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while the other department covers the handling and manufacture of the milk and its products.

Nearly all of the colleges maintain in one or the other of the departments described herds representing the leading breeds of dairy cattle, to be used for instruction work with the students, and for experimental purposes. These herds usually include representative animals of the Jersey, Guernsey, Ayrshire, and Holstein breeds, and in some of the States milking Shorthorns as well. Frequently the large part of the herd consists of the particular type of dairy animal which may be best suited to the commercial needs of the State. Thus we find in States where fluid milk is the most important dairy product, Holsteins compose the larger part of the college herd, while in States where butter is more important a larger percentage of the college herd consists of Jerseys or Guernseys.

In some States the dairy department also maintains a farm for the production of feeding stuffs for the dairy herd and the study of problems in connection with this phase of the work.

In order to have material for laboratory work, many departments maintain a fairly good-sized commercial dairy business-in some of the larger ones amounting to a cash turnover of from $100,000 to $200,000 or more per year. If properly conducted this commercial work is of great value to both students and teachers, since it makes it possible to give laboratory work of a really practical nature and gives opportunity for the study of many problems which would otherwise be impossible.

In many of the institutions, the teaching work having to do directly with the breeding, feeding, and management of dairy cattle developed first. This is natural because these are the problems confronting the dairymen in regions where milk production is new, and the colleges have tried to meet the most important needs of the farmers. Later, corresponding courses in the bandling of market milk, the manufacture of butter and cheese and other dairy products have received due attention. The more recent development in the teaching work includes courses in the condensing and powdering of milk, in the making of certain types of fancy cheeses, the manufacture of by-products, and in dairy economics and dairy management as applied both to dairy farms and dairy plants, and courses in the marketing of dairy products.

The particular lines of work given special emphasis depends very largely upon the relative importance of the different dairy products in each State. For example, in States like Wisconsin, special emphasis is given to instruction work in connection with the Cheddar cheese industry. In Iowa, similar emphasis is given to the manufacture of butter, while in New York State special attention is given to the handling and marketing of fluid milk, because of nearness to markets and the relative importance of this product as compared with butter and cheese and the other manufactured dairy products.

In institutions where it is the policy to lay out prescribed lines of work for the students who are fitting themselves for special fields of work, students of dairy industry follow a fairly definite course in which the work is all prescribed. The University of Illinois is an illustration of this method of instruction.

In certain other institutions where the policy is to allow students a free selection, the work in dairy industry is optional, leaving the student free to elect little or much as he may desire. This condition exists at Cornell.

The production and management of dairy cattle and the handling of dairy products requires a thorough knowledge of the underlying principles of such sciences as genetics, chemistry, and bacteriology, and it is interesting to note that thorough courses in these subjects are required of students specializing in dairy work in most of our departments.

It is of interest to note that as a result of careful consideration by a committee composed of the heads of nine dairy departments and representatives of some of the leading commercial dairy interests, it was the consensus of opinion that students preparing for work in the field of dairying should receive as thorough a training as possible in the fundamental sciences, especially chemistry and bacteriology.

The following extract from the report of this committee will be of interest:

The course of study which will best fit men for responsible positions iri wilk plants should include a thorough training in the fundamental sciences coupleil with as much applied work as the student's time will permit.

The fundamental sciences should include chemistry, physics, and bacteriology, each to be followed by courses making clear their application to the marketmilk industry.

The applied courses should include work in market milk, butter, cheese (in. cluding fancy cheeses), ice cream, condensed milk, powdered milk, dairy by. products, and dairy machinery.

The instruction in these courses should be directed toward showing the appli cation of science to these subjects as well as to develop manual skill.

Special attention should be given to the subject of economics. The work in this field likewise should include training in both fundamentals and their application to dairy problems.

During the senior year there should be a course in milk-plant management which should bring together and coordinate the previous teaching in scientific and applied courses.

We feel that the milk companies can render valuable assistance in the better development of good men by making it possible for students to get experience in milk plants during the summer months.

The number of courses and amount of dairy work given, varies in the different institutions, depending upon the importance of the dairy industry in the particular State. In some of the larger dairying States from 10 to 15 courses are offered in strictly dairy work. some institutions giving a total of more than 40 university credit hours.

The dairy instruction in our colleges of agriculture is planned to give students a working knowledge of the basic principles involved in the production and handling of dairy cattle, market milk, and the manufacturing and marketing of dairy products, and it is believed that students who have faithfully pursued the courses of instruction prescribed by our dairy departments should be qualified to fill, with at least a fair degree of success, positions as practical dairy farmers. breeders of dairy cattle, superintendents or managers of dairy farms, and operators of dairy plants. It is also believed that this collegiate instruction lays a foundation for additional work as graduate students which will prepare persons for positions as scientific experts



in connection with our large commercial dairy concerns, for teachers in the universities and secondary schools and for research workers in Government departments and State experiment stations.


Chairman PEARSON. Mr. Stocking came back with a pretty good punch, so I don't know what to say about this next speaker. I think I will follow the advice of Mark Twain when he said, “When in doubt, my son, tell the truth.” [Laughter.] That is what I tried to do for Stocking. That is what I am going to do for Eckles, let the consequences be what they may.

Professor Eckles also has been a leader in dairy education a considerable number of years. He has been a source of inspiration to a very large number of young men, and now they are older men who are scattered all over these United States. A good many of the leaders in different States point to Professor Eckles as their old professor, and they go to him yet, and always freely and with joy, to talk over their problems and get his best advice.

He has made a reputation for himself along various lines, but particularly in connection with dairy cattle, their feeding, breeding, and nutrition. For many years he served as head of the dairy work in Missouri, and then the great State of Minnesota reached right over Iowa down into Missouri and picked him up with their long, rich arm and placed him in charge of the work in dairying in the University of Minnesota.

I am very happy to present to you, Professor Eckles, who will speak to you on Graduate instruction in dairy husbandry." [Applause.]


CLARENCE HENRY ECKLES, D. Sc., chief, division of dairy husbandry, University

of Minnesota, University Farm, St. Paul, Minn. Mr. Chairman and gentlemen : Graduate instruction and graduate students are terms the usage of which is limited practically to American educational circles, and for this reason it may be well first of all to make clear the relation of graduate instruction to other lines of education according to the American system.

Graduate instruction, according to American usage of this term, means instruction after the completion of a four-year university course. The child after completing eight grades in the elementary or grammar school, normally one grade each year, enters the high school. The high school course normally covers four years, and prepares the student for admission to the university or college.

The curriculum of the university is arranged with the expectation that four years of nine months each will ordinarily be required for its completion, except in the case of professional courses such as medicine or engineering, where more time is often required.

One year of advanced study accompanied by the preparation of a suitable thesis leads to the degree of master of science or master of arts. The degree of doctor of philosophy or doctor of science represents a minimum of three years spent in graduate study, with the publication of a thesis which makes a contribution to knowledge. A

graduate student is expected to devote about two-thirds of his time to his major subject, including the preparation of a thesis based upon his researches. In addition he selects one or more minor subjects closely related to and supporting his major subject.

The man who is interested in graduate work in dairy husbandry normally has completed a four-year curriculum in agriculture and therefore holds a degree from a university or college. Possibly he has served in a minor capacity on the staff of a college or experiment station or has been engaged in commercial lines. As a result of his experiences he has come to recognize that his best development in the future depends upon perfecting his technical knowledge of the subject.

The typical agricultural student in general does not make up his mind as to the subject in which he wishes to specialize until he reaches at least the third year of his course, often not until later. During the last two years in the university he has opportunity to direct his efforts to some extent along the line he has chosen. During the fouryear university course in agriculture the student becomes more or less familiar with the sciences upon which agriculture and dairy husbandry practices are based and has had some instruction in the application of these sciences in the field in which he is interested.

If the student decides upon a business career, his school experience ordinarily stops when the university curriculum is completed. If, however, he decides to take up dairy work of a professional typethat is, to enter the field of university teaching, agricultural experiment station work, or the Government service he finds the need of more specialized highly technical training within the field in which he proposes to work. A similar need for more highly specialized instruction is felt by some who decide to become technical dairy experts. A man in either of these situations finds that a period of from one to three years of graduate work meets his requirements.

The present status of graduate work in dairy husbandry can best be understood by a brief statement of the development of dairy instruction in American agricultural colleges.

The first instruction given in the United States within the field now known as dairying or dairy husbandry was a part of general instruction in agriculture. The first definitely organized instruction in dairying began about 1890 in the form known as short courses. These short courses dealt primarily with dairy manufactures and had for their object the vocational training of men as operators of butter and cheese factories.

The early instructors in dairy husbandry were either men educated in the sciences, especially chemistry or bacteriology, who had through their interest in dairy problems acquired a knowledge of the technical phases of dairy work, or were men who had been especially successful in commercial work, having in many cases been selfeducated so far as technical dairying was concerned.

Beginning in the early nineties, courses in dairying began to be incorporated in the curricula of the best developed agricultural colleges. These early courses mostly dealt with the composition of milk, testing milk for fat and total solids, cream separation, and butter making. In those days this instruction was largely given in connection with the operation of commercial creameries and cheese factories. Systematic instruction in dairy production was not developed until considerably later. The first instruction dealing with dairy cattle was in judging animals, and in most institutions was a part of the general instruction in animal husbandry. Later, specialized courses were introduced dealing with the selection, care, and management of dairy cattle.

The first graduate students in dairy husbandry were generally assistants in the commercial activities of the dairy department. Since graduate instruction at that time was not organized in dairy departments, the few who did enroll for graduate instruction did the logical thing and worked under the supervision of an advisor connected with a science department, usually chemistry or bacteriology.

The writer is unable to say who were the first men to take advanced degrees as preparation for work in the field of dairy husbandry. Very few, probably not over four or five, received such degrees in an American institution previous to 1900.

Agricultural colleges in the United States were with one or two exceptions established as a result of an act of Congress passed in 1864. Development was exceedingly slow at first. Since 1900, however, the growth in number and the advance in standards has been one of the outstanding features of American educational advancement.

With this advance in standards, both in instruction and in research lines, has come the demand for better-trained men. The first men to be placed in charge of dairy husbandry departments were in some cases men without college degrees; in others, men trained in science who lat r took up dairy work.

In th next stage of development men who had undergraduate degrees in agriculture were given responsibilities in connection with dairy husbandry work in colleges and experiment stations, as more fully trained men were not available. Gradually men with master's degrees became more numerous and occasionally one even went so far as to complete the requirements for the doctor's degree.

The tendency at present is more and mor: to emphasize graduate study and an advanced degree as a prerequisite to election to an important teaching or research position. Already a few institutions have announced the general policy that a doctor's degre, will in the future be a requirement for election as head of a dairy husbandry department.


A recent survey of American universities and agricultural colleges indicates a total of 121 men enrolled in graduate work in dairy husbandry this year in 20 institutions. Of these, 57 are interested primarily in dairy products and 64 in dairy production. Of these. 23, or about 20 per cent, are candidates for the doctor's degree. This enrollment is probably more than double that of five years ago. The survey also shows the interesting fact that a considerable number of these pursuing advanced courses are preparing themselves for technical positions outside of coll. ge, experiment, or Government positions.

Inquiry concerning the minor subject shows chemistry and bacteriology far in the lead followed by economics, animal nutrition, genetics, farm management, and veterinary science. Those who are

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