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help can be obtained from a fixed place. Apart from the training of students, these centers may be of untold value for advice and should be situated at a convenient place, centrally in a county, so that they can easily be visited when help is needed.

With regard to the work of an instructress at a permanent school, this is extremely varied and ranges from teaching students entirely ignorant of dairy work to training for examinations.

Courses of varying lengths are arranged; but in addition to the students attending these courses, others come for shorter periods and for special subjects. This entails additional work for the teacher as regards practical instruction, and creates a great difficulty in giving the necessary theoretical subjects. The ideal would be to teach these short-course people at a special time, but to do this it would be impossible to suit the public convenience.

The length of courses provided at these permanent dairy schools varies from one month to one year, and the ground covered varies accordingly. For the longer periods the practical work embraces milk production, handling, and sale, production and sale of cream, butter making, and the making of soft and hard cheese. The theoretical side of the work, in addition to the above, should include a certain amount of dairy farming, dairy bacteriology, and dairy chemistry.

It is advisable that the instructress and students should be resident at these permanent schools, as the long hours necessitate close attendance, and dairying can never be crammed into an eight-hour day.

İn making this survey of a dairy instructress's work it is difficult to give to any sections mentioned the palm for giving the best results. Each branch dovetails into the other, and one is so often a stepping stone to the next. As regards which is the most congenial to the instruct ress, that is, perhaps, not such a debatable point. Most who have tried all branches prefer the work of a permanent school, even if the hours are longer and the work more strenuous. None of it can be classified as monotonous if the instructress is keen and the itinerant workers have the heartening knowledge that they are, as it were, more likely to touch the spot where help is needed. The permanent worker might, but for them, stay in one place and do very little good, but with all sections working together the permanent school is fed by the traveling instruction. The work goes on; as the younger generation grow up they need help, so that it is never possible to say that the ground is all covered. Until all dairy produce is uniform and of high grade, dairy instructresses will be required to "carry on."

Chairman HATCH. We will take the usual time for the discussion of this presentation. Do you have any questions or remarks to make!

Mr. G. F. GOSNEY (secretary, National Association of Creamery Proprietors, England). I would like to say, as a matter of interest, that I was born in the county Miss Saker has been working in. It is given to very few teachers to see, in the course of their lifetime, the results of their work, but in this particular instance I should like to congratulate Miss Saker, and those who have been working with her, upon the results which they have obtained.

As a result of the work that has been carried on in that particular county, which is the home of Cheddar cheese making, the returns have been enormous, both in regard to the quality of the product and, incidentally, which always follows, to the price obtained for it.

Of course, I do know that lack of funds has prevented the work being carried to the extent that the educational authorities would have liked it to be carried, but at the same time I would like to add my humble testimony to the value of the work that has been done in my own county. [Applause).

Chairman Hatch. Are there any further remarks, any other questions?

Mr. GEORGE A. PUTNAM (director of dairying for Province of Ontario, Canada). To what extent has this instruction resulted in the establishment of creameries, or do you advise that as the ultimate object of your efforts?

Miss SAKER. I might state that the instruction that we carry on has nothing to do with factories. We give help to factories where they ask for it, but our instruction is primarily to help the individuals in their own homes and not the large depot.

The difference with England as compared with these larger countries is that there the stuff

' is used on the spot. It is not carted away to another center. Our object is to prevent waste in the home.

I am more especially interested in cheese making. We can always get 10 to 20 shillings per hundredweight more for farmhouse cheese than factory cheese. The supply never meets the demand. As long as we can make first-class farmhouse cheese, we can always sell it.

Mr. E. M. SHERMAN (Iowa State Dairy Association, Charles City, Iowa). I would like to know if this work is always done by the women.

Miss SAKER. I think I can safely say that with the exception of about two men in England who do this farmhouse work, it is all done by women; in Scotland, however, it is nearly all done by men.

Mr. BLACKSHAW. I think one of the questions asked referred more to the remarks I made than to those of Miss Saker. You asked to what extent the instruction provided led to the formation of creameries or cooperative dairies. In reply to that I can't give you the actual figures, but I do know that since the institution of cooperative schools, which was in 1916, the number of factories resulting from the schools, directly or indirectly, has more than doubled the total number of factories in existence at the time the school was started.

Chairman HATCH. Is there any further discussion?

Mr. E. M. SHIERMAN. This to me, Mr. Chairman, is a mighty interesting paper. I think it is one of the most interesting I have heard. I think there are many phases of it that are adaptable to America, although in this country we have very different conditions to face. As a rule, our population is not so dense and our work would have to be more scattered.

However, I find that much of the best and most useful work that is being done by our colleges to-day is done by our extension service, and I believe there are phases of this thing that can be carried into our homes to mighty good advantage. [Applause.]

Miss SAKER. I neglected to say that one of the main factors in the success of this work depends upon your method of getting about. Then, too, an instructress must be physically fit to brave all weathers.


In our county if we motored to the farms we should be considered “swank."

One must have a mode of getting about and getting around easily, so as to actually get on the spot while the work is being carried out.

Chairman Hatch. Has anyone else anything to say on this subject?

Mr. GEORGE A. PUTNAM. Canada is very much like America in many respects, and I am wondering if we are stressing too forcefully the centralization of our efforts. I may say that as late as 1894 and 1895 we had our traveling dairies, and that resulted in the establishment of creameries, so that nearly all our butter is now manufactured in the creameries and all our cheese is manufactured in cheese factories.

I think the paper just presented gives us food for thought as to just what extent we should endeavor to develop, in so far as the size of the individual manufacturing plant is concerned.

Chairman Hatch. Is there any further discussion? If no one else has any remarks on this question, I would like to ask if Doctor Swaving, of Holland, is present. He does not seem to be. There were several papers that were placed at the end of the list. There are three ways in which we can proceed: First, we can have them incorporated in the record; second, we can ask that the papers be read, as I understand that there are personal representatives of two or three of the people here who will consent to read them; or, third, we can have these gentlemen give short synopses of the papers and place them in the record.

What is the pleasure of the session with reference to this procedure on the remaining papers?

MEMBER. What are the remaining papers?

Chairman HATCH. They are “ Task of the Government dairy experts with regard to matters of dairying;” “Dairy instruction given

* by the cooperative dairy organizations in the Netherlands;" “ Educational and advisory work in dairy farming through the agency of milk recording societies," by Mr. Garrad and Mr. Mackintosh. I understand that Mr. Garrad and Mr. Mackintosh are personally represented by Mr. Steele, who has a statement to make with respect to that, provided it is the wish of the session. I also understand that Mr. Stevenson, of Scotland, is represented by Mr. James Dunlop, of the subcommission of small holdings of the Board of Agriculture of Scotland. He is prepared to make a brief statement with respect to

that paper.

Mr. Ê. M. SHERMAN. I moye that they be asked to give synopses of these papers.

(The motion was seconded, and carried.) Chairman Hatch. We will ask Mr. Steele to give us a five minute synopsis of the paper of Mr. Garrad and Mr. Mackintosh. [Applause).

Mr. STEELE. Mr. Chairman and friends: It is unfortunate that neither Mr. James Mackintosh nor Mr. Garrad is able to be here, but their duties have bound them so closely at home that they were quite unable to come to America.

(Mr. Steele read an abstract of the following paper.)



G. H. GARRAD, N. D. A., agricultural organizer, Kent County Council, and

JAMES MACKINTOSH, O. B. E., N. D. A., N. D. D., National Institute for Research in Dairying, Reading, England. The object of this paper is to describe the development in England of systematic advisory work on the feeding of dairy cows, through the organization of milk recording (or cow testing) societies; to give some examples of the methods adopted and the results obtained and to indicate the great educational value of such work to the dairy farming industry.

It will be necessary as a preliminary to describe the system of milk recording or cow testing in practice in England and Wales.

The practice of keeping records of the milk yield of individual cows was introduced into dairy herd management in the middle of last century, but progress was very slow, and development on any systematic basis has taken place only within the last 15 years. Agricultural colleges, county councils, and dairy breed societies did excellent pioneer work and paved the way for the initiation of a national scheme by the Ministry of Agriculture in 1914.

The basis of this scheme is the formation, by a group of farmers, of a properly constituted milk recording society, for a stated district or county. Any such society will receive a money grant from the Ministry of Agriculture at the rate of from £3 to £3 10s. per herd per annum, provided the society carries on its work on the lines laid down in the official regulations issued by the ministry. The essential points in these regulations are that the members of the society must agree to weigh the milk of all cows in their herd daily, or at least one evening and the following morning, each week, adhering to the same days each week, and make the necessary entries in the record sheets and books provided by the ministry; that the society shall employ a recorder to make surprise visits to each farm at intervals of not less than six weeks for the purpose of checking the weighing of the milk and the entries and calculations made by the farmer, and that the ministry shall supervise the working of each society by means of its own district livestock officers and shall, on application, on receipt of the stated fee, and provided the necessary information has been forwarded to headquarters by the society, supply to each farmer a certificate of the yield of any cow or heifer for any year or part thereof.

Since this scheme was launched in 1914 excellent progress has been made in spite of the tremendous difficulties of the years 1914 to 1918. For the year 1921-22 there were 55 societies in operation, with 3,921 members and recording 100,933 cows. It affords material satisfaction to those who chaffed at the slow progress previous to 1914 to know that there are now 55 societies scattered throughout England and Wales, whose records of milk yields are taken and checked on a definite and regular system, and under the supervision of a Government department. No higher warrant of reliability could be required.

The milk recording societies operating under the rules and regulations of the Ministry of Agriculture can, in addition to the duties briefly outlined above, undertake the marking of calves for future identification, the testing of samples of milk for their members, and arrange for the taking of records of the rations given to the different herds and the provision of advice thereon. The remainder of this paper will deal with the last mentioned subject.

During the years 1908 to 1914, preceding the introduction of the national scheme for the development of milk recording, several agricultural colleges, notably the South Eastern Agricultural College, Wye, Kent, the agricultural department of the University of Leeds and University College, Reading, had formed milk-recording circuits in their own areas and carried out at the same time, investigations into the composition and cost of the rations used on the farms visited.

The reports on these investigations issued from the different centers demonstrated a great variation in the practice of feeding and a remarkably wide range in the cost of the daily ration and the cost of food per gallon of milk.

Differences in methods of calculation of the cost of rations, especially with reference to the food grown on the farm, accounted to some extent for the wide variations found in the cost of feeding in the different circuits. They were not. however, responsible for the wide variations that were found on different farms in the same circuit, because on these farms mangels, hays, and the other homegrown foods were charged at the same price per ton in every case. A study of the weights of the different foods constituting the daily rations showed beyond the shadow of a doubt the great need for the provision of advice to farmers on the balancing of rations and on the feeding of cows in relation to their milk yield.

The following examples give some measure of the range of variation in rations and cost found in the same investigations:

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Winter of 1911-12:

Herd E..

Herd G. Winter of 1912-13:

Herd C.

Herd A. Winter of 1913–14:

Herds A, B.

Herds A, G Winter of 1920–21:

Herd A..

Herds B, E. Winter of 1921-22:

Herd 23..

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10 20


3.0 7.0

21. 79
26. 66

16. 41 46.68

6 8


Nil. 20

Herd 58.
Winter of 1922–23:

Herd 18.
Herd 113..

5, 5 13.0

18. 33

33. 14




5.7 12.0


Winter of 1913-14:

Herd CIX.


7. 41
17. 14

52 139

5.2 18.3

5.6 6.6

Nil 20.0

4.7 Nil.

1 Herd CXVIII.-Cows in poor condition, obviously underfed. 2 Herd CIX.--Ration much too watery and badly balanced.

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