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or indirectly, give some recognition of the work that they have completed in the school at the college, but graduates of State or county schools receive little if any credit.
As to entrance requirements for students that have completed the course in a school of agriculture but are not high-school graduates, one college of agriculture states definitely, “ The nondegree courses. are not preparatory to work in the University of , nor do they yield credit toward the degree.” The rule of another is, “ Graduates of the school of agriculture of the University of who have completed the two summers of supervised farm work offered in the school course, one additional school year, and one additional summer's work, or the equivalent thereof, will be admitted to the college of agriculture.” Other colleges are somewhat more liberal, but in no case is the school of agriculture recognized as a preparatory school for college.
College credit is not given for work done in the school of agriculture except in exceptional cases. Sometimes a student is excused from taking a required college subject, without credit, to avoid repetition.
Vocational instruction in agriculture in secondary schools has made tremendous progress during recent years, and vocational training in dairy husbandry has received its full measure of attention, but as the dairy industry continues to grow and increase in importance there is every reason to believe that as our secondary schools are developed one of the marked improvements will be enlarged and improved herds and barns, together with adequate laboratories for the vocational instruction in dairy husbandry.
Chairman PEARSON. Everyone who is informed about the development of dairying throughout the world knows of the wonderful things that are being done in Canada. Ile knows about the great center of dairy education and has no doubt been told that much of the inspiration which is responsible for the splendid work of our dairy friends in Canada is due to the veteran leader--I hope he will excuse me for putting in the word “veteran,” for I don't want to carry the idea that he has gotten along to the time when he should retire on a pension-Prof. H. H. Dean. As compared with some of the rest of us he is a veteran leader because he has been in the work longer than most of us.
You are to hear now from Prof. H. H. Dean, professor of dairy husbandry of Ontario Agricultural College, who will read a paper on “ Methods of teaching dairying to college students.” [Applause.]
METHODS OF TEACHING DAIRYING TO COLLEGE STUDENTS.
HENRY H. DEAN, B. S. A., professor of dairy husbandry, Ontario Agricultural
College, Guelph, Canada.
Successful living is largely a matter of adjusting ourselves to our surroundings. The successful teacher must be an adept in order to adjust himself or herself to a new class of students each year. If it were not for the fact that mankind in the mass acts much the same under a given set of conditions, it would be diflicult, if not impossible, for a teacher or lecturer to obtain satisfactory results in his or her classes, because of the great variety of human subjects which appear in the classes to be taught.
The writer of this paper speaks from 32 years' experience as a lecturer on dairy problems at one institution. It is of this experience he wishes to speak.
In the first place, the lecturer must be able to command the confidence and good will of his or her students. No one can hope to succeed with classes who fails in this respect. In order to secure the will to learn among students, the teacher must know his subject thoroughly, must have confidence in his ability to teach (but not overconfidence to such an extent that conceit is the dominating feature), be enthusiastic, and able to provoke enthusiasm in those who are taught, and have the faculty of seeing problems from the students' viewpoint. Sympathy with, and encouragement of, classes are also important factors in securing good results as a teacher or lecturer.
Some teachers rely almost entirely on the lecture plan. He needs to be an exceptionally good lecturer who can impart the necessary information on a subject like dairying without the aid of laboratory practice. In connection with the lecture plan, the writer has tried dictation of notes, in the class, which is a time-wasting method; and allowing students to take their own notes, which is not satisfactory except with those who are expert note takers; also the plan of placing notes on the blackboard to be copied during the lecture period has been tested, but this distracts the attention of the class too much. The best plan is to use a textbook, together with what explanations may seem necessary. The students then have the main facts of the subject before them. If they miss a lecture or two due to sickness or other causes, they can get most of the material from the textbook; and if the lecturer, through absence or lack of sufficient time, is unable to cover all the work assigned to the class, the students may be held responsible because of the fact that the textbook contains the kernel of the subject. There is just one danger in the use of a textbook, namely, that students may think it is unnecessary for them to attend lectures. This is a mistaken idea, as the presence of a good lecturer is a source of inspiration to the student. Pleasing personality is also an important factor in a good teacher or lecturer. This is something not easily defined, but is a valuable asset.
Regarding textbooks, I would observe that these should be concisely written, clearly expressed, and free from “ vain repetitions." Many textbooks are altogether too voluminous for classroom work. A good index is helpful. A few good illustrations aid the student in grasping the idea.
But lectures alone, no matter how brilliant the lectyrer, nor how good the textbook, are not sufficient for the teaching of a subject like dairying. Laboratory work is needed for best results. The amount of laboratory work which can be given depends on the nature and amount of equipment at hand, the time allotted to the subject, and the staff available. A much larger staff is needed in the laboratory than in the lecture room. The number of students who may satisfactorily receive lectures is limited only by seating capacity and the range of the human voice for good hearing. In the laboratory, a maximum of 20 to 25 students per teacher is all that should be allowed; 10 to 15 is better.
The ideal plan is to provide individual laboratory work for each student to such an extent that he or she may become a proficient practical operator in each branch of dairying: For example, in milk testing there should be sufficient equipment in the laboratory to allow each member of the class to work out each and every problem by himself or herself. The same with cheese making, butter making, ice cream, and condensed and powdered milk manufacture. I realize that this means a very heavy expenditure for building and equipment as well as for instructors, but it is needed for the best results in teaching the science and practice of dairying.
In addition to the lectures and laboratory work given at a school, college, or university, it is advisable that students visit as many as possible of the commercial dairy plants and marketing centers. Better still, require that students spend at least two or three seasons in the various branches of commercial dairying between college terms. Students trained in this way are able to do credit to themselves and to their alma mater, when they go out into the practical everyday business of the world, where men are usually rated by what they can do, rather than by what they are supposed to know. One thing which characterizes modern science more than anything else is that it aims to solve practical, rather than theoretical, problems. The great French scientist, Pasteur, is reported to have said: “Nothing is more agreeable to a man who has made science his career than to increase the number of discoveries, but his cup of joy is full when the result of his observations is put to immediate practical test.” On another occasion he said: “Work can be made into a pleasure and (it) alone is profitable to a man, to his country, to the world." This latter observation should put to shame any student who is inclined to look upon a college education as a means of enabling him to live a life of ease, and to get a living as well as have a good time, without working.
As to the relative merits of short and long courses in dairying, my experience leads me to think that both are necessary for the best results. While there is no doubt a tendency, in a new country like Canada, for students to think they can get all that is needed in the way of dairy education in 2 to 10 weeks, the best dairymen at our college are those who have taken a short course of 10 weeks, and then have entered for the regular four-year course, specializing in dairying during the third and fourth years. The first two years consist of broad courses in general agriculture and the sciences relating to agriculture, together with training in speaking and writing the English language. This prepares a student for his special subject, dairying, and gives him a broader viewpoint on life's problems, so that he may the better adjust himself to the conditions likely to be met with in his pathway through life.
The demand for men trained in this way exceeds the supply The graduates in dairying from the Ontario Agricultural College have good positions awaiting them as soon as they leave college. The salaries which they can command in commercial work are usually greater than are paid for teaching. In fact, there is danger of our colleges losing many of their best teachers because the salaries are too low. In addition, those who remain will be difficult to replace on superannuating, because the young men are chiefly going into commercial branches of dairying. Few are attracted to academic work. This is a serious situation in both Canada and the United States. The remedy is to make the teaching of dairying and the investigating of dairy problems quite as attractive as commercial propositions, not only from the viewpoint of remuneration, but also by giving the very best support possible in the way of satisfactory buildings, equipment, and teaching staff, in order that the work may be carried on satisfactorily by those who are responsible for the training of future dairymen.
Chairman PEARSON. Professor Dean has proven to you that I was right when I said something about a source of enthusiasm in the office which he occupies. I hope that for many years to come Professor Dean will continue his position of leadership in the dairy industry of Canada.
And now we are to hear from two of the great dairy teachers of the United States. The first made his reputation a good many years ago as a dairy bacteriologist, in the days when bacteriology was just beginning to be applied to dairy work. He went to Cornell University from Connecticut. He has served as head of the great dairy industry department in that institution for some 11 or 15 years, I believe, and it is not too much to say that very largely through the splendid work he has been doing there, Cornell University has been rewarded by receiving an appropriation for a dairy building costing in the vicinty of $200,000, which is to be dedicated in the next few days.
I understand that in answer to his earnest desire, he is to be given an opportunity to specialize upon certain dairy investigations, research work which he has been anxious to take up these many years, but has been prevented by his administrative duties as head of the dairy department and for a time as acting dean of the New York State CoĪlege of Agriculture.
I have great pleasure in presenting to you Professor Stocking who will speak on "Collegiate instruction in dairying.” [Applause.
Prof. W. A. STOCKING. Mr. Chairman and members of the World's Dairy Congress: The chairman calls to my mind the story that was told of Henry Ward Beecher. It seems that at a meeting where Mr. Beecher was to speak, the chairman put himself out to eulogize Mr. Beecher in a most flowery and eloquent way. When Mr. Beecher got the floor, he said, “Mr. Chairman, your introduction makes me feel now just the way the pancake feels when the molasses is poured on.” [Laughter.]
The chairman in his introduction failed to say that the service which he rendered at Cornell University was responsible for the building of the dairy building which the department there has occupied during the 17 years that I have been at Cornell. That was back in the days when it was a new thing for a college of agriculture to secure from the State a large appropriation for the development of a building for dairy industry, and that building has stood as one
of the landmarks in the development of dairy education in this country.
The chairman also mentioned the fact that I was to be given an opportunity for endeavoring, at least, to do a little research work instead of devoting all of my time to the administrative duties which have taken my time for the last few years. I would like to remind him that I am now simply endeavoring to carry out the agreement that was made at the time he brought me to Cornell some 17 years ago when he definitely agreed that I was to have half of my time for research work. [Laughter.]
COLLEGIATE INSTRUCTION IN DAIRYING.
WILLIAM A. STOCKING, professor of dairy industry, Cornell University,
Ithaca, N. Y.
Because of the vital relationship which exists between dairying and successful general agriculture, dairy work has developed as an important part of the farming activities of nearly all our States. For this reason the colleges of agriculture have developed teaching and research facilities in this field to meet the needs of the industry. In the growth of the educational work in dairying, in the colleges of agriculture two types of organization have developed. In the one type, all of the work relating to dairying has been included in one department usually known as that of " dairy husbandry.” Pennsylvania, Michigan, and Illinois are examples of this type of organization. In these institutions the courses of instruction relating to the breeding, feeding, and management of dairy cattle, together with courses on the composition and testing of dairy products, the handling of milk, and the manufacture of the various types of dairy products, are all included in the one department.
In the other type of organization, the work relating to dairy cattle is combined with similar work for other groups of farm animals in a department usually known as “animal husbandry," while the work with the handling and manufacture of milk and its various products is cared for in another department, in which case the term, “ dairy industry," is usually applied to the department. New York, Ohio, and Wisconsin are examples of this type of organization where the dairy work is divided between two departments.
The first type of organization may lead to a certain amount of duplication of work, since such courses as the principles of breeding and feeding are usually given by the department of animal husbandry for other groups than dairy students, while the department of dairy industry gives similar courses for its own students.
The second type of organization is based on the theory that the principles underlying such subjects as the breeding and feeding of cattle whether they be for dairy or other purposes are substantially the same and can be given to all students in the same course, regardless of the group of cattle in which the student may be especially interested. The same thing is true of certain other courses. At these institutions it is felt that the logical point of division is between the animal and its products rather than between the types of animals, and that the work can be more economically given where one department handles the courses having to do with the animal,