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centage of combustibles lost in the urine and in the feces, and translate grams and calories into nems.

To shorten the chemical analysis I devised simple methods of examination, based on the testing of dry substances, fat, and ashes, which are easy to apply, and give results that are satisfactory for practical use.

6. The nem values of some of the most important foodstuffs are given in the following table, which gives at the same time the weight of 1 hektonem in grams: If 1 gram of flour has a food value of 5 nems, 20 grams will contain 100 nems, or 1 hektonem. The “ hektonem weight” of flour, therefore, is 20.

Nems in 1 gram.

Hektonem weight.


13.5 Pure fat, oil. 12

Butter. 13

Bacon... 6 Sugar, cocoa. 5 Wheat flour, oat flour, biscuit, rice, ham, fresh fat meat, cheese, sirup, honey. 4 White bread. 3.5 Dark bread. 2.5

Fresh meat, eggs. 1.25

Potatoes. 1

Milk, green peas. 0.67 Fresh fruit. 0.5 Skimmed milk. 0.4 Turnips, spinach, cabbage, cauliflower, fresh mushrooms. 02 Lettuce, cucumbers.

7.5 8.5 10 16.7 20 25 30 40 80 100 150 200 230 500

Further details are explained in "An Outline of the Pirquet System of Nutrition," 4 vols., Saunders ('o., 1922.


Honorary chairman, Dr. A. MIYAWAKI, professor, Hokkaido University, Sap

poro, Japan. Chairman, F. N. MARTIN, president, Hazelwood Co., Ltd., Spokane, Wash. Secretary, H. F. JUDKINS, professor of dairying, Massachusetts Agricultural College.

Y. W. C. A. ASSEMBLY HALL, Syracuse, N. Y., Saturday, October 6, 1923–9.30 a. m. Chairman MARTIN. It gives me great pleasure at this time to introduce the honorary chairman of this session, Prof. A. Miyawaki, from the Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Honorary Chairman MIYAWAKI. I feel honored to act as the honorary chairman at this session, and thank you for the honor and opportunity to meet you here.

I do not want to take too much time to speak to you, because we have many excellent papers to hear. If, however, you allow me, I I should like to say a few words about the dairying in Japan.

As you know our history dates back long before Christ. Agriculture was the chief occupation among our people from the very beginning, and yet, dairying is a very new thing in Japan. It may be said that there was practically no dairying, and no milk was used, a half century ago. Just about that time, condensed milk was imported to feed babies and invalids. Year after year, the demand for condensed milk increased, together with the demand for city milk and butter. The Government realized this and encouraged dairying by importing purebred cattle from abroad.

As this is the session on ice cream, I should not talk too much on the subject not pertaining to ice-cream problems. The ice-cream industry is just starting in my country, but not to such an extent as to make any definite report. Since my arrival in this country,

, you were so kind and generous as to let me go through many of your ice-cream plants, and I am astonished by the greatness of the industry. Your statistics show that about 3.5 per cent of your 10,000,000,000 pounds of milk produced in a year go into ice cream. This means about 350,000,000 pounds of milk are used for ice cream, and also means that is about twice as much milk as is produced in Japan in one year.

About 15 years ago, when I was in this country studying dairying, ice-cream making was still a trade secret. The ice-cream industry must have been developed in the last 10 or 15 years to its present magnitude. In 1910, I had the privilege of hearing a lecture on "Lacto" by Professor Mortensen at the Graduate School of Agriculture held at Iowa State College. If my understanding is correct, the first comprehensive course was offered by Professor Mortensen. There is no man better qualified than Professor Mortensen to talk on the development of the ice-cream industry in the United States.

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Now, I have a great pleasure in introducing to you a man of whom I think a great deal, Prof. M. Mortensen, head of the dairy department of Iowa State College. MEANS BY WHICH THE ICE-CREAM INDUSTRY HAS BEEN DEVEL

OPED IN THE UNITED STATES. MARTIN MORTENSEN, head of dairy department, Iowa State College of Agri

culture, Ames, Iowa. After receiving this introduction I have very little to tell you. Our honorary chairman suggested that we were the first people to teach ice-cream making. You will notice from this paper that we were not first.

Although no definite information as to when ice cream was first made is available, it has been known for centuries in the European countries. The general belief is that it was first made in Italy and the inventor is said to have been an Italian dairyman. It is supposed that the idea of making frozen products was brought from Italy to France by Catherine de' Medici about 1550. More definite records of the use of ices in France date from the establishment of the Café Procope, about 1660, by an Italian from Palermo named Procopio Cultelli or Coltelli. Ice cream was probably introduced into Eng. land from France. The earliest printed record of ice cream in England is found in The Experienced English Housekeeper, hy Elizabeth Raffald, published in London in 1769.

Ice cream was first sold in New York by a Mr. Hall, at 75 Chatham Street, now Park Row. It was introduced to the city of Washington by Mrs. Alexander Hamilton at a dinner at which President Washington was present. The first advertisement of ice cream appeared in a New York paper, the Post Boy, June 8, 1786.

Although ice cream had been known for centuries in Europe, the idea of commercializing it as a big ir.dustry was conceived by Jacob Fussell, who started a wholesale ice-cream business in Baltimore in 1851: in 1856 Mr. Fussell established a similar business in Washington, D. C.; in 1892 he erected a third plant in Boston; and in 1861 he started a business in New York City.

Table 1.-Early history of the ice-cream industry in the United States.


Year when
ice cream
was first



Name of party first introducing commercial ice cream.




Mr. Bosio, an Italian confectioner, Germantown. Maryland.

1851 Jacob Fussell, Baltimore. Missouri..

(1860 Perry Brazelton, St. Louis. Utah,

1860 John R. Clauson, Salt Lake City. Massachusetts.

182 Jacob Fussell, Boston. Ohio.

1812 J. T. Rauslev, Cincinnati. New York.

IN64 Jacob Fuscell, New York City. Minnesota.

1874 Tinkelpaugh Ice Cream Co., Minneapolis, Colorado.

1980 G. G. Carl on. Connecticut

1 SRO C. J. Huber. Bridgeport; or John Semon, New Haven Georgia...

(180 a The information contained in this table was furnished by the dairy professors of the respective States.

This was a retail plant and no ice cream was sold at wholesale. < About.

1 For further information in reference to the early history of ice cream I would refer to an article published by Frank M. Buzzell in the Ice Cream Trade Journal, March 1909. entitled “ Origin and development of the ice-cream industry.” An article on “ The Ice cream industry " was published in the same journal, June, 1922, by Thomas D. Cutler.

TABIB 1.-Early history of the ice-cream industry in the United States.-Con.

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TABLE 2.-Consumption of ice cream in the United States, by years.'

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Figures obtained from Ice Cream Trade Journal and United States Department of Agriculture.

It will be noted from Tables 1 and 2 that the ice-cream industry has spread with great rapidity throughout the entire United States. until at present ice cream is served on the tables of poor and rich alike. When an industry develops at a tremendous rate there is usually a combination of factors responsible. This holds true with reference to the ice-cream industry, and the following factors may be considered as those having the most direct bearing on its development:

1. The progressive and aggressive attitude of the ice-cream manu facturers.

2. The rapid development and improvement of machinery and equipment.

3. Trade papers and books.
4. State agricultural colleges.
5. State agricultural experiment stations.


Most of the earlier manufacturers of ice cream started with limited capital, but what they lacked in money was more than compensated for by their unlimited confidence in the industry, and as they were located in the cities they had an opportunity to exchange ideas with

men of large affairs, and in that way they learned to employ the methods of large business. Many of the manufacturers took less interest in the financial returns that in conducting a business which would aid in creating more happiness among people in general, and that spirit in connection with sound business principles is bound to win. If we visit an up-to-date ice-cream factory to-day we find it equipped with the most modern machinery and often with bacteriological and chemical laboratories in which research is being carried on.

The ice-cream manufacturer, in his effort along the line of expansion, has received considerable assistance from men who were not directly engaged in the ice-cream business. The invention of the cornucopia, or ice-cream cone, increased the sale of ice cream materially. The ice-cream cone first made its appearance at the World's Fair in St. Louis in 1904. At that time the Hazelwood Creamery Co. arranged for the exclusive right to manufacture the cone at the Lewis and Clark Exposition to be held the following year in Portland, Oreg. Since then the cone has become known in every town in the United States. The Eskimo pie, invented by C. Nelson, Waukon, Iowa, appeared in October, 1921. This also has stimulated the demand for ice cream.

It would be unfair to close this chapter without giving due credit to the commercial travelers who deal directly with the ice-cream manufacturers. These men have, from the beginning of the industry, stood back of the ice-cream manufacturers and given their encouragement and support whenever possible.



Mr. F. D. Hutchinson, the pioneer in the ice-cream business in Iowa, writes: “I remember the Fourth of July of 1890 we shipped out nearly 300 gallons, all frozen by hand power.”. Had the handpower freezer continued little progress could have been looked for, but fortunately the old tub freezer was soon connected to a line shaft with a resulting expansion in business. A great step forward was made in 1902–3, when the Miller brine freezer was developed. This was followed soon afterwards by a similar freezer known as the Miller-Tyson freezer, and at present there are several makes of that type on the market.

The mechanical system of refrigeration was first successfully used for commercial enterprises in 1861, but it did not find a place in the

a ice-cream industry until after the introduction of the brine freezer. The hardening of ice cream with brine was simultaneously introduced. This system of hardening was soon almost wholly replaced by the present dry-air system, which is not merely a saving in labor but also is the most sanitary method of hardening known up to the present time.

The homogenizer, a machine which is essential in a modern icecream factory, was invented by August Gaulin, of Paris, France, in 1902. The United States Letters Patent were dated April 12, 1904. By the aid of this machine the texture of the ice cream has been greatly improved.

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