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dence to understand the elements of the biology of bacteria (manner of reproduction, conditions for growth) and the significance of the bacteria for butter making (decompositions in milk, cream and butter).

He must be acquainted with the determination of the fat percentage in cream and buttermilk after Gerber; the determinaion of the grade of acidity after Dornic; as well as with the determination of the water percentage in butter.

By means of the result of the milk test he must be able to calculate the butter production.

II. The candidate must know the systems of skimming (centrifugal separation and gravity separation). He will be examined as to his knowledge of the purpose and the correct manner of pasteurizing and cream cooling.

He must be acquainted with the making of starters, the acidification of cream, the treatment of cream during the ripening process, as well as with the mechanism, the treatment and cleaning of cream pasteurizers, coolers, and cream ripeners.

III. At the examination it must appear that the candidate be acquainted with the purpose and the performance of churning as well as with the various factors influencing the result of the churning process. He must appear to understand the various operations taking place after churning (washing, salting, working, packing, attaching the Government mark); he must know the factors upon which the making of a good quality of butter is dependent, as well as the causes and the means of preventing the principal defects of butter (butter-grading competitions).

Finally it must appear that he understands the significance and is acquainted with technical bookkeeping for the butter-making department.

3. PROGRAM FOR THE CERTIFICATE OF CHEESE MAKER.

The examination for the certificate of cheese maker consists of the following two parts:

1. Milk and the testing of milk and milk products. 2. Cheese making.

1. The candidate should know the composition of milk, some particulars concerning its constituents, as well as its qualities and the changes that occur in milk during the lactation period. He must give evidence that he understands the principles of the biology of bacteria (manner of reproduction, conditions for growth) and the significance of the bacteria for cheese making. He must be acquainted with the determination of the fat percentage according to Gerber, as well as with the examination of its qualities (boiling and alcohol test, fermentation, catalase, reductase, and rennet tests, determination of the degree of acidity according to Dornic.)

II. The candidate should be conversant with the treatment and preservation of milk in the cooling room. He must possess a thorough knowledge of the purpose and the operation of the coagulation of milk, the division of the curd, the molding, pressing, salting, and the further treatment and storing of cheese, as well as of the making of the various kinds of cheese in the larger cheese factories in the Netherlands.

He must know the factors upon which the making of a good quality of cheese is dependent, as well as the causes and the means of preventing the principal defects of cheese (cheese-grading competitions).

The candidate must understand the significance and be acquainted with the technical bookkeeping for the cheese-making department.

Finally the candidate must prove that he understands the significance of the cheese control system.

4. PROGRAM FOR THE CERTIFICATE OF SEPARATOR ATTENDANT.

The examination for this certificate consists of the following two parts:

1. Milk and the testing of milk and milk products. 2. Separating and Pasteurizing.

I. The candidate must know the composition of milk, some particulars concerning its constituents, as well as its qualities and the changes which may occur in milk during the lactation period. He must understand the principles of the biology of bacteria (reproduction, conditions for growth, and the significance of bacteria for dairying-decompositions in milk and cream). He must be familiar with the determination of the fat percentage according to Gerber, with the determination of the degree of acidity according to Dornic, as well as with Storch's method.

II. The candidate must understand the working of separators and the circumstances upon which a correct operation of the same is dependent.

At the examination it must appear that the candidate is acquainted with the purpose and the correct operation of forewarming. centrifugal separation, Pasteurizing, and cooling.

5. PROGRAM FOR THE CERTIFICATE OF MILK CONTROLLER IN A DAIRY

FACTORY.

The examination for the certificate of milk controller consists of the following two parts:

1. Milk and its testing.
2. Cow-testing association work.

I. At the examination for milk controller the candidates must give evidence of being well acquainted with all the factors to be attended to in taking samples. They must be familiar with the Gerber method for the determination of the fat percentage and the determination of the specific gravity by means of the lactometer. They must know the testing of milk as to its qualities (boiling test, alcohol test, rennet test, acidity, sediment test, fermentation, reductase, and catalase test), as well as the determination of the percentage of moisture in butter.

The candidates, at their own request, may also be admitted to the examination on the fat percentage determination in the dry substance of cheese, and, if their knowledge thereof is sufficient, this is noted on the certificate to be awarded to the candidate.

The candidates at the examination must also show that they have a general notion of milk and its principal constituents; are conversant with the factors influencing the composition and secretion of milk (lactation period, feeding, change of pasture, weather, ruttishness. stabling, markets, age of the cattle, influence of the time and the manner of milking), and must have some notion of milking, treatment of milk, arrangement of a stable, and tending of cattle.

Previously they are examined as to their practical skill in the testing of milk. In order to be admitted to the other examinations the candidates at this practical examination must obtain the qualification “ sufficient."

II. The candidates shall be examined as to their general notion of the purpose and usefulness of milk control and their knowledge of the bookkeeping of cow-testing associations.

They must prove to be able to correctly work out records of production.

6. PROGRAM FOR THE CERTIFICATE OF CONTROLLER OF A COW-TESTING

ASSOCIATION.

The examination for the certificate of controller consists of two parts:

1. Milk and its testing.
2. Cow testing association work.

1. The candidates for controller of cow-testing associations at the examination must give evidence of knowing well all important factors in taking samples. They must be well trained in the Gerber method for the determination of the percentage of fat in milk and in the determination of the specific gravity by means of the lactometer.

The candidates must also show a general knowledge of milk and its principal constituents, must know the factors influencing the composition and secretion of milk (lactation period, feeding, change of pasture, weather, ruttishness, stabling, marketing, age of the cattle. influence of the time and the manner of milking), must have some notion of milking and the care of milk, and know the arrangement of a stable, and how to care for cattle.

They are previously examined as to their practical skill in milk testing. In order to be admitted to the other examinations the candidate must obtain sufficient points at this practical examination.

II. The candidates shall be examined as to their general notion of the purpose and usefulness of milk control and their knowledge of the bookkeeping of cow-testing associations.

They must be able to correctly work out production records.

7. PROGRAM FOR THE CERTIFICATE OF ENGINEER.

At the examination for engineer of dairy factories the candidates must give evidence of a good understanding of all the factors influencing steam forming and the costs of steam. They must also know the mechanism and working of steam engines and auxiliary engines in dairy factories and be able to indicate how to handle these engines for good and economical working operation.

Moreover the examination must prove that the candidates know the mechanism and operation of the refrigerating machinery in dairy factories as well as how to keep the same in good condition. They must also know the causes influencing the operation of the refrigerating apparatus.

In addition to this they must prove their knowledge of the principles of clectrotechnics and be able to work out the calculations necessary to a good understanding of the operations.

In preceding years about 250 persons applied annually for these examinations. From 1908 up to this time 1,133 certificates have been given out.

About the aforementioned technical and administrative functionaries of the provincial dairy organizations, it may be remarked that they virtually have taken over part of the work of the Government dairy experts.

Besides giving lessons at the dairy courses, the task of the technical functionaries is to advise the affiliated factories concerning the best methods of manufacturing their products and to eliminate manufacturing mistakes. Their work, therefore, is closely connected with the periodical examinations of the products from the cooperatively organized factories.

The task of the administrative functionaries is to audit the administrations of those affiliated factories that wish this control, and to advise the factories about bookkeeping in general.

INFORMAL CONFERENCE ON EXTENSION METHODS.

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(NOTE.-The late arrival of the trains bringing delegates from the Philadelphia session to Syracuse prevented the speakers of session 8 from attending the session at the time scheduled in the program. However, a few delegates convened in the morning and conducted an informal discussion along the lines of extension education. The report of this conference follows.]

Y. W. C. A. ASSEMBLY HALL, Syracuse, N. Y., Friday, October 5, 1923—9.30 a. m. Prof. K. L. Hatch, chairman of session 8, called the meeting to order and made the following address :

To-day is the day of opportunity-to-morrow, the day of hope. To-morrow is also the day of fear, of doubt, of disappointment, perhaps. Extension workers are always working in the day of opportunity. They do not face the morrow because their work is laid out for them. They do well when they meet the problems of the day. Like the famous Light Brigade, it is

Their's not to reason why

Their's but to do and die! Research workers, on the other hand, always live in the day of hope. By this we mean that research workers furnish the extension service with ammunition for the charge.” In the past, extension workers have seldom questioned the value of their ammunition, but the time is at hand when extension workers will hesitate to use some of the output of research laboratories for extension purposes.

That there is much that is good, valuable, and effective in the archives of research, there can be no doubt. Every speaker on the program this morning will emphasize this point and verify it by many worthy and striking examples; but, shall the extension worker continue to live in the present, satisfied with the material handed to him, or may he project himself into the future sufficiently to antici

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pate and to avoid the fears, doubts, and disappointment that lie ahead? May he, with propriety, suggest to the research worker the direction that such investigational work may properly take?

It is our belief that experiment station workers must modernize their research, or the extension service, like Othello, will soon find its occupation gone. For 40 years have American experiment stations functioned as national institutions. The value of their contributions has been incalculable. They have done their work wel!. They are still doing good work. But they have not kept abreast of the changing times. To illustrate: In 1880 we had 4,000,000 American farms containing 200,000,000 acres of improved land. Forty years later the number had increased to 6,500,000, containing 500,000,000 acres of improved land. During the same period the average value of these farms increased from less than $3,000 to over $12,000 each.

The five States near the headwaters of the Mississippi, Iowa, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, which, with the addition of New York and Pennsylvania, constitute the leading dairy States

, contain more than one-fourth of the total agricultural wealth of the Nation. The average value of the farms in these five States has risen in 40 years from $3,000 to nearly $25,000 each. During the same time the average value of the dairy cows has increased from $15 to $70 per head.

These changes are only the effects of the exhaustion of the supply of free land and the consequent increase in value which, at one and the same time, have both promoted the dairy industry and changed it from an empirical occupation to a highly hazardous business. During the same period science has made its invaluable contributions alike to the feeding, care, and management of dairy cattle and to the manufacture, storage, and transportation of dairy products.

All these are excellent building stones for a greater edifice. All are necessary to its successful completion. We still lack the “supreme architect " who will fashion from this excellent material the finished structure, a profitable dairy industry.

WHAT RESEARCH WORKERS ARE NOW DOING.

There has recently come from the pen of a national authority on animal nutrition a little brochure entitled “Recent Discoveries in Stock Feeding.” The title is self-explanatory. The subjects dis cussed are " revised feeding standards," "composition of proteins.

quality of proteins," " mineral requirements of dairy animals." “iodin in the ration," and the interesting, if elusive, % vitamins, Many of the practical bearings of this research which has engrossed the attention of some of the ablest research workers in the center of the dairy world for the past few years are pointed out. These subjects are characteristic of the bulletins published in the past decade by practically every experiment station in the leading dairy States.

And yet, when all this mass of labor and material is digested, it reduces itself to a few recipes. It does not furnish the extension worker with much to do. Somehow it lacks the popular appeal 0 essential to successful extension work. But what is it that this material lacks?

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