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9. Give the composition of your ice-cream mix:

Per cent butterfat_-
l'er cent milk solids not fat-
Per cent sugar-
Per cent gelatin..
Per cent gum tragacanth.
Per cent filler---
Per cent other ingredients.-

(State what

Total_10. Do you Pasteurize the entire mix? If you do not Pasteurize the entire niix,

what portion, if any, do you Pasteurize, and why do you follow the

procedure you do? 11. Do you viscolize, homogenize or emulsify the entire mix?

method is used.) 12. If you do not viscolize, homogenize, or emulsify the entire mix, do you use

any of these processes for any portion of the mix? Why? 13. At what temperature do you Pasteurize? 14. At what temperature do you viscolize; homogenize; emulsify? 15. Why do you use the temperature you use in viscolizing, homogenizing, or

emulsifying? 16. What pressure do you use on your viscolizer or homogenizer? 17. Do you age your entire mix? 18. Explain why you age the entire mix, 19. If you do not age the entire mix, what portion do you age, and why? 20. Do you give any attention to the acidity of the mix before Pasteurizing;

homogenizing; viscolizing; emulsifying; aging; freezing? Explain why

and give the percentages preferred. 21. Do you consider the viscosity of the mix important? Why? 22. Do you use any kind of ice-cream powder in your mix? Why?

About 30 per cent of the factories to which this questionnaire was sent submitted answers. Since we are now discussing the composition of the mix, we shall take up that portion of the questionnaire at this point, leaving the remainder to be discussed under methods of preparing and handling the mix. The reports upon the composition of the ice-cream mixes are tabulated in Table 2.

TABLE 2.-Composition of ice-cream mir as reported by 31 prominent ice-cream factories in the United States.

Milk
solids
not fat.

Sugar.

Gelatin.

Filler

Other
solids.

Total
solids.

Remarks.

Improver used.
Powdered eggs used.

14

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Eggs used.
Eggs used in special ice creams.

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.
14.2
7.8 14

0.5
13

9
14

.5
11
10
14

5
10.5 11
10
10

17
14
10

16
11
12

13.5
12

8

15
10

12.5 14
14

6. 67 13 10

12. 25 11.75
10.5 11

14
12.5 10.5

14
11
11

13
11
11.1

13.8
14

6.8 % 15, 2
11.5 11.6 14. 4
12

9.5

14
10.75 11.88 15
10
10

14
8.5 12

13.5
13.5
9.5 12.5

5
9.5
12
10
1.3

55
8.5 11.5 12.5
14
12.95
12

45
12
12
14

5
12
13
14

005
12
11.6

14
12
10

13.5
10.25
10.5
14

5

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent.

0.0033 None. 36.8
None. None.

36.05
None.

1

36.5
None. None. 36

. 15 None. 37.5
None. None. 40. 25
None. None. 37
5

.5 36.5
None. None. 37
None. None.

34
None. None. 34.5
None. None. 36
None.

1

37.5 None.

None. 35.5
None. None. 36.4
.5

None. 37
None. None.
None. None. 36
None. None.

38
None. None. 34.5
None.
None.

34.5
None. None. 36
None.

None. 36
None. None. 35.5
None. None. 33
None. None. 37
None. None. 38.5
005

None. 39. 01
None. None. 38
None. None. 36
.9
None.

35. 9

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10.52

13.95

. 453

36. 46

Factory No. and State.

Quantity made in

1922.

Fat.

1. Maine.
2. Illinois.
3. New York
4. California
5. Massachusetts.
6. Vermont...
7. Ohio.
8. Pennsylvania.
9. Michigan.
10. Colorado.
11. Texas..
12. California.
13. Minnesota
14. Arizona..
15. Kansas
16. Massachusetts.
17. Pennsylvania.
18. Tennessee.
19. Pennsylvania.
20. Kentucky.
21. Indiana..
22. Colorado.
23. Indiana..
24. Iowa..
25. Indiana.
26. Illinois...
27. Pennsylvania.
28. Massachusetts.
29. Pennsylvania.
30. Iowa..
31. Rhode Island

Gallons.

699,787
510,000

500,000
1,185, 000
1,250,000
700,000
550,000
200,000
343,000

280, 878
1,000,000

600,000
126,000
338, 814
389, 165
400,000

300,000
1,482, 313

275,000
364, 719
200,000
516,000

225,000
1,800,000

350,000
900,000
300,000

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Average

11. 52

I No report.

? No. 16 uses corn sugar as sweetener.

Though the survey is small in character, it represents a good proportion of the leading manufacturers scattered throughout the United States. The report indicates that these factories manufacture ice cream of the following average composition: Butterfat, 11.52 per cent; milk solids not fat, 10.52 per cent; sugar, 13.95 per cent; gelatin, 0.453 per cent; and total solids, 36.46 per cent

The question naturally arises as to why so few factories are making an ice cream testing 14 per cent. In order to get at this point, the fat contents of the ice-cream mixes reported by factories are tabulated below, comparing this composition with the standard in the State in which each factory is located.

TABLE 3.Butterfat content of ice cream made in factories reporting, as com

pared with the legal standards in the States where these factories are located.

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Here it is noted that a 14 per cent ice cream occurred in five factories, and three of these are located in the States of Maine. Vermont, and Colorado, where a 14 per cent standard is in force. The factories in Illinois are manufacturing ice cream containing 5 to 6 per cent more fat than the State standard requires, and the one in Massachusetts 7 per cent higher. These factories no doubt believe that butterfat adds to the quality of their ice cream. In no case where an 8 per cent standard is in force do we find the manufacturers making ice cream of this low standard. The factories in Indiana come as close to the standard in two cases as they can for sa fety's sake, while the factories in Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania. Tennessee, Rhode Island, and Texas range from 2 to 6 per cent above the 8 per cent standard. Though the ice-cream manufacturer favors an 8 per cent standard, he is inclined to make a better quality ice cream than can be made with this fat content in his own factory.

What, then, is to be the composition of the ice-cream mix? After analyzing the foregoing, it is almost impossible to draw a conclusion. Our State standards differ, our authorities do not entirely agree, and the experimental data on the subject are inadequate. However, in the writer's mind the work conducted by Williams and Campbell and that conducted by Ambrose is in the right direction. The public is to be the judge. Too often we hear people say ice cream is “ frozen milk.” The public must learn to know ice cream as a delicious, rich, velvety pleasing food which can not be resisted. This will never be accomplished by a low butterfat and total solids ice cream. An ice cream containing 14 per cent of butterfat, 9 per cent milk solids not fat, 15 per cent sucrose, and 0.5 per cent of gelatin, if desired, should meet this purpose. The writer agrees that a good ice cream can be made using a fat content of 12 per cent, but butterfat gives a characteristic rich creamy flavor to ice cream that labels ice cream as a dairy product, and rather than reduce the quality a manufacturer would better raise it, even if a 16 per cent fat is reached.

STANDARDIZING THE METHODS OF HANDLING THE ICE-CREAM MIX.

Some interesting points were noted upon examining the reports, mentioned heretofore, submitted by the ice-cream factories over the country. In every case the manufacturer reports that he gives attention to the chemical composition of the ice-cream mix. This indicates that the mix is calculated, and a definite amount of each ingredient added according to its chemical composition. Not only do these factories calculate the per cent of butterfat, but the milk solids not fat are calculated to a definite amount. In 45 per cent of these factories plain concentrated skim milk is used in building up the milk solids not fat in their ice-cream mix; five plants use powdered whole milk, three powdered skim milk, one sweetened condensed whole milk, one sweetened condensed skim milk, four concentrated or evaporated whole milk, and two superheated condensed skim milk. In every case the reason given for using these products in ice cream was that they are necessary to raise the solids not fat. A few factories, however, add that the condensed milk improves the body and texture of their finished product. One factory states that the use of concentrated or evaporated whole milk tends to cut down the size of ice particles. Another factory using superheated condensed skim milk states that this practice results in a smoother-body ice cream.

Those factories using powdered milk maintain that this product keeps better in storage, requires little refrigeration, is more uniform in quality, and can be bought in the spring and held through the summer, making it a cheaper product. One manufacturer states that by combining powdered milk and sweetened condensed whole milk grainy ice cream was eliminated. All but one of the manufacturers reporting use gelatin in their mix, two make use of ice-cream improvers, and seven plants are using eggs or powdered egg yolks. Of the plants reporting, two condensed their entire ice-cream mix. The Pasteurizing temperatures reported range from 120° to 170° F. All of the plants either viscolize or homogenize their entire mix, with the exception of those plants using improvers. These plants viscolize or homogenize the entire mix, with the exception of the ice-cream improver. One plant reported that they added gelatin and sugar to the mix after Pasteurizing and aging, or just before freezing the mix. The pressures used in homogenizing the mix range from 1,500 to 3,000 pounds at temperatures varying from 100° to 160° F. The pressures used in viscolizing range from 1,500 to 4,000 pounds at temperatures from 110° to 160° F. All but one of the plants reporting age their mix after homogenizing or viscolizing. Only a few of the plants stated the time given to aging the mix, but of those reporting the aging period ranged from 24 to 48 hours. Most of the plants gave no attention to acidity, only requiring that the mix be sweet. More of them reported on the acidity preferred at the time of freezing; this factor varying from 0.15 to 0.5 per cent. One plant stated that the acidity was standardized to 0.15 per cent.

All but three of the plants reported that they considered viscolizing important in the manufacture of a smooth ice cream. Many stated that viscolizing was essential in obtaining overrun. However, one plant states that though they used to be of this opinion their experience has taught them that viscolizing bears no relation to

This concern ages the mix for 24 hours after homogenizing at 1,500 to 2,000 pounds pressure at 150° F. The object of aging, it is explained, is to soften the casein and to break down the milk solids not fat. Several operators state that the viscosity has considerable influence on the time of freezing.

It seemed to be the general opinion that the color of ice cream is important. One operator states that people eat 50 per cent with their eyes, while another states that a large per cent of the consumers have poor taste but good eyesight. A few plants report, however, that color in their locality is of no importance.

After reviewing the reports on the methods of preparing and handling the mix, it is again impossible to make any definite recommendation. It would seem, however, that, though much discussion has been given in the past to the composition of the ice-cream mix. too little attention has been given to the methods of handling the mix. To-day it is necessary for each individual manufacturer to work out his own problems, which after being solved to one operator's satisfaction and passed on to the next do not give satisfaction. To a large extent the whole question boils itself down to the quality of dairy products obtainable. These vary; therefore methods of manufacture vary and the quality of ice cream varies.

overrun.

DISCUSSION.

After considering the question of standardizing the ice cream, the magnitude of the problem becomes evident, yet at this writing too little evidence is available from which definite conclusions can be drawn. There is one fact, however, that must not be overlooked: ice cream is a milk product and must remain as such. In every State in the Union having an ice-cream standard, butterfat is specified as

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