Physiology, agricultural chemistry, pathology, management of domestic animals, bacteriology, rural law, political economy, practical work in chemistry and bacteriology, and also drawing. The course is followed by an examination.

But the dairy associations were not entirely satisfied with the arrangement that a dairy student was obliged to follow a training in agriculture before beginning his special studies in dairying. Necessary steps were undertaken by the Danish Cooperative Dairy Association to have the above arrangement altered. The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural High College in Copenhagen immediately announced its willingness to support the association. The position was considered and new rules were issued to take effect September 1, 1921. The new course extends over two and two-thirds years; however,

; before passing the examinations the student must go through a practical education to be approved by the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural High College. This practical work is expected to

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take at least four years after the student has reached the age of 15, or three years after he has attained his seventeenth year.

The period of education is divided into two parts; the first continues for 18 months, and the following subjects are studied: Physics, meteorology, chemistry, geology, botany, microbiology, laws of. heredity, zoology, anatomy and physiology of domestic animals, political economy, and agricultural chemistry; practical work in physics, chemistry, and bacteriology, also drawing is taken. The second part continues about 18 months, and deals with the treatment of animals, management of dairy industry, dairy chemistry and bacteriology, also geology, pathology, and practical work in machinery, housebuilding, general agriculture, agricultural chemistry, dairy chemistry, and dairy bacteriology.

The first graduate in dairying, educated under the new rules, should complete his studies on the 1st of May, 1924.

Before closing this short contribution, it must be mentioned that also in the Copenhagen Polytechnicum, students studying to be factory chemist-engineers receive a certain dairying education.


K. H. M. VAN DER ZANDE, Ph. D., inspector of agricultural instruction,

The Hague.



About the year 1888 instruction in butter and cheese making was realized for the first time in our country. This was before the time that dairying in factories was put into practice, or at least, was in its first stages.

It is therefore easy to understand why the first teaching purposed was improvement of butter and cheese making at the farm. At the institution" de Leerhoeve voor Zuivelbereiding," i. e., "school farm for butter and cheese making," at Oudshoorn, it was resolved that it should be in the first place a “ model dairy farm," at which the

, pupils should be taught the perfect practice, and next that theoretical instruction should be given in natural sciences, especially chemistry, and, further, in everything that was deemed necessary for a thorough

a understanding of the processes going on in dairy matters.

This institution could not maintain its position and was discontinued after existing but a short time. About the causes leading to this failure only suppositions can be suggested. At any rate, it appeared that a practical theoretical school of this kind was, at that time, not in demand in our country.

A little later, about 1889, the “ Vereeniging voor Vakonderwijs in de Zuivelbereiding," i. e., the "Association for Professional Instruction in Butter and Cheese Making " was established in Friesland, which founded a school. This school was, in some degree, cast in the same mold as the first mentioned. It was also a practical and theoretical school with a dairy factory, which, however, was better equipped for butter and cheese making and which put into practice the methods then adopted at the great farms in Schleswig and Denmark. This school existed from 1889 to 1900, just at the time when

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