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Les membres effectifs sont désignés par les comités nationaux, chaque comité pouvant nommer un ou plusieurs délégués chargés de le représenter. En cas d'empêchement des délégués attitrés, le comité peut confier sa délégation à d'autres personnalités.
ART. 7.-Le président du bureau international permanent, qui est en même temps président de la fédération, est élu par les membres effectifs du bureau En cas d'absence, il est remplacé par le plus âgé des délégués présents.
Les secrétaries, dont un porte le titre de secrétaire-général, sont nommés par le bureau international permanent lui-même.
ART. 8.—Les membres effectifs ont seuls voix délibérative. Chaque pays ne peut disposer que d'un seul vote.
ART. 9.-Le bureau international permanent est chargé d'assurer la bonne marche des travaux de la fédération. Il fixe notamment l'ordre du jour des assemblées plénières et approuve le programme des questions à porter à l'ordre du jour des congrès internationaux, sur la proposition des comités nationaux chargés de leur organisation.
ART. 10.-Il est constitué, dans le sein du bureau international permanent, un comité exécutif composé du président, de trois délégués dont un belge, et du secrétaire-général.
Ce comité exécutif a pour mission de donner suite aux décisions du bureau international permanent et de régler toutes les questions qui se présentent dans l'intervalle de deux réunions successives de celui-ci. Il dispose à cet effet de l'initiative la plus large, sous la réserve de faire adopter ses décisions lors de la première réunion du bureau international permanent.
Art. 11.--Les décisions prises par le bureau international permanent sont communiquées au premier congrès international suivant.
ART. 12.–Toute modification aux statuts, toute extension ou modification au programme de la fédération doit être votée à la majorité des deux tiers des voix des membres présents.
Toute question portée à l'ordre du jour doit faire l'objet de rapports et éventuellement de contre-rapports, distribués en temps utile à tous les membres du bureau international permanent.
Le bureau international permanent ne peut valablement délibérer que sur le s points portés à l'ordre du jour de la réunion.
En cas de parité de voix la proposition soumise au vote est rejetée.
6. DES COMITÉS NATIONAUX. Art. 14.-Les comités nationaux sont constitués dans chaque pays suivant les règlements d'ordre intérieur propres à chacun d'eux.
A défaut d'organisation dans un pays d'un comité national, le bureau international permanent peut prendre l'initiative de sa constitution et désigner provisoirement un délégué.
7. DES RESSOURCES DE LA FÉDÉRATION.
Art. 15.- Les comités nationaux prélèvent annuellement sur leurs ressources ordinaires une somme qui est versée à la caisse fédérale et est destinée à couvrir les frais généraux, l'impression et l'envoi du bulletin publié par la fédération, ainsi que les frais de déplacement faits dans l'intérêt de la fédération, par le secrétaire-général, où, à son défaut, le secrétaire qui remplit ses fonctions, sur état visé par le président. Le montant de cette cotisation est fixé par le bureau international permanent à chaque réunion plénière à l'occasion de tenue des congrès internationaux de laiterie.
Dans les pays où un comité national n'est pas formé, la cotisation payée directement au bureau international permanent est de 20 francs pour les membres effectifs individuels et de 100 francs pour les associations laitières.
8. DES MEMBRES.
ART. 16.—Le bureau international permanent se réunit au moins une fois par an, sur convocation de président, pour décider de toutes les mesures à prendre dans l'intérêt de la fédération.
Toutes les correspondances sont adressées au secrétaire-général.
Art. 17.-Le bureau international permanent tient une assemblée plenière à l'occasion de chaque congrès international de laiterie pour voter sur les modifications aux statuts ou au programme d'action de la fédération; se prononcer sur les décisions prises par le comité exécutif dans l'intervalle compris entre la dernière réunion du bureau et le congrès à l'occasion duquel il est réuni; approuver les nominations des délégués des comités nationaux et délibérer sur toute question dont il pourra être ainsi. Il propose le lieu où doit se tenir le prochain congrès.
9. DE LA DURÉE DES MANDATS. Art. 18.--Le mandat du bureau international permanent est valable pour le temps séparant deux sessions successives des congrès internationaux. Les membres sont rééligibles.
Chairman LARSON. There is a gentleman with Professor Porcher who will give us, in a few sentences, the substance in English, of what we have just heard. [Applause.]
Dr. ERNST Å. HAUSER (delegate from the Government of Austria). I am not with Professor Porcher; I just happen to know him very well.
Professor Porcher, who is here in the name of the International Federation of Dairy Industry in Europe, wanted to tell you in a few words what they have done in Europe before and since the war. He gave the dates of the dairy congresses held by the International Federation, the first in Brussels, 20 years ago, in 1903; the second in Paris, 1905; the third at The Hague, 1907; the fourth in Budapest, 1909; the fifth in Stockholm, 1911; and the sixth and last a few days before the beginning of the war, in 1914, in Bern, Switzerland. Since the war and the armistice the congress has not been held, and this is the first time that the United States of America has sent out invitations for an International Dairy Congress.
Professor Porcher again read part of the letter from President Maenhaut, of the International Federation, which he presented yesterday, telling you that they all wish that we can begin an International Dairy Federation, as it was before the war; and he hopes that during this meeting many of the scientists will find new ideas and can carry on new research work regarding the constituents of milk and especially regarding the newest science in chemistry, colloidal chemistry, and its developments in regard to milk.
Professor Porcher thanks you very much for the way he was treated here, and he wants me to apologize for him that his English is so bad that he did not dare speak it in English, because you would have understood far less than when he spoke in French. [Applause.]
Chairman Larson. The next subject on the program is "The collection and distribution of milk and dairy products statistics by the International Institute of Agriculture at Rome.” To discuss that subject we have Dr. C. Longobardi, chief of section of that institution. Dr. Longobardi. [Applause.] THE COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF MILK AND DAIRY
PRODUCTS STATISTICS BY THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE
OF AGRICULTURE AT ROME. CESARE LONGOBARDI, LL. D., chief of section, statistical bureau, International
Institute of Agriculture, Rome. Mr. Chairman, ladies, and gentlemen: After what has been said about the necessity of having statistics, especially after what Doctor Mohler has said of the necessity of obtaining them, it is useless for me to say much along that line. All of the speakers have referred to the necessity of having statistical information. You are people interested in the practical activity connected with the dairy industry and so you understand what statistics represent.
I will only say a few words with reference to the International Institute of Agriculture. It was established in the year the treaty was signed, in 1905. Few people realized what this institute could be and would be. The idea of establishing it came to Europe from America. An American citizen came to Europe bringing this idea,
At that time it was very difficult to make people realize what the institute would mean in the progress of humanity. What has taken place since that time has given us such a severe lesson that the results that can be obtained from such work are apparent.
For the second time a new movement is starting here from the United States. Already distinguished American citizens are gathering together and doing work that will help the institute in its work.
When the institute was formed, 45 nations signed the treaty. Each nation was represented by its own government, and all the governments of the 45 countries signed the treaty. At the present time the institute has 62 countries behind it. Each government has its own delegate representing the interests of that country in this immense chamber of agriculture. But to really appreciate this, one must know that these 62 countries represent 97.8 per cent of the total population of the world.
When the institute was first started it established a service of statistical information. It was desired to secure information on production, on trade, and on consumption. It was felt that if the people had reliable, honest information they would know how to arrange their businesses.
The institute then started immediately to organize statistics referring to agricultural production, giving principal attention to cereal production and to cotton production. In this field the institute has already arranged a very important service, and this work is now going along on such established lines that its great importance is generally recognized. This year the institute has been able to extend its telegraphic service of information on crop production and crop conditions. When the institute was founded, some countries, as, for instance, Italy, organized their statistics for the purpose of answering the request of the institute. Notwithstanding such improvement, in May of 1911, the institute could give information on area sown and condition of wheat for only 11 countries. In May of this year the institute gave similar information for 25 countries being practically all the important agricultural countries. We receive regular telegraphic information from 25 countries, and other information from all the other countries of the world.
You will realize that the work that the institute has to do is imniense if you consider that the institute represents all the agricultural interests of all the countries of the world. Every country has its own permanent delegate in the institute, representing the interests of his own country.
The following report has been prepared for you by the institute: MILK STATISTICS AND THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE.
1. One of the chief duties of the International Institute of Agriculture is the centralization of statistics of agricultural production. In order that this duty may be properly fulfilled, the institute must use its influence not only in inducing the various governments to collect the necessary data, but also by following out in so far as it is possible, similar methods and forms of statement.
Good work has already been done in this connection. The organization of international agricultural statistics has been considerably improved and rendered more and more complete during the 14 years of the institute's activities. Especially is this true in those particular branches to which the major portion of the institute's attention has been directed, viz, crop production and livestock.
2. As far back as 1914, it was considered desirable that the institute should extend its sphere so as to include statistics of the dairy industry. The subject was included among those submitted to the general assembly in 1913. Because of the war, however, it was only possible to make certain provisional and partial inquires. A preliminary account of the existing statistical material on milk and dairying appeared in 1919, in one of the publications of the institute. A later publication gave a conspectus for a considerable number of countries of the data for the trade in cattle and cattle products.? Moreover, the general assembly of 1920 recommended that the governments should provide annual statistics as to the number of cattle according to a form of classification, which distinguished milch cows from other categories of cattle. This recommendation was intended to facilitate the preparation of estimates on milk production in the different countries.
3. To-day the subject is again being considered by the institute as a whole. The statistical department is conducting a study along three main lines:
(a) The collection of the statistical material already available in the different countries, (b) the consideration of the statistical methods adopted in the countries where statistics are collected, and (c) the consideration of concrete proposals to be submitted to government departments, tending to secure in the various countries a regular system of statistical information on milk production. It is desirable that this information should be based on a uniform and appropriate method in order that the institute may include the figures in its regular service of statistical information.
The results of these studies will probably be brought before the general assembly at its meeting in Rome in the spring of 1924. Although the question presents serious difficulties, the institute is confident that its efforts will be successful, and that its work, the value of which is already acknowledged in other branches of agricultural statistics, will be found to be valuable also in this important sphere.
The question of more complete dairy statistics can not fail to be of vital interest to those connected with the industry, who in each country will enjoy all the advantages which accrue from a better knowledge of the position of milk production in their own and other countries.
On the other hand, the organization of any form of statistics on milk and dairying presupposes an effective cooperation on the part of the industry. It is for this reason that the institute considers it desirable to acquaint this congress with its proposals, in the hope
Documentary Leaflet No. 2. 1919.
that it may acquire new incentives for the work that it has already begun in extending the collection and compilation of international dairy statistics.
The following notes and comments are intended to give an idea of the various factors already available to-day and to show how a regular service of milk statistics may be organized and developed :
AVAILABLE STATISTICAL MATERIAL.
1. Complete official figures on milk production and dairying are regularly supplied by a very limited number of countries. The United States included inquiries as to the amount of milk, butter, and cheese produced during the year preceding the census, in the schedules distributed to all farms on the occasion of the censuses of 1890, 1900, 1910, and 1920, and Canada did the same for censuses in 1910 and 1920. The census made in Brazil in 1920 required the individual farmers to supply figures for the quantities of milk and cream sold and butter and cheese produced. Australia makes an annual return of the output of milk and dairy products within the Commonwealth. In Holland censuses were made of butter and cheese production in 1903, 1906, 1910, and 1912 but were suspended as from the latter date. Annual returns of milk and dairy production are now made in Japan as the result of a recent statistical order; similar returns are also made in Chile for milk production and in the Union of South Africa and in New Zealand for the output of dairy products.
2. In other countries public authorities have occasionally collected similar statistics, which however often refer to comparatively distant dates. In France, for example, statistics of milk production were obtained for the year 1902, when the department of agricultural information was engaged on a far-reaching inquiry into the situation of the milk industry at home and abroad.
In Great Britain the inquiry into the “Agricultural output of Great Britain in 1908-09," made in connection with the production census," included the milk production for the period of 12 months ending on June 4, 1908.
3. During the war the exceptional requirements caused by prevailing conditions encouraged the undertaking of special inquiries. In the United Kingdom, for example, a “ committee on the production and distribution of milk” was set up in April, 1917, which, among its other activities, attempted to ascertain the general position of milk production during the war period as compared with the average for the years 1909-1913. In Germany an inquiry into the national milk production was made by the Prussian Ministry for the Interior in 1915, and during the last years of the war a complete organization was established for providing figures each month as to the amount of milk produced, in order to allow the rationing of dairy produce. Estimates are therefore available for the production of milk in Germany for the war period.
4. Inquiries, often of considerable value, have also been made at different times and in different countries by societies and private individuals with the object of obtaining, either by means of information already available or as the result of special study, an estimate of milk and dairy production in their respective countries. In this