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husbandry, was the foundation of what are now large colleges of agriculture.
During later years separate secondary schools of agriculture have been established, either as State schools or county schools, and these schools are giving courses in dairying. Normal schools in several States are giving a course in agriculture, and in a select few of these schools the dairy course is adequate to train teachers for vocational schools.
In 1917 the Smith-Hughes law was passed, which provides for å Federal subsidy of one-half of the salary of instructors for the time they devote to teaching agriculture in approved secondary schools. This Federal subsidy and the supervision that goes with it have been responsible for “Smith-Hughes" high schools, established in all parts of the country. It is probably true that more students are obtaining vocational training in these schools than in all other secondary schools combined.
DEMAND FOR VOCATIONAL COURSE,
Vocational instruction in dairy husbandry is now offered in all parts of the United States. The demand for vocational courses is evidenced by the constantly increasing number of students who matriculate at the schools throughout the country. The enrollment of students at the schcol of an eastern agricultural college where both dairy production and manufactures is offered is perhaps representative. The school was organized in 1918, and the enrollment has been as follows:
37 209 280 324
OBJECT OF SCHOOLS.
The object of secondary schools is to give practical vocational instruction in agriculture to meet the needs of young men who are unable to take the regular four-year course but who wish to obtain a mere extensive training than can be secured in the short course. The courses prepare for living in the country, whether that living contemplates actual farming or some more technical application of scientific agriculture, such as dairy manufactures. It has been found that students who want vocational training in dairy manufactures prefer a short course of from one to five months, while the longer course is preferred by those who wish training for dairy farming, For this reason the curiculum of most secondary schools is arranged primarily to prepare the student for farm life.
The entrance requirements for secondary schools vary somewhat. Most of them require that the student shall have completed the eighth grade in common school, or the equivalent, and that they be from 16 to 18 years of age. A few schools require that the applicant for admission shall have spent a specified time, varying from
three months to a year, on a farm or in a dairy manufacturing plant. Practically all of the schools will allow the student who can not meet entrance requirements to matriculate on condition that they will demonstrate their ability to do the work. This privilege is usually granted only to those who can meet the age requirement, but in some cases younger students are admitted when they certify that they have completed all of the work available in their local school.
LENGTH OF COURSE.
The length of the vocational course in the majority of secondary schools is six terms of about 12 weeks each, although in some schools the terms are shorter or longer than that period. Some institutions give a two-year course, with three terms a year, running from October until June, but in a majority of the schools the course consists of two terms a year for three years, beginning in October and continuing until the end of March. The latter arrangement is preferred as it allows the student to be on the farm during the growing season when he is needed, and also when he can obtain practical training to the best advantage. In the high schools the course usually continues throughout the four years.
SUPERVISED PRACTICAL WORK.
In some States, where most of the students come from farms, no attempt is made to supervise their work during the vacations, but where a considerable number of the men are not farm reared, or come from farms where dairy cows are not kept, they are required to spend the vacation period in farm placement training. This training is under a supervisor, who is one of the regular instructors of the school. A representative plan of placing men is as follows:
First, the students are interviewed as to the type of farm on which they are to be placed. Second, the student's qualifications are carefully itemized in a letter of application to the employer for employment. Third, each student is required to abide by all rulings made.
Each student is expected to receive a reasonable wage, and earn it. Students are visited in training by the supervisor of farm placement training, who may be called upon at any time for advice and will do all that is possible to cooperate with the individual needs of each student.
Placement training is insisted upon to a greater extent in the older States in the East than in the West, but the authorities in all parts of the country recognize that if the student does not receive actual experience wih a dairy herd on the farm, it is hopeless to give him the training at the school that will qualify him for actual dairy farming. In other words, the boy must learn from actual experience that dairy cows should be fed and attended to regularly; and he must feed and care for them under varied circumstances with his own hands before he can be trusted to do the work without supervision. A school can require the boys to do this work in the
. school barns for short periods as a kind of laboratory work, but it is impossible to give a large number of students the necessary practice in one barn, and even if it were, practically all institutional barns are not so well adapted for this work as a dairy barn where the owner is depending on the herd for a living. In the agricultural high schools supervised projects are required of all students taking vocational work.
LOCATION AND EQUIPMENT OF SCHOOLS.
There is a secondary school in connection with many of the colleges of agriculture in the United States. and, as previonsly stated, a few of the States maintain agricultural schools. A number of county agricultural schools have been established throughout the country, and several normal schools offer special courses to train teachers for the vocation of teaching agricultural subjects in the various kinds of schools. The " Smith-Hughes" high schools are widely scattered throughout the United States.
THE COLLEGE SCHOOL VERSUS THE LOCAL SCHOOL.
The school located at the State college of agriculture enjoys ser. cral advantages, while the State or county school, built as a separate unit, has a number of things in its favor. The student who attends the school at the college works in a well-equipped laboratory in every department, and has available for his stock judging and practical work the college dairy herd and the farm, which are usually more complete than a local school could afford. This student enjors most of the opportunities and advantages offered by a college community, he has for his instructors the trained college staff, and has for his classmates men of his own age or older who are well confronted with the same problems; this group mingles with the other college groups, and for the time being experiences the feeling of being a college man.
It is true, however, that the men in the secondary school of the college are often looked down upon by some of the collegiate students; and while the school usually has its own social, forensic, and athletic organizations, these activities do not receive the local recognition accorded to similar organizations in local, State, or county schools.
The students of the regional State school, in addition to obtaining vocational training, must of a necessity make the student activities what they are, and in this way a training in leadership is obtained that is valuable. These students are the institution, they make up the athletic teams, the dramatii clubs, and like organizations, and write and edit the student publications. A senior student in a State school is a peer. If he has the qualifications necessary for a leader, these qualities will have full opportunity for development and recognition. The older men who come to these schools will find a number of congenial companions of their own age.
The physical equipment of the State schools are quite complete as far as instruction in dairy production is concerned; but few, if any of them, are equipped to give instruction in dairy manufacture other than for the making of dairy products on the farm. What the herds and barns lack in size they make up for in adaptability and availability for vocational training work. The staff of the State school compare favorably with the instructors at the college. While
they do not, as a rule, have the training and experience that the college staff has, and have to teach a number of subjects, they have the advantage of an intimate, personal contact with the student and are able to help the individual student with his problems.
The character of the work and type of students at these State schools are such that if any of the men decide to go to college the work that they have completed will be of considerable help to them during their college course.
The county agricultural schools are serving a useful purpose in many parts of the country, but they are not on a par with either the college schools or State schools. The county school falls short of having a complete physical plant; it is distinctly a local institution, so that it does not appeal to any large group of students and the students at these schools are quite young, so that the older men turn to the college for their vocational training. The county schools are quite deficient in equipment for vocational training in dairy husbandry because they do not have the necessary dairy herds nor dairy laboratories.
A number of normal schools give excellent courses for those who are preparing to teach agriculture, but few of the normals attempt to give full courses in dairying. However, there are exceptions, and these normals give dairy courses that are as good as those offered anywhere to prepare men and women for teaching farm dairying or for carrying on dairy farming.
The high school offering training in vocational agriculture is, of course, a local institution. Such schools do not give as thorough training as the schools of agriculture, but have the advantage of interesting students in high school that are indifferent to other sciences and to the classics. It gives them valuable help if they return to the farm and prepares them for college entrance if they become interested and decide to go to college. The equipment of the “SmithHughes" high school is apt to be quite deficient, as the Federal subsidy does not aid in the purchase or maintenance of equipment.
THE COURSE OF STUDY.
The course of study varies considerably in the different schools. All courses include work in the supporting sciences and in English in addition to the technical agricultural and dairy subjects. It is a common practice to require all the students to take the same course, as far as their work in agriculture is concerned, during the first year. Other schools allow the students to major in a certain course at the time of enrollment.
The following course of study is given as a representative outline of work:
[Required of all courses. ] First term (23 hours) :
Second term (23 hours) : English.
4-0 English Farm arithmetic.
3-2 Science (chemistry) Cattle (breeds and judging) - 2-0 Horses, sheep, and swinePoultry
2-1 Elementary dairying_ Physical training
Stock judgingSix months placement training required.
40 0-2 2-1 3-1 2-0 1-2 0-2
Required first term (23 hours) : Required second term (23 hours) : Parliamentary practice 1-0
03 Horticulture 1-1 Civics
30 Feeds and feeding5-1 Horticulture
3-1 Soils 2-2 Physical training
2-1 Physical training-
Principles of breeding- 3-1
2-1 Soil fertility
0_2 The horse
2-2 Farm poultry
2-2 Six months placement training required.
Required first term (23 hours) :
Cheese and ice cream --- 1-2
3-1 Woodland forestry 2-1 Poultry marketing
1-2 Fruit growing
2-1 Small fruits.
0-2 Landscape art.
2-0 Home orchards.
Required second term, all elective
3-1 Animal breeding
30 Market milk (bacteriology)
2-2 Sanitation and water supply. 24 Farm machinery ------ 30 Poultry farm management. 1-2 Bee keeping--
2-1 Farm crop diseases...
2-2 Advanced farm crops.
2-1 Fruit growing--.
2-1 Vegetable gardening
As previously stated, the vocational courses given by the high schools consist of from 25 to 50 per cent agricultural subjects. In States or communities where the students are interested in dairy farming, fully half of the work in agriculture is on dairving or related subjects; in fact, all of the work is such that it should be included in a vocational course in dairy husbandry. It is exceptional to find the necessary equipment in these schools for instruction in dairy manufactures.
REQUIREMENT FOR GRADU'ATION.
The usual requirement for graduation from the schools of agriculture is the completion of about 126 credits, in approved subjects, including the work required of all students. The diploma is withheld by some institutions until the graduate has completed a year of practical work.
Many of the graduates of the agricultural schools decide to continue their studies and enter college. The man who is not a highschool graduate asks what the basis of entrance to the college course will be in his case, and the colleges aim to encourage the students of the secondary schools to take college work and usually, either directly