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Dairy control includes also the keeping of herd books. Dairy control, no matter how well organized or adminiştered, can not be a success without a scientific breeding of cattle, and the herd books are an indispensable basis for scientific breeding.

The herd books prescribed for the new dairy control differ considerably from the herd books of former times. They are to be a record not of the best animals only but of all animals kept for breeding (that is, of all dairy cows, for the records of bulls have always been kept). Similarly a record is to be kept not only of some selected descendants but of all descendants.

This new method of keeping herd books has been made necessary by the new discoveries in the theory of heredity, particularly those of Mendel, which have shown that in order to estimate the breeding value of an animal it is not enough to know its direct ancestors only, but that the collateral lines (brothers and sisters, cousins, uncles, and aunts of various degrees) must also be known, as the latter will exhibit many qualities, good or bad, which might be latent in our breeding animals and reappear in their descendants. If we are to form a reliable idea of the breeding value, that is, of the hereditary disposition of our animals, we must know such collateral lines also.

Another demand of the present doctrine of heredity is likewise to be met by the new herd books. To form a proper estimate of the qualities of an animal intended for breeding it is necessary also to know the external conditions of its development. According to the degree in which such external conditions were favorable or unfavorable to the development of the animal or its special qualities, we can judge of the strength" of its qualities and determine to what extent the animal's qualities were determined by inheritance and to what extent they have been influenced by external factors and living conditions; and we may find an explanation why notwithstanding the same original disposition different qualities have developed in two individuals, or why in other cases the development of the animals is identical notwithstanding a different original disposition. That will show what qualities we may safely expect to be transmitted to offspring and to what degree.

This requirement is met by the introduction into the new herd books of special columns for noting the method of rearing (time and manner of weaning, mode of feeding, grazing, stable); the course of delivery; the development of the animal (increase in weight), etc., so that such pages of the herd books, properly filled, will give a thorough description of the animal's development, which is necessary for a reliable estimate of the adult animal as a breeder.

For the purpose of quick reference each animal will be designated by the name of its sire and a number showing when, in what numerical order, and in what commune it was born.

There will be three kinds of herd books.
1. Farm books.
2. Communal herd books.
3. District herd books.

The farm books are to form a basis for the keeping of breeders' records. They will be kept by each farmer and contain the record of his stock. They are of two classes:

1. Book of cows (dairy cows). 2. Book of calves and heifers.


The books are to contain all data of interest-weights, mode of feeding, method of rearing, condition of health. In this respect they are a foundation for the herd books proper. In addition, the inspector will note therein the results of dairy control by entering, in the book of cows, the annual yields. The book will also contain all data on origin and designation so that ancestors may be ascertained and the course of heredity followed.

The book of cows contains, on the first page, spaces for the record of the current number in the stable, designation (formerly, and at times even now, only. in case of change); race and color; date of birth; whether reared on farm or transferred; origin (sire and dam with their designations and reference to herd book). These are the descriptive data. The two pages following are intended for the life history of the animal, with records of breeding, weight, milk production, etc. The last page is reserved for special notes.

The book of calves and heifers is to contain all data relating to the development of the animals up to the weaning of the calves or the first putting of a heifer to a bull. One sheet is reserved for each animal regardless of sex. The first page contains the heading showing the current number, sex, designation, and the corresponding number of the communal record of calves and the communal book of heifers, date of birth, origin, course of delivery, weight at birth and at weaning, and date of weaning. It will also show what disposition has been made of the animal, whether it has been killed or sold and to whom, or has been kept for breeding and where recorded. The second page is to contain entries as to the live weight and the manner of feeding and rearing the animal. The book closes for a bull with his first service as breeder, and for a heifer with the first calving.

The communal herd books are to be the chief records of breeding and control. They will be kept by the inspectors. They are of four kinds:

1. Book of bulls, including the present record of service.
2. Book of cows.
3. Book of heifers and weaned calves.
4. Communal record of calves born.

The latter two are about the same as the farm books, but their records and descriptions are more detailed.

The book of bulls, which is to be also a record of service, is made mp of two-leaf folios with the headings on the first page and notes on the others. The heading contains data concerning the designation, origin, birth, and character of the animal, a statement of ownership and its changes, figures of meausurement, and a photograph of the animal. The notes are a record of each service by the bull, giving the designation of the cow, a statement of the results, a description of the calf, and data on the behavior, feeding, and weight of the bull.

The book of cows likewise consists of headings and notes. The heading is identical with that of the book of bulls, while the notes agree with the farm book, only the records are more detailed in following the development of the calf and the production of milkbeing, in this respect, somewhat of an extract from the record book of dairy control.

The book of heifers and weaned calves has a heading with the designation and a brief statement of origin and final disposal of each animal (sold, killed, kept for breeding). The notes are a record of the growth, feeding, behavior, and health of the animal until the first service of a bull or the first calving of a heifer.

The communal record of calves contains entries of the births of calves born in the commune, regardless of ownership, and is kept by the year. Each calf is given a current number according to the order of its birth. Beside date and number the record also shows sex, sire, dam, date of covering, course of delivery, and live weight at birth, with a brief description of the condition of health and final disposal of the animal.

The district herd books are intended as summaries showing the progress of cattle breeding in a given district. They are:

1. A record of breeding animals.
2. District herd books: (a) For bulls; (6) for cows.

The record of breeding animals is a list of all animals kept for breeding in the district, with references to the communal herd books, making it possible to ascertain the origin of the animals. It is kept for bulls and cows jointly.

The district herd books for bulls and cows are in substance copies of the communal herd books. However, only animals of special excellence and such as found a new line will be entered in them. These books are to promote the improvement of stock, as only the best will be listed.

A record in these books will mean that a special value has been placed on the animal; they will be a collection of the best lines and will indicate the highest progress of breeding in the district. The decision whether an animal should be listed in the district herd books is to be made by a commission annually on examination or at a special request of the breeder.

The district herd book will, therefore, in a sense, be a golden book of breeders, and is intended to stimulate the breeders to new efforts.

The tester's equipment.-All testers or inspectors will be provided with a simple technical equipment so they may properly perform the necessary analyses. This equipment, to be provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, consists of the following:

1. A pair of balances. 2. A small lamp with a bottle of oil. 3. A 100-cubic centimeter cylinder, graduated. 4. Burettes, 100 cubic centimeters, the number depending on the num

ber of cows to be controlled in one day. 5. One Gerber's centrifugal for butyrometers. 6. One water bath for butyrometers with a tripod. 7. An alcohol lamp. 8. A thermometer. 9. A stand for the butyrometers. 10. Two 10-cubic-centimeter safety pipettes (for sulphuric acid). 11. Two 1-cubic-centimeter safety pipettes (for amyl alcohol). 12. Two 11-cubic-centimeter pipettes (for milk). 13. Twenty-four butyrometers. 14. Twenty-four rubber stoppers. 15. Two one-quarter liter cans for pouring out the samples of milk. 16. A bottle of Gerber's sulphuric acid, with a ground-in stopper. The

size depends on the number of cows controlled on days of continuous control, reckoning 25 cubic centimeters per cow. Two bottles to be taken.

17. Two bottles of amyl alcohol, with ground-in stoppers. The size

depends on the number of cows controlled on days of continuous

control, reckoning 2.5 cubic centimeters per cow. 18. A broad-necked bottle with a cork stopper, for soda solution in

which the stoppers are to be placed after the fat contents have

been ascertained. 19. A bottle with 100 grams of soda for the preparation of solution at

the place of control. 20. A bottle with 100 grams of liquid ammonia, with a ground-in stopper. 21. A brush to clean the pipettes. 22. A brush to clean the butyrometers. 23. A towel.

24. A bag to carry these utensils in. The reserve equipment, which it is not necessary to carry along, includes 24 butyrometers, 24 rubber stoppers, a bottle of oil for the centrifugal machine, 2 pipettes for sulphuric acid, amyl alcohol, and milk; 50 kilograms of concentrated sulphuric acid, chemically pure; 5 kilograms of amyl alcohol; a bottle of alcohol for fuel; soda; and ammonia.

The utensils mentioned under 1 and 2 are not needed in places where there is a permanent control balance. And when the analysis of milk is made in a laboratory, the utensils under 5 to 22 need not be carried, but the following will be taken:

One burette case, with lock.
One 1-cubic-centimeter pipette.

A bottle with 10 per cent solution of formaline. The Ministry of Agriculture will also provide the necessary handbooks and books of reference for the testers, inspectors, and all officials charged with the work of organizing and building up the dairy control. The Czechoslovak Ministry of Agriculture has already issued a general handbook entitled “The Organization of Dairy Control in the Czechoslovak Republic," and other reference books on special questions of dairy control are in preparation. Thus far there have been published a book by Prof. J. Just on the methods of feeding, and a book by Dr. O. Laxa on certain aspects of dairying which the testers should know; instructions on the keeping of herd books are to be issued shortly. These books are to supplement the instruction given in the regular courses.

As will be seen from this brief sketch, a good foundation has been laid for the organization of dairy control in the Czechoslovak Republic. As I write these lines, the practical work of organizing dairy control is already in progress in the territories of Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia under the direction of the respective boards of agriculture. The introduction of dairy control in Slovakia and Carpathian Russia has been postponed owing to the backward condition of the animal industries in those two former provinces of Hungary.

The work of organization and practical application of dairy control in Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia is in charge of the boards of agriculture cooperating with the research institutes at Prague and Brno. Under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Agriculture at Prague there are a number of research institutes for the animal industries, of which the following are of importance for dairy control:

Research Institute for Animal Biology.
Research Institute for Biotechnology.
Research Institute for the Dairy Industry.

At Brno there is a provincial zootechnical research institute with special sections for the various subjects.

These research institutes will be in charge of the scientific agencies of dairy control and will also collate and publish the results.

The organization, as described above, will be only temporary, however. The National Assembly is preparing a law by which the boards of agriculture are to be abolished and their places taken by chambers of agriculture consisting of the representatives of compulsory farmers' associations. The chambers of agriculture will then take charge of dairy control.

The work of dairy control will be financed by the Ministry of Agriculture, at least during the initial period. As soon as dairy control has been firmly established and has shown its practical value, the expenditures connected with the work are to be borne by the breeders and producers so that the contribution by the State will diminish from year to year, and the money so saved may be used for the work of introducing and organizing dairy control in new districts.

Chairman PEARSON. You have heard two very interesting papers. I think we did well in postponing the discussion because it may be necessary to do some translating when we enter the discussion. There are three interpreters here—a French, a Spanish, and a German interpreter. Will you please announce that you are here to assist any who want your assistance in the discussion?

(The three interpreters did as requested.)

Chairman PEARSON. If any of the authors I name are present, I would request that they kindly make known their presence: Dr. L.F. Rosengren, Mr. N. K. Jensen, Mr. K. H. M. van der Zande, Mr. G. Fascetti. Their papers will be read by title. I will now call upon the honorary chairman, Doctor Isaachsen, to present the next speaker.

Honorary Chairman ISAACHSEN. I now have the pleasure to present to you Mr. J. R. Dice, chairman, department of dairy husbandry, North Dakota Agricultural College, who will present a paper on “Vocational instruction in dairying in secondary schools. " [Applause.] VOCATIONAL INSTRUCTION IN DAIRYING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

JAMES RENFREW Dice, professor of dairy husbandry, North Dakota Agricultural

College, Fargo, N. Dak.

The watchword of our American colleges has been service, so that instruction in dairy husbandry has naturally developed to meet the needs of the dairy industry, and the courses that attract students have naturally been the first courses offered.

In some States and institutions this development brought forth the college course, then the short course to supplement the college course, and finally the secondary school course. In other States the successful short course was the beginning of instruction in dairying, while in vet other institutions the farm school, or nondegree curriculum, offering vocational instruction in agriculture, including dairy

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