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ease, as many suppose, but simply because it is less expensive to discard a grade than a registered purebred cow.

Roughly speaking, the retail price of certified milk should be about two and one-half times that of good commercial milk; but its actual cost is like its content of the so-called vitamins. All know that both are in the milk, but the measurement of neither has yet been reduced to an exact and practical operation. An internationally recognized authority on cost accounting recently stated that it had taken him five years to develop a system by which he could get the actual cost of producing a quart of certified milk on his own farm; and added that his form of accounting is still quite too intricate for general use. However, he and several other expert accountants, who are themselves producing certified milk, are now endeavoring to work out a system of accounting suitable for use on the various farms, and so enable producers to study their comparative costs. In view of the fact that few, if any, of the producers know just what certified milk is costing them, it is interesting to find that the price to the consumer varies within the narrow range of 22 to 25 cents per quart in the different cities of the United States.

Among some not well informed there seems to be the impression that certified milk means raw milk versus Pasteurized milk, but certified milk is not in opposition to anything except depriving the human race and especially the helpless infant of the best that science and literally unceasing care can supply. Every form in which milk products are prepared for human food have their proper sphere and probably give the world a better food in that form for less money than can be had from any other source. Pasteurization has undoubtedly accomplished more for the dairy industry, and therefore for mankind, than any other one thing that has been developed in connection with milk in recent years; and it is the only known way by which the great cities of the world can have a practically safe and ample supply of this cheapest and best of foods. Moreover, when it is known beyond peradventure that Pasteurizing does not unfavorably modify any of the now known or still to be discovered attributes of milk, then by all means add this precaution to certified milk.

Valuable as are the various processes that have been developed for the preparation of milk and its products for human consumption, can we reasonably expect from such sources any real progress toward the ideal milk? Would not the prospect look brighter if the scientist could tell us how to feed the cow so that her milk will contain in proper proportion the various so-called vitamins just as we now feed to supply her with the necessary fats, proteins, and carbohydrates?

We believe certified milk is good now, but could it not be made of far more value, especially to infants and invalids if we knew more of the possibilities of developing the so-called antibodies in milk through the cow? We know that the milk of a vaccinated cow will distinctly raise a calf's resistance to tuberculosis. Is it unreasonable to hope that special milk can be produced that will be of real preventive if not curative value to humans?

For the young infant, where the mother can not supply the proper foods, a most promising field for investigation would seem

It may

to be the comparative effect of feeding the milk of fresh nonpregnant young cows and that of cows more or less advance in pregnancy. Of course, with this would naturally go a careful study of the chemical and other changes in cow's milk caused by the development of the foetus.

Such questions may to some seem a bit visionary-perhaps they are—but it is from just such men as are here assembled that the answers to seemingly far less hopeful dreams have come. be proper to add that while there seems to be no record of any work on the comparative value of milk of fresh and pregnant cows in feeding, young infants, no less an authority than Gov. W. D. Hoard claimed that he had been most successful in feeding babies on the milk of young fresh Guernsey cows and, moreover, that the large fat globules for which the Guersney is noted had not caused digestive troubles.

Answers to these and other unknown possibilities of milk are contributions we may properly ask of the milk specialist and nutritional expert, but do not think they are the only scientists whose help is needed. In fact the producer of certified milk is obliged to consult specialists in every branch of modern science to keep his plant in successful operation 365 days in the year, and if the present and very proper urge for short hours continues, he may even have to study hypnotism to enable him to hold men of reasonable intelligence on a job that can not recognize either Sundays or holidays.

There are now 68 medical milk commissions supervising the work of 176 farms, with a daily production of approximately 140,000 quarts of certified milk. This is but a very small fraction of this multibillion dollar industry based on the dairy cow of America. Its most enthusiastic adherents can not claim that it is ever likely to become a serious competitor in the general milk market; but it has in the past, and can continue to exert an influence out of all proportion to its money value so long as we have a Van Norman to assemble for our enlightenment the ablest and best minds of the entire dairy world.

Reasonable profit to the producer must of course receive consideration, but how best to apply the world's knowledge in the betterment of the product must ever be the dominant thought of the leaders of certified milk.

SESSION 12. INSTRUCTION IN DAIRYING IN EDUCA

TIONAL INSTITUTIONS.

Honorary chairman, Dr. HAAKON ISAACHSEN, professor of animal nutrition,

Royal Agricultural College, Norway. Chairman, Dr. R. A. PEARSON, president, Iowa State College of Agriculture and

Mechanic Arts. Secretary, H. P. DAVIS, chairman, department of dairy husbandry, University of Nebraska.

Y. M. C. A. ASSEMBLY HALL, Syracuse, N. Y., Saturday, October 6, 1923–9.30 a. m. Chairman PEARSON. We will now open session No. 12, upon instruction in dairying in educational institutions. I can not help but feel that this is one of the most important of all the subjects assigned to the several sections. A number of them are most important, like each of the three legs of a three-legged stool. The stool would not stand if any one leg were taken away, and certainly this subject may be ranked as of equal importance with one of the legs of a three-legged stool.

I am pleased to say to you that the honorary chairman, Dr. Haakon Isaachsen, the professor of animal nutrition of the Royal Agricultural College in Norway is with us and occupies a seat upon the platform. [Applause.]

We have a long program. The papers have been prepared by men who are distinguished in their several lines of activity. The audience to-day does not represent in any sense the number of people who are to have the benefit of the papers that will be presented here, and this is a formal session; we who are present are fortunate that we will be permitted to hear these papers at the time of their first presentation and may take part in the discussion of the papers in so far as time will permit, but beyond this room there are many thousands of people in all of the dairy countries of the world who will have the advantage of reading these papers as soon as the publication can be cared for. So we may feel that we are addressing a vast audience although a comparatively few are present in the room at this moment.

The chairman of the program committee, Doctor Rogers, who left the room only a few minutes ago to visit another one of the sessions, has informed me that we may proceed with the program exactly as it is published, with but one or two exceptions.

I hope there will be opportunity for a brief discussion, if you desire, after each paper. We may find it necessary, in order to complete our program, to limit these discussions until the close of the session and then, after having heard all of the papers that may be presented through their authors or through one substitute who will appear in place of the author, we will be free to discuss as long as this session continues, up until 1 o'clock.

The first paper refers to the status of dairy education in England and Wales. It certainly is appropriate that we should start with a paper referring to dairy education in one of the countries where it has been longest available to the dairy interests and where it now is so well developed.

This paper will be presented by Mr. V. E. Wilkins of the intelligence department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries of England. Mr. Wilkins.

(Mr. Wilkins was not present.)

Chairman PEARSON. Evidently Mr. Wilkins has been delayed. We will proceed, then, to the next paper, and if you wish to give Mr. Wilkins an opportunity to present his paper a little out of turn, later, we will make that arrangement.

The next paper on a similar subject, coming from one of the great dairy countries of the world, where dairying is intensely and highly developed, discusses the education of farmers and dairymen in Switzerland, by Mr. A. Peter, director of the Government Dairy School, Rütti-Zollikofen, Switzerland. Mr. Peter. [Applause.] DIE AUSBILDUNG DER LANDWIRTE UND MOLKEREIBEFLISSENEN IN

DER SCHWEIZ.

ALBIN PETER, Direktor, Molkereischule, Rütti-Zollikofen, Switzerland.

ALLGEMEINES.

Die Schweiz gehört zu den Ländern mit obligatorischer Volksschule (Primärschule), welche 9 Schuljahre (vom 6. bis 15. Altersjahr) umfasst. Sie besitzt sodann zahlreiche weitere Bildungsstätten, welche zum Teil einer weiteren allgemeinen Ausbildung der Volksgenossen dienen, teils aber die besondere berufliche Ausbildung ihrer Schüler zu pflegen haben.

Wir nennen: (1) Die Sekundarschulen, welche in allen grösseren Gemeinden bestehen und den Unterricht in einer zweiten Landessprache, sowie in der unteren Stufe der Mathematik und der Naturwissenschaften vermitteln. (2) Die Schulen der Gymnasialstufe (auch Kantonschulen, höhere Realschulen, Industrieschulen, allgemeine Handelsschulen, und ähnliche). Sie dienen teils zur Vorbereitung auf die Hochschule (Maturitätszeugnis) teils ist ihr Unterricht die Grundlage für nachherige berufliche Ausbildung in der Praxis. (3) Die mittleren Fachschulen, worunter besonders die Techniken (Einzahl: Technikum) die landwirtschaftlichen Mittelschulen und die Molkereischulen zu erwähnen sind. (4) Die Hochschulen: Es bestehen 7 Universitäten (Zürich, Basel, Bern, Fribourg, Lausanne, Genève und Neuchâtel), eine technische Hochschule in Zürich mit Abteilungen für Architekten, Bauingenieure, Maschineningenieure, Ingenieur-Chemiker, Apotheker, Förster, Landwirte und Kulturingenieure, Fachlehrer in Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften, Militärwissenschaftler; ferner eine Handelshochschule in St. Gallen.

Ueber den Umfang, in welchem diese zahlreichen Bildungsstätten benützt werden, sei erwähnt, dass nach einer Zusammenstellung in Reichesberg, Lexikon für Volkswirtschaft, die zum Militär ausgehobenen Schweizer im Alter von 19 bis 20 Jahren, sich im Jahre 1906 über Schulbildung ausgewiesen haben wie folgt: 19,807 hatten die Volksschule (Primärschule) besucht; 4,775 hatten die Sekundärschule

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