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butter makers. The instruction consisted of practical exercises in a course of one to one and a half years. The importation of the cenirifuge system late in the eighties brought a revolution in dairy management. There was necessity for an increase of professionals, not only women but also men, and a greater claim was laid on their theoretical instruction. The number of dairy schools therefore had to be increased and theoretical instruction was given greater attention. As the Royal Society for Promoting the Welfare of Norway had not the means to reform the schools as wished, the dairy instruction from 1888 came under the care of the State.
These newly founded schools, of which one was for men, were placed at private butter factories, with courses of one and one-half years. The State partly paid the manager of the factory, who also was the head of the school, and gave the factory a certain amount of money for each pupil. The instruction consisted mostly of practical exercises, in that the pupils by turns took part in all work, but 300 hours were also spent in instruction in science, dairying, and hookkeeping
With the great development which dairying passed through late in the last century, and in the beginning of this, these schools soon became unsatisfactory, especially in regard to the theoretical instruction. An enlargement of this, however, could only be carried out by decreasing the pupils' practical work in the factories. In order not to weaken this manual skill a new arrangement was introduced; the pupils had to work in advance one or two years in a butter or cheese factory to gain access to the school.
In 1907 this new school arrangement was adopted and has later retained its principle; the schools have, however, by constant internal reforms, tried to keep themselves apace with the demands of the times, as regards both teaching staff and instruction materials. The State now has five dairy schools.
One school for men, intended for the preparation of dairy managers, affords practical exercises for two years at two private butter and cheese factories, approved by the State Department of Agriculture and under the supervision of the principal of the school. Then theoretical instruction is given in a course of 10 months with about 1,000 hours. To gain admission to this course the apprentice has to pass an examination in Norwegian, arithmetic, history, and geography.
The instruction in the school covers: Norwegian, mathematics, science, cheese and butter making, animal husbandry, mechanics, building construction, commercial science, bookkeeping, laboratory exercises, and drawing. The school closes with an official examination.
During his apprenticeship the student receives a small salary from the factory in which he works. At the school the instruction is free and the State pays maintenance expenses for some of the pupils.
Four schools for women. These schools are both practical and theoretical, and last 15 months. They are placed at well-known private butter factories. The principal of the school and the instructors are partly paid by the State. At least one year's practice in a butter
or checse factory and a good grammar school foundation are required for entering this school. By turns the pupils take part in all the work and receive a theoretical instruction, of about 600 hours, which consists of Norwegian, arithmetic, bookkeeping, science, butter and cheese making, animal husbandry, and laboratory exercises. The school closes with an examination.
The instruction and maintenance at the school are free. The State pays the factory a certain amount of money for each pupil.
B. THE HIGHER DAIRY INSTRUCTION.
Before 1899 there was no higher school for dairy education in Norway. The young men who wanted to receive greater knowledge within their profession had to go abroad to study. In 1899, however, à dairy division was started at the Norwegian College of Agriculture which was especially intended for the education of dairy advisers and instructors. Two years' practical work, examinations from the lower dairy school for men, and examen artium (answering to a two years' college course in letters and science in America) or a preparatory course of one year in languages and mathematics, is required for admission to the college.
The college education covers lectures, exercises, and excursions, and lasts three years.
The first year (September to June), lectures in the following subjects are given: Mathematics, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, anatomy, physiology, heredity, sociology, surveying, and drawing. The second year: Special dairy bacteriology, dairy chemistry, technology, management of dairy plants, dairy hygiene, animal husbandry, mechanics, building construction, history of agriculture, law, laboratory work, and drawing. The third year: History of
, dairying, pedagogy, heating and cooling technology, laboratory and technical exercises, and the designing of plans for factory construction.
Instruction is free. Only certain fees have to be paid for access to the laboratories, examinations, etc.
C. SPECIAL COURSES.
With a grant from the treasury, a special course is yearly held, traveling among the lower schools. Every one who is interested in dairying has access to these courses. Lectures are given on practical subjects in the industry, and experts give demonstrations in the factory about butter and cheese making.
D. DAIRY INSTRUCTION IN THE AGRICULTURAL SCHOOLS.
Butter and cheese making was previously a very important subject in the instruction at the agricultural schools, but at the end of the last century it was almost entirely taken out, and only in the very latest years has the subject been readopted in the ordinary instruction, but not to the extent which must be considered justified and necessary.
INSTRUCTION IN DAIRY SCIENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL COL
LEGE AT WAGENINGEN.
BOKE VAN DER BURG, professor, Agricultural College, Wageningen, Holland.
Tuition at the agricultural college at Wageningen has for its object the training and preparation of its students for the independent study of agricultural science, and for the exercise of social professions that require education in that science.
The higher agricultural tuition comprises, together with the study of horticulture and forestry, the study of agriculture both in tropical countries and in the temperate zones, more especially in the Netherlands. Only students of the latter branch attend the college courses in dairying.
The diploma of agricultural engineer is conferred upon such students as have completed their studies in the agricultural college, which normally take five years' time. The agricultural engineer, after having made and defended a dissertation, may take his degree as doctor in agricultural science. To obtain that diploma a student must submit consecutively to three examinations: (1) The propaedeutical examination, (2) the candidate's, or bachelor's, and (3) the engineer's examination.
No matter where the examinee may have mastered the knowledge required, every one is admitted to the examinations in the agricultural college, provided he be possessed of a final diploma from the "Hoogere Burgerschool," a five years course (of which the nearest equivalent in America is the high school), or of a certificate of sufficient preparation for one of the universities, or for the technical high school. Consequently the higher agricultural tuition in Holland is on a level with university tuition.
The propaedeutic examination is the same for all students in the agricultural college, and comprises the following branches:
4. Mathematics (analytical geometry, the elements of differential and integral calculus), and mechanics (elements of applied mechanics, introductory knowledge of the theory of instruments, power machines, mechanical drawing, elements of hydrodynamics, hydrometry).
6. Physics (chapters from the theory of radiation, interference, deflection, polarisation, laws of radiation, solar radiation), and meteorology.
C. Chemistry (general view of organic chemistry, knowledge of the principal organic and inorganic compositions, physical chemistry, qualitative analysis).
d. Mineralogy and geology (the principal soil-constituting minerals and rocks in connection with geological phenomena).
e. Botany (physiology, biology, and morphology).
The study of a candidate (bachelor) takes a period of two years; it is split up into four different branches, viz, plant industry, animal husbandry, dairy industry, and economics.
The tuition for the study of a candidate (bachelor) is subdivided into obligatory subjects and optional subjects. In the list below the optional subjects are marked with an asterisk (*). A student who specializes in dairy science is obliged to submit to an examination in the branches appearing in italics. Besides, he may obtain a certifying statement on his diploma to the effect that he has been passed
after an examination in any of the other subject matters. Following are the branches of subject matter for a candidate's study:
Cultivation of agricultural plants (farm crop production).
ing of polders and fields).
tilizers, quantitative analysis).
stock judging, health and disease of animals).
*Agricultural architecture. As a consequence of the above curriculum of a candidate's study, all prospective agricultural engineers will have gone through a general agricultural training before they specialize in a definite branch.
After completion of a candidate's study the specialization, which hitherto had been a very practical one, is carried on more forcibly.
As regards the branch called dairy industry, its study includes at present the following obligatory lecture subjects: (1) Dairy science, (2) microbiology, (3) feeding of domestic animals, (4) chemistry of fats, and (5) one additional optional subject. The student's option, however, requires the approval of the college board.
For obtaining admission to the engineer's examination the candidate has to hand in a certificate of having been actively employed in dairy manufacturing work (in a butter and cheese making concern or a city milk plant) for a period of six months at the least.
The tuition in dairy technology and dairy science may be briefly summarized as follows: Lactology, composition and properties of milk; chemical and biological testing of milk; manufacturing of butter, cheese, and other milk products; chemical analysis of milk products and accessory substances used in dairy industry; milk hygiene; city milk supply.
For the theoretical tuition in dairy industry one hour a week is available in the study of a candidate (bachelor) and two hours a week in that of an engineer. Three hours a week are apportioned to candidates for practical experimentation in the laboratory for dairy products, whereas an unlimited number of hours are al. lowed to such as are reading for their engineer's examination for the purpose of making scientific investigations under the guidance of a professor of dairy science.
Besides, the students are under the obligation of being actively emploved' for some time in the chemical laboratory and in the laboratory for microbiology.
In the course of the engineer's study the students are called upon to write independently a paper on one or more special subjects, with the aid of literature bearing upon the subject. In this connection it may be remarked that the general library of the agricultural college possesses a pretty complete collection of manuals on milk and milk products in the Dutch, Danish, English, French, German, and Swedish languages; besides it subscribes for the chief professional journals and periodicals in these languages, in all about 40 papers. Moreover, the dairy department possesses besides textbooks, numerous reprints, and reports relative to dairy science and to the manufacture of dairy products.
In the work on stock breeding and dairying the agricultural college has the use of about 30 milk cows; their milk is prepared in the Technical department for the manufacture of dairy products. In this department, which as yet is fitted out on a modest footing, various experiments are carried on, and students are given an opportunity to take part in those experiments.
DAIRY INSTRUCTION IN SWEDEN.
LARS FREDRIK ROSENGREN, Ph. D., principal of the Dairy Institute, Alnarp,
The aim of dairy instruction is to train people for various kinds of work, more or less expert, in the field of dairying, and it thus includes the education of:
(1) Teachers for scientific or higher instruction and leaders for experimental work.
(2) Consulting experts and teachers for less advanced instruction.
(3) Male practical professionals, i. e., principals or managers of large or small dairies.
(4) Female practical professionals, i. e., manageresses of the smaller dairies.
(5) Female domestic consulting experts and teachers whose duty it is to work for the rational treatment of milk in the home.
The qualification for advanced teaching and research work is a thorough scientific training, and is acquired by passing an advanced examination in science and submitting a test thesis, preferably in chemistry, at the university. In addition there is special training in subjects connected with dairy practice, which coincides with that given in the education of consulting experts, and takes place at the Dairy Institute at Alnarp.
The training of consulting experts includes, in addition to the necessary instruction in dairy practice, a general education in agricultural subjects, but the advanced examination in fundamental subjects of natural science at the university or other college may be excused. The agricultural training consists in the pupil, after passing the matriculation examination or acquiring corresponding knowledge in general fundamental subjects, spending two years in agricultural practice, and then going through a two years agricultural, course at one of the two agricultural colleges in the country. The special education of the consulting expert occupies one year, of