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ticated milk yields, the only milk yields to be recognized being the official milk records of the Scottish Milk Records Association.
In a general sense progressive dairy farmers may be divided into two groups:
(1) Those desiring official authenticated records above suspicion, in the first instance to enable them to improve the milking qualities of their herds, but with the further object of establishing the reputation and enhancing the selling value of their stock. These are willing to go to considerable expense and trouble to obtain such records.
(2) Those requiring only private records to enable them to eliminate the poor-milking cows and increase the number of good-milking cows, with a view to the more economical production of milk. The latter prefer a milk record at the minimum of inconvenience and expense. Many of them have only small herds. Many also feel that their cows are not sufficiently good milkers to be included in a scheme of official records.
The association considers that the requirements of both groups could probably be more fully met by a separate system of recording for the owners of unregistered herds who can not see their way to adopt the official system, and are introducing a scheme of private or unofficial milk records whereby the dairy farmer may become his own recorder. It is hoped to bring this new scheme into operation in Scotland in 1924, and that it will establish milk recording on a wider and more popular basis, and ultimately induce a greater number to adopt the official system.
The new scheme is a very simple one. There will be no recorder to accommodate and no form of inspection. The scheme is to apply only to cows and heifers which are not registered by a recognized breed society and to the herds of owners who have not been members of a local milk recording society within a period of five years previous to application. The owner or his agent is to weigh the milk of each cow, evening and next morning, at least once every 21 to 28 days, and to enter the results in a special byre sheet provided by the association. The byre sheet is to be immediately posted to the association's offices to be calculated and extended there. and returned to the owner of the herd. A special private or unofficial record book for each herd will be written out in the association's offices. At the end of each recording season the results will be summarized, and the record books and copies of the summary sheets will be sent to the respective owners of the herds. Each member will be given the use, free of charge, except for upkeep, of a special spring balance and pail, and will be required to pay only a small annual subscription of sixpence per cow toward the clerical work.
The ideal before the association is to have every dairy herd in Scotland included in one or other of the association's two schemes of milk recording.
TASK OF THE GOVERNMENT DAIRY EXPERTS WITH REGARD TO
MATTERS OF DAIRYING. A. J. SWAVING, Ph. D., inspector of dairying, chief of dairy division of the general direction of agriculture, Ministry of Home Affairs and of Agriculture, The Hague.
In the Netherlands there are at present ten Government dairy experts and one assistant Government dairy expert with a staff of four head assistants and six assistants. In each Province there is one Government dairy expert or assistant Government dairy expert, however, with the proviso that two Government dairy experts are appointed in the Province of South Holland, whereas in Friesland the organizations interested have a short time ago supplied the want of enlightenment by means of their own staff.
The expert's task comprises: To enlighten associations or private persons at farms and dairy factories concerning butter and cheese making and sometimes concerning cattle breeding; to give instruction at several agricultural winter colleges, at courses for the education of agricultural teachers, at courses in agricultural instructions as well as at a very great number of courses in milk examination, theoretical and practical butter and cheese making, and courses for the education of assistant managers, headmasters of dairy factories, milk controllers, butter and cheese makers; to hold lectures, which are accessible to everyone, free of charge; to give assistance to the preparation and execution of measures or of experiments of general importance (barn competitions, grading of butter and cheese, milking competitions, etc.); to make simple tests concerning dairy products to trace defects of butter and cheese.
Though also at other places, the dairy experts in the Provinces of Utrecht and North Holland and in the eastern part of the Province of South Holland in particular are occupied in giving theoretical and practical instruction in order to improve cheese making and eliminate cheese defects and other working troubles. The instruction of these experts is besides of great use when cheese makers meet with difficulties as to the observance of the regulations of cheese control stations.
The care for the improvement of milk production is considered by the Government dairy experts everywhere most diligently, and they supervise at the same time the work of the breeding and cow testing associations with respect to milk control (milk lists).
In conclusion it may be mentioned that in the interest of mutual contact as well as to remain in touch with the Government one or two meetings are held annually by the dairy experts under the direction of the inspector of dairying of the direction of agriculture.
On these occasions different subjects concerning the work and the sphere of activity of the dairy experts are discussed and questions concerning matters of dairying and cattle breeding are looked into.
DAIRY INSTRUCTION GIVEN BY THE COOPERATIVE DAIRY
ORGANIZATIONS IN THE NETHERLANDS.
A rather important part of the instruction of the lower staffs of dairy factories in Holland is given by the provincial organizations of cooperative dairy factories and the federation which combines
these provincial organizations (eight in number), the General Netherlands Dairy Union.
According to the report in another paper relating to the work of the Government dairy experts, the task of these officials also comprises teaching assistant managers of dairy factories, milk controllers, butter makers, cheese makers, and separator attendants to prepare them for their tasks. The courses of the provisional dairy organizations are held partly in connection with these and partly independent. In so far as the provincial dairy organizations have technical and administrative staffs of their own, which is the case with seven of them, the courses for the lower staffs of the affiliated factories are given by their own functionaries. The lessons in the subjects for which there are no teachers are then, as a rule, given by the Government dairy expert in the Province concerned.
For the education of engineers, courses are also organized by all the provincial organizations of cooperative dairy factories. The lessons are given on the part of the General Netherlands Dairy Union by a teacher-engineer, whose task comprises also advising affiliated factories about engine-room and boiler-house problems.
As a rule, these courses are supervised, as far as the provincial associations are concerned, by a committee appointed for the purpose by the dairy organizations.
In 1908 examinations were instituted by the General Netherlands Dairy Union for the obtainment of certificates for the above-mentioned functions in a dairy factory. Though the courses mentioned are not directly connected with these examinations, that is, following a course is not required for admission to the examinations, it is a fact that the requirements of the examination are dealt with.
*The general requirements for admission to the examinations are as follows:
A. PERIOD OF PRACTICAL EMPLOYMENT, Only those persons are admitted to the examinations who have been employed in practical work during a prescribed period.
It is required that a person who is going in for an examination for: 1. Assistant manager of a butter factory has taken part in the work of one or more steam dairy factories for at least two years.
2. Butter maker has taken part in butter making in one or more steam dairy factories for at least two years.
3. Cheese maker has taken part in cheese making in one or more steam dairy factories for at least two years.
4. Separator attendant has been working in the separator room of one or more steam dairy factories for at least one year.
5. Milk controller has taken part in milk testing in a dairy factory or of a cow-testing association for at least one year.
6. Engineer has been working in the engine room of one or more steam dairy factories, or of a similar concern, for at least three years.
B. PRACTICE CERTIFICATE.
The candidates for the examinations have to produce a testimony that they have given practical evidence of being able to fill the post for which they want to obtain the certificate in an independent manner.
The examining board, in order to obtain a correct judgment of the candidates, is authorized to see them at practical work, if necessary.
For this purpose the latter are registered a year beforehand as far as assistant managers, butter makers, cheese makers, and engineers are concerned: separator attendants and controllers are registered half a year before the examination.
In the meantime the practical ability of the candidates is observed, after which the managers of the factories concerned give a certificate of practical knowledge. The paper is also signed by the person who has observed the candidate on behalf of the examining board.
Persons submitting themselves to the examination for assistant manager of a butter factory, butter maker, cheese maker, engineer, must be at least 20 years old.
Those who want to submit themselves to the examination for separator attendants, milk controller of a dairy factory, and controller of a cow-testing association must be at least 18 years old.
They must have reached this age on the 1st of April of the year in which the examination is held.
The general program for all certificates runs as follows: When discussing the different processes belonging to the practice of factory butter and cheese making the candidates must give evidence that they are able to explain the various phenomena involved therein, and they must also give the impression that they can act judiciously.
As a rule the candidates must be acquainted with the appropriate arrangement of the rooms in which they are at work, with the demands made upon the implements and tools used in the factory department in which they are working, as well as how these implements are to be used and cleaned. The candidates must also possess a sufficient general education for the certificate they wish to obtain.
The particular programs for the various certificates are as follows:
1. PROGRAM FOR THE CERTIFICATE OF ASSISTANT MANAGER OF A BUTTER
The examination consists of five parts:
4. Bookkeeping, dairy organizations, and laws important to the butter maker.
5. Engine room.
1. The candidate must be acquainted with the composition of milk and its particular constituents. He must know the qualities and changes that may occur in milk during the lactation period. He must know the principles of the biology of bacteria and other dairy microorganisms. Furthermore, he must know the significance of microorganisms for butter making (decompositions in milk, cream, and butter, cultivation and elimination).
He must be familiar with all the tests necessary in a modern butter factory and must be able to readily calculate the results of the concern by means of bookkeeping and the tests effected.
The practical skill of the candidates in milk testing is examinel previously. In order to be admitted to the further examinations, the candidate must show sufficient skill at this practical examination.
II. The systems of skimming and the difference between centrifugal and natural skimming must be known. The candidate will be examined as to his acquaintance with the purpose and the correct operation of Pasteurizing and refrigerating cream. He must be acquainted with the preparation of starters, the acidification of cream, the treatment of acidified cream, as well as with the mechanism, manipulation, and cleaning of cream Pasteurizers, refrigerators, and cream ripeners.
III. At the examination it must appear that the candidate is acquainted with the purpose and the performance of churning, as well as with the changes going on during the operation of churning and the various factors influencing the result of the churning process. He must appear to understand the various operations taking place after churning (washing, salting, working, packing). He must know the factors influencing the making of a good quality of butter, as well as causes and means of preventing the principal defects of butter. He must know the purpose and the working system of the Dutch butter control and must be able to give a description of the butter-grading competitions as are held by the different organizations.
Finally the candidate must prove that he understands the significance and knows the organization of complete technical bookkeeping in a butter factory.
IV. The candidate must give evidence that he can keep dairy factory books by double entry; he must know the purpose and the nature of the different dairy organizations in the Netherlands (associations of cooperative dairy factories, General Netherlands Dairy Union, butter and cheese control stations, cooperative associations for the sale of dairy products, cooperative dairy banks, etc.); he must know those laws the dairy manager has to do with under normal circumstances.
V. The candidate must be acquainted with the working of the steam boiler (the processes of combustion, feeding the boiler, supplying water, and steam forming) and with the qualities of steam, also with the working of the steam engine and the refrigerator. He must know the principles of electrical light and power plants.
2. PROGRAM FOR THE CERTIFICATE OF BUTTER MAKER.
The examination for the certificate of butter maker consists of the following three parts:
1. Milk and the testing of milk and milk products.
I. The candidate must know the composition of milk, some particulars of its constituent parts, as well as its qualities and the changes that may occur in it during the lactation period. He must give evi