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are their blood relations.

It is entirely unjust that any community should have a preferential claim on revenues contributed by all-particularly when that community considers itself quite different from and far superior to the children of the soil. (The Modern Review, April, 1923, p. 534.)

CONCLUSION.

Thus the problem of development of dairy industry in India involves a greater problem of bringing about a better condition of 90 per cent of the people of the land through better agricultural education for the masses, which would increase productivity in the field of agriculture and dairy industry as well.

This is probably one of the greatest tasks that is facing the people of India. Without attempting to advise what the Government of India should do, I feel that the landlords of India, who are growing fat at the expense of the masses, should do all that is possible to establish more agricultural institutions in India where peasants may be given the chance of acquiring knowledge of practical scientific agriculture, including establishment of model đairies as well as breeding cattle. The efforts of Dr. Rabindranath Tagore to have an agricultural department in his International University, Visva Bharati, not merely to carry on agricultural research but to extend the work in village reconstruction, should be whole-heartedly supported and such an institution should be established in every Province of India. In this connection, it may be appropriate to point out that American and other manufacturers of agricultural, and particularly dairy machinery, would do a great good to themselves and the people of India if they can (stablish one or two model dairies in India to train the Indian youth of education to handle the machinery and master the dairy industry in such a way that they would fully realize that it would be profitable for them and for the nation to enter into the dairy business. This may seem to be a costly proposition. However, in the final analysis of the cost involved in such an experiment, we find that it would be cheaper than the advertising campaign that would be necessary to open up the market of India and also train proper and interested salesmen for the great market of 300,000,000 of people.

Under the present backward condition of the agricultural people of India, mere agricultural research on milk technology alone will not solve the problem. India will have to adopt the method of "traveling teachers system" of the State of Iowa and other American States so that these teachers would work as pioneers to create all necessary conditions for the improvement of cattle, need of pure milk, introduction of modern means of agriculture, including the dairy industry. I have already mentioned that through the generosity of an American the work of agricultural research has received its impetus, and let us hope there will be measures taken by the dairymen and others of America, and Indians themselves, so that there will be greater impetus for Indian youth to master American methods of dairying and introduce them in all parts of India.

In conclusion I would like to emphasize that if proper dairy experimental stations could be established and popular demonstration

work could be carried on in India, the peasants of India could be interested to undertake dairying extensively through peasants' cooperative societies and loan banks, which in recent years have come into existence by thousands in every part of India.

Chairman Hatch. I am sure we are all very appreciative that Mr. Das could be with us and present this most thorough and comprehensive outline of the dairy and agricultural problems in India.

I am certain that you want to ask some questions. We will take now about three minutes for the discussion of this paper before we return to the numbers that were placed at the foot of the calendar.

Mr. John PHILLIPS (United Dairies (Ltd.), London, England). I would like to inquire about the rate of infant mortality in India.

Professor Das. There is a general misconception that the birth rate in India is very much larger than that of the death rate and thus the population is increasing in leaps and bounds. But the actual fact is that the population of India is not increasing at the same rate as it is increasing in England or some other European countries. Taking the latest available statistics of the year 1919 into consideration, the India Yearbook of 1922 makes the following comments regarding the birth and death rates of India :

The population of the areas in which births and deaths were registered in 1919 was 238,482,205 ; 7,212,450 births and 8,554,178 deaths were registered; the rate per mille being 29.54 and 35.87 as compared with an average of 37.34 and 36.84, respectively, for the previous five years.

This discloses a very significant fact that for the year 1919 the death rate was larger than the birth rate of over 6 per mille and for the previous five years the birth rate was larger than death rate only by 0.5 per mille. If this situation continues, then, the population will be stationary like France. What is necessary for India is that the birth rate and death rate both should come down to the standard of England or France. From an economic point of view and from the standpoint of national health, large birth rate with large death rate is a great loss to a nation. This change can only come to India through higher standards of living brought about by better economic and educational conditions. I have not the statistics exactly, but I can say that, of all the cities of the world, Bombay leads in infant mortality.

Chairman Hatch. Are there any other questions?

Mr. G. I. PRICE (London, England). What proportion of the revenue of the country is spent on agriculture?

Professor Das. It is hard for me to answer that exactly. However, this year 51 per cent goes for the military; last year it was 61 per cent. I can very safely say that less than 1 per cent of the revenue goes for the spreading of education as a whole; a very small part of that goes for agricultural education. That is the situation in India to-day.

Once I made a computation and I discovered that the amount of money from the revenue from opium alone is not utilized for education of the masses. Education is the most neglected thing in India, so much so that 6 per cent is the literacy in India.

Chairman Hatch. Are there any other questions?

If there is no further discussion, we will turn now to the numbers placed at the foot of the list. If there is no objection, I shall take it as the sense of this session that we should first call upon those who are present in person for the presentation of the subjects placed at the foot of the list, and then, if time permits, ask those who are representing the authors to present those topics.

Do I hear any objection to that procedure? If not, we will consider that unanimous consent is given.

I am now pleased to call upon Mr. J. F. Blackshaw, dairy commissioner, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, England, who will speak upon the subject, “Methods adopted in England and Wales to convey education and the principles of cooperation to the farmer.” Mr. Blackshaw. [Applause.]

METHODS ADOPTED IN ENGLAND AND WALES TO CONVEY DAIRY EDUCATION AND THE PRINCIPLES OF COOPERATION TO THE FARMER

J. F. BLACKSHAW, 0. B. E., dairy commissioner, Ministry of Agriculture and

Fisheries, London.

The purpose of this paper is to convey an outline of the general scheme of instruction in dairying which is now being followed in England and Wales.

This general scheme, as well as its aims and objects, will be better understood if it is prefaced by a brief description of the conditions to which it is applied.

Dairy farming as a branch of English and Welsh agriculture is to-day much more widely distributed, and more generally followed than it ever was before. The last 60 years have witnessed many changes in the systems of farming, but it may be said without fear of contradiction that the greatest change has been in the direction of dairy husbandry, particularly in the production of milk for human consumption. So recently, as to be within the memory of many of our oldest inhabitants, the milk required by our populous centers was produced either by herds kept within the towns or on farms situated on the outskirts. At that time our chief dairy counties, such as Cheshire, Lancashire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and Somerset, marketed their milk in the form of cheese or butter; indeed, there were no other outlets than these except the raising of young stock.

The development of railway transport and the growth of urban populations have been the chief causes of the changes which have taken place as well as of the more general development of dairy farming in almost every county. It is probably correct to say that quite 50 per cent of the farms now devoted to milk production were, until recent years, otherwise employed.

The older, or what may for convenience be called the original dairy farms, are in almost all cases provided with structural conveniences for the manufacture of dairy produce, and are farmed by persons to whom the art of manufacturing milk products has been handed down through generations, but in the case of most of those farms which have been brought into the industry in recent years there exists neither the structural convenience nor the necessary technical knowledge of dairy manufactures to enable the occupiers to do otherwise than place their milk upon the market.

The counties of England and Wales viewed individually will be found to show wide variation in regard to the intensity of the cow keeping practiced therein. This variation is conveniently illustrated in the following table, which compares the respective cow population with the cultivated acreage.

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The more intensive milk producing counties are still those on the west side, due to the fact that soil conditions coupled with a more consistent rainfall support the best pasturage. The intensity of the west as compared with other districts is not, however, so pronounced to-day as it was a few years ago, as milk production is elsewhere gradually replacing other systems of husbandry.

There are a considerable number of country milk depots which function as centers for the collection and treatment of milk for transport to the towns, and for the manufacture of milk products. Most of these depots are proprietary, but many are owned and managed by cooperative societies of farmers. The country is, however, by no means covered with these depots; indeed, the bulk of the produce is still manufactured in farmhouse dairies, and the bulk of the milk sold is still dispatched direct to the centers of consumption by the producer.

It is computed that the estimated production of milk in Great Britain in 1921 (excluding milk used for calf rearing) was 1.220,000,000 gallons, of which 84 per cent was produced in England and 16 per cent in Scotland, and that this milk was disposed of as follows:

Gallons.
Consumed as liquid milk.

600, 000, 000
Manufactured into butter.

394, 000, 000 Manufactured into cheese_

100, 000, 000
Manufactured into condensed milk.

35, 000, 000
Used for cream and miscellaneous manufacturing
purposes

61,000,000
Allowances for wastage, spilling, etc.

30, 000, 000 Total.

1, 220, 000 000 Such, then, is the general setting of the practical conditions to which our schemes for advice and instruction in dairying are applied, and it only remains, before proceeding to consider the broad outline of the educational scheme in operation, to refer to the paper on “The status of dairy education in England and Wales," by Mr. V. E. Wilkins, B. Sc., in which it is pointed out that the administration of instruction in dairying rests with the county education authorities, of whom there are 6i in England and Wales, and (for most of the higher types) with governing bodies of college and agricultural departments of some of our universities. The Ministry of Agriculture, in virtue of its grants made in aid of the various forms of instruction, is in a position, however, to suggest schemes and to exercise a controlling influence.

DAIRY EDUCATION SCHEME.

Following the passing of the local taxation (customs and excise) act of 1890, which placed at the disposal of local education authorities certain funds (derived from the taxation of spirituous liquors) to be devoted to the provision of technical instruction, education in dairy technique was, in the rural areas, one of the first subjects taken up.

Most counties started by providing practical demonstrations of the most approved method of butter making. This later developed into the provision of traveling dairy schools, with, in addition, a certain number of fixed dairy schools, and so the work has gone on. These earlier schemes have, quite naturally, been remodeled from time to time as accumulated experience has shown the need. Their extended application has also followed, as fast as has been made possible by the increased provision of State aid.

In framing the general scheme now working, certain central objects have always been kept in mind, and these given in the order of their importance, may be briefly indicated as follows:

1. It is the people who are actually engaged in the industry that count most. They are busy people and are usually occupied for seven days in the week. Therefore, take the instruction to them and do not expect them in the first instance to come to you.

2. Every person on the farm who handles milk should possess an intelligent appreciation of the things that matter, otherwise he can not be expected to do the right thing at the right time. Therefore, the employee as well as the employer should be instructed.

3. Traveling schools have their limitations in regard to scope. They can only proceed so far in the scale of education. Therefore. encouragement should be given to the best students to proceed from them to the fixed county dairy school (or farm institute), and, if good enough, from the latter school to the still higher course at the dairy college, so that these bright students may later help in advancing the industry, either as professional teachers or, by the practical example of their better managed farms, becoming in effect " demonstrators."

4. Instruction should embrace economic production as well as improved quality of produce.

6. For the safety and general well-being of the industry every producer should be able, if it should be advisable to do so, to convert his milk into products, either on his own farm or in a dairy jointly conducted with his neighboring dairy farmers. This necessitates the provision of education in the true principles of cooperation as well as in the technique of the manufacture of milk products.

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