« PreviousContinue »
Many station workers feel that such effort will make clear and more applicable the finding of these investigations and that by means of these popular publications they are keeping their departments and their institutions before the public, even though a great deal of time is given to long, tedious research problems whose solution inay take years of study. In fact, with American experiment stations supported, as they are, largely by popular taxation, many station directors feel that it is quite essential to keep in touch with their constituency by means of bulletin material in order to maintain popular interest and to get the support and adequate appropiations which they must have to carry on their work.
This struggle on the part of individual stations for popular support, coupled with a too literal interpretation of the Hatch Act, has in the past led to the almost exclusive use of the bulletin form for the publishing of scientific data. Now, however, much of this short-sightedness of the station director in refusing permission to publish in scientific journals is being overcome.
VARIATION IN CLASSIFICATION.
Full authority having been vested in the director and staff of each experiment station in the several States to publish results of their findings in such bulletins as considered by them most suitable to their constituencies naturally resulted in a lack of uniformity.
For instance, practically all the stations are issuing technical bulletins covering most of the research work done at the station. These are sent only to scientific workers at home and abroad. This bulletin is variously known as "technical bulletin, " "research
“ bulletin, " “ investigational bulletin, ” and “memoirs," a nomenclature not only confusing, but one which it would seem might easily be standardized. Similarly, the publication used for the dissemination of popular information is known as “ extension bulletin,” “ extension circular, " " reading course circular, extension leaflet.
The number and variation in type of these bulletins have grown to such extent that our stations and agricultural colleges are already making concerted efforts toward standardization of all their publications. With but few exceptions, we find that our land-grant colleges now have agreed upon three types of publications:
(1) Research bulletins.--These are technical in nature, cover only work done at the station, and are sent only to scientific workers at home and abroad.
(2) Station bulletins, which might appropriately be called “popular bulletins.” This type of bulletin generally gives results of research work, with or without technical data upon which the conclusions are based. It may be a review of a research bulletin or it may be an original publication.
(3) Extension bulletins, which are generally published by the extension department of the agricultural colleges, but sometimes by the experiment stations, as "experiment station circulars." These
. are generally limited to a popular but accurate discussion of some problem important to the State's agricultural interests, boys and girls' club work, or household conveniences. They need not be based on strictly scientific work.
While most of the publications issued by the State experiment stations fall under this classification, some of the States, in an effort to popularize their work and to reach those not in the habit of requesting bulletins, are putting out what is termed "poster bulletins.” which, as the name implies, are used for posting purposes. This type of bulletin carries considerable information and tells the reader where he can get additional information on the particular subject under discussion.
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PUBLICATIONS.
The United States Department of Agriculture has a designation all its own. Briefly stated, their publications are listed as farmers' bulletins, which contain the results of the department's work based on scientific knowledge and written in such form as to be of most assistance to the farmers. The department also publishes circulars which are similar to the farmers' bulletins, but differ in that they are not written especially for farmers and are frequently brief reports of scientific research.
The dairy research men of the Department of Agriculture now utilize the Journal of Dairy Science and the Journal of Agricultural Research to a very considerable extent for the publication of the reports of their work.
The Journal of Dairy Science is published by the American Dairy Science Association and is its official organ. Its columns are open for the publication of dairy research data. It also publishes proceedings of the association meetings and abstracts of such general scientific work as will be of interest to dairy workers.
The Journal of Agricultural Research is a weekly scientific journal, and is published jointly by the Association of Land-grant Colleges and the United States Department of Agriculture, and is the official organ for land-grant college workers.
In addition to the above-named journals, much use is made by dairy workers of such publications as the Journal of Bacteriology and the many chemical publications for articles of a special bacteriological or chemical nature.
Much dairy information of a semipopular nature is sent direct to the trade or professional dairy papers whose editors aim whenever possible to publish quite fully such data as are of direct interest to their readers. Research work pertaining to animal production is generally sent and published quite fully in such dairy husbandry papers as Hoard's Dairyman of Fort Atkinson, Wis., and the Dairy Farmer, published by the Meredith Publishing Co. of Des Moines, Iowa. The Jersey Bulletin, the Holstein-Friesian World, the Guernsey Journal, and the Ayrshire Digest, all publish information of particular interest to breeders of purebred dairy cattle. Besides these special channels, much dairy information is sent out through such of the regular farm press påpers as are devoting much attention to dairying.
If the data are of peculiar interest to manufacturers of dairy products, such as butter, cheese, ice cream, fluid milk, and other milk products, it will find an outlet in such papers as the New York Creamery and Produce Review, of New York; the Chicago Produce, of Chicago, Ill.; the Butter, Cheese, and Egg Journal, of Milwaukee, Wis., the Creamery and Milk Plant Monthly, of Chicago; the Ice Cream Trade Journal, of New York; and others of similar nature.
TREND TOWARDS SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS.
Briefly, this sums up the main channels through which dairy information is being disseminated in this country by publications. At present the tendency in most of our best stations is toward the use of the standard research journals as vehicles for scientific papers and for reports of progress, publication in them being simultaneous with, or even previous to, the appearance of the material in bulletin form.
In fact, this trend toward the use of scientfic journals, such as the Journal of Dairy Science, the Journal of Agricultural Research, the Journal of Bacteriology, the Chemical Journal, and the like, is so pronounced that the author has no hesitancy in venturing the suggestion that in the near future all our best dairy research work will be available in scientific journals; and that the foreign worker interested in dairy research will not have to concern himself very seriously with our semipopular bulletins and circulars, which, after all, are largely intended for general home distribution.
In order that you may have opportunity to visualize what I have attempted to explain in the few minutes allotted to this subject, I have collected and brought here copies of the various types of bulletins, circulars, and posters published by our leading experiment stations. In this exhibit you will also find samples of scientific and trade journals mentioned in this paper.
I have in this collection samples of these various journals that I have mentioned, and I have various types of these bulletins. Some of them are the technical bulletins. Some are called research bulletins, and I have samples of the various popular bulletins and of the various experiment station circulars and of the various extension circulars.
I think that from what I have said and from what you can see of this type of publication you will be able to form a better idea of the type of publications available to the American reader. I think the people from abroad might be interested in the effort that some of our colleges have made to reach the type of people who do not request bulletins. There is a type of the poster bulletin [exhibiting] which is published by some of the colleges. This happens to be published by the University of Missouri.
There is a type of poster published by the extension service of the Iowa Stage College. It shows the importance of purebred sires.
There is one published in North Dakota.
Here is a poster bulletin published by the College of Agriculture Extension Service of Nebraska. It attempts to tell in a nutshell the different diseases of swine.
Here is a poster bulletin calculated to impress people with the need of more milk for children. This is published by the extension service of Wisconsin.
There is another Missouri bulletin intended to stress the importance of using better bulls.
I feel like apologizing for taking the time of the extension workers on this subject, but the committee felt that there was a need for giving a little added explanation to the people from abroad on this subject.
Chairman HATCH. I will ask the Secretary to place this material, which Mr. Frandsen has shown, on the table in front where you will all have an opportunity of examining it after the close of the session. I assume, Professor Frandsen, that your duties elsewhere will not permit you to take part in any general discussion at this moment?
Mr. FRANDSEN. If there is a question or two I would be glad to answer them.
Chairman Hatch. Then, let us have any questions quickly.
Prof. R. C. FISHER (Connecticut Agricultural College). I would like to ask Professor Frandsen if he believes it would be a better policy for the experiment stations to follow more the suggestion which he made of distributing the technical knowledge through the means of technical papers rather than in bulletin form? Does he think that would reach more people who are interested than in the form of bulletins? It is a question that came up at our experiment station staff meeting the other day.
Prof. FRANDSEN. I don't know that my opinion would be worth very much on that, Professor Fisher. I have no objections at all to the stations publishing all this information as soon as possible, but I do think that since they are anxious to reach at the earliest moment all their associates in the same line of work, it would be desirable that that information be made available at once through their scientific journals.
For instance, workers in this country, as well as abroad, are all readers of their scientific journals, and they look for information along their lines. To make it available in any other way frequently delays the coming of that information into the hands of our associates.
That would be my reason for feeling that by all means all our station workers ought to work around to the point where their information is made available through the columns of the scientific journals.
There is another reason for that. I have been connected with an experiment station for a number of years, and I happen to knowand I presume that is the general condition—that frequently money is not available for the publishing of results when they are out. That is a very good reason why this information should be released through the scientific journals.
I think our workers should also feel that it does not bother the college to publish a bulletin. Our best experiment station directors now, I think, are readily consenting to publishing in the journals, with the understanding that the material will be published in bulletin form as soon as conditions permit.
I think that you, as workers in the various stations, could carry that message to your various station councils, Professor Fisher, and see if you could not get that policy made more universal in all our stations.
Chairman Hatch. Are there any other questions? If not, we will proceed with the regular order.
We have the very great pleasure of announcing to you that we have with us this afternoon a gentleman who has traveled halfway around the world to be with us. Unfortunately, this information did not reach the committee in time to have his name published in the printed program, but I now have the great pleasure of presenting to you Prof. Taraknath Das, representing Seva Sangha and the Central Cow Protection Society of India. Professor Das. [Applause.]
Mr. Das. Before I read my paper, Mr. Chairman and ladies and gentlemen, I wish to express my thanks to the World's Dairy Congress on behalf of India for this privilege.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE DAIRY INDUSTRY IN INDIA.
TARAK SATH Das, representing Seva Sangha and Central Cow Protection So
It is my great privilege to represent various cow-protection societies of India in this International Dairy Congress. So at the outset I must say a few words regarding the Hindu attitude toward cow protection. It is generally supposed that the Hindus, because of their religious superstitions, worship “the sacred bull.” But the real ethical and sociological background of this attitude of veneration, verging to worship, toward "cow" is very simple. The Aryan ancestors of the Hindus were pastoral people and to them cows were very valuable, and in the ancient scriptures like the Mahabharata we find the expression “ go-dhan,” the literal translation of which is cow wealth. The social utility of cow in every phase of human existence has been so great in Hindu life that the cow is regarded as one of the seven mothers of an individual. The great Chanakya says:
One's own mother, wife of the spiritual guide, wife of a Brahmin, the wife of the King, cow, nurse, and the Mother Earth are really sever mothers of every individual,
Liberality and gratitude are the two important factors in Hindu ethical code, and the spirit of veneration toward cows is nothing but manifestation of gratitude. When a person is born he or she becomes indebted to cows for the milk that nourishes life; by the labor of cows the ground is tilled to produce food which sustains the body; when sick and about to pass away from this human existence man uses milk as the best diet.
Bones of cows as well as cow dung are used as fertilizers, and thus the cow is helpful to Indian society more than we can appreciate in words, and the cow is respected, and Hindus do not want to kill cows for food when they can live upon other food; other kinds of animal food if necessary.