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to go from farm to farm monthly throughout the year. With one day's yield each month as a basis, he computes the yield, the value of the product, the cost of feed, the feed cost of milk and butterfat production, and the relation of the feed cost to the value of the product from each cow in the herd monthly throughout the year. The results give the owner reliable information as a basis for culling out unprofitable cows.

The importance of culling out low producers may be noted from figures computed by the United States Dairy Division, showing that on the average high-producing cows give much better returns above the cost of feed than low producers. The following table gives the data:

Relation of yield to returns above feed cost.

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The average yield per cow in the United States, according to the 1920 census, was only 3,412 pounds milk, containing approximately 140 pounds butterfat, while for the 2,234 cows in the testing associations the average yield was 6,977 pounds of milk and 248 pounds of butterfat.

Striking examples may be noted of the improved production tak ing place in herds where the low producers were culled out and their places filled with animals raised from the best cows in the herd and a purebred sire of high-producing ancestry. The following data from a herd in a Pennsylvania association will serve as an illustration:

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The owner of the herd started with 10 grade cows. He gradually replaced his inferior cows with other animals produced by mating his best cows with a good purebred bull. A marked improvement in yield was noticeable. He then got a start in purebreds and gradually disposed of his grades. In 1919 he sold the last of his grades and kept only purebreds thereafter. His herd of 8 purebred cows in 1920 averaged 11,720 pounds of milk, 454.5 pounds of butterfat, and after paying for their feed returned to their owner an average of $222.53 per cow.

On July 1, 1922, there were 513 cow-testing associations in the United States with 12,508 members owning 216,875 cows.

PUREBRED COWS.

Extension workers have been active in the introduction of purebred cows into the various communities adapted to dairying. During the year ending July 1, 1922, over 62,000 purebred females were placed on farms as foundation stock for purebred herds. Purebred cows are not only more valuable for breeding purposes than grades but are also considerably more productive for milk and butterfat purposes. The records from over 1,000 cows in testing associations in Bradford County, Pa., showed that on the average the purebred cows produced 17 per cent more milk and 15 per cent more butterfat than grades. These animals were all kept under very similar conditions and show what increase can normally be expected from purebreds. Other data including the yearly records of 11,086 grade cows and 1,704 purebred cows in testing associations throughout the United States indicate an increase of 10.4 per cent in the yield of butterfat from purebreds. The records were from cows of all ages. However, there was a larger proportion of mature cows among the grades than among the purebreds.

BOYS' AND GIRLS' DAIRY CATTLE CLUBS.

The increased interest in better livestock in many communities is directly traceable to boys and girls' cattle clubs. 'Purebred calves are usually furnished at moderate cost by dairy cattle breeders' associations, banks, and other public-spirited organizations. Prizes are awarded at the close of the season to those whose calves give evidence of having received the best care. These calf clubs are often continued as cow clubs, or else the latter are organized at the outset with purebred dairy cows. In these cow clubs each member keeps a record of the production of his own cow. Milk-testing clubs are frequently conducted in connection with these cow clubs. The members meet once a month at a convenient place, bring samples of milk, test them, and record the data. During the year ending July 1, 1922, 8,626 boys and girls were engaged in club work with dairy cattle.

DAIRY CATTLE FEEDING. Meetings with farmers for the discussion of feeding problems, balanced ration campaigns, schools of instruction in dairy cattle feeding lasting from two to five days, county meetings with the feed dealers associations, and monthly feeding news publications have all been used by the dairy extension specialists and the county agricultural agents to promote the knowledge and use of properly balanced and economical rations. During the year ending July i, 1922, 50,355 farmers were assisted in computing balanced rations.

JUDGING.

Considerable time is given by extension workers during the summer and fall to the judging of dairy cattle at exhibits, fairs, and contests. This is an interesting and valuable educational feature

of the cattle shows, inasmuch as the judge usually gives his reasons for the awards and thus helps to establish in the minds of those interested a standard as to what constitutes proper type in the different breeds.

DISEASE CONTROL.

Projects covering the control of animal diseases have formed an important part of dairy extension work. In some counties campaigns are in progress to have every herd in the county placed under State and Federal supervision for the eradication of tuberculosis. During the year ending July 1, 1922, there were 1,065,098 animals tested for tuberculosis through the cooperation of the State and Federal agencies. Much work was done in testing animals for contagious abortion by the agglutination and complement fixation test and 519,759 animals were treated for blackleg.

BETTER QUALITY OF DAIRY PRODUCTS.

Clean milk campaigns have been instrumental in greatly improving the quality of milk and cream delivered to producers. "Sediment tests of the milk as it reaches the plant from each farm have been especially effective in pointing out to careless producers the need for greater care in the methods of production. Farm visits to advise dairymen personally concerning better equipment and methods have usually resulted in satisfactory improvements in the quality of milk.

In many States butter-scoring exhibits have been held. One or more pounds of butter have been sent by farmers and creameries for scoring, analysis, and criticism.

Much assistance has been given by extension workers in the organization of milk and dairy manufacturing plants, in the planning of dairy buildings, selection and arrangement of equipment, and in the handling of the raw material in the plant so as to put on the market dairy products of high quality.

MARKETING.

In most of the territory adjacent to the large milk-consuming centers, milk producers' organizations are in active operation. The officers of these organizations are charged with the responsibility of marketing the milk produced by the members. The association is supported by a small commission, usually 2 or 3 cents for each 100 pounds of milk sold. In order to stabilize the market, some of these organizations have purchased or built plants where milk or cream may be made into dairy manufactured products, and thus care for any periodical surplus.

In some of the smaller cities, farmers' cooperative milk plants have been organized through the assistance of the extension service. To this plant is brought most of the milk produced in the community. It is clarified, Pasteurized, bottled, and delivered by the central plant, and the surplus is made into dairy manufactured products. This plan eliminates much duplication of effort in preparing and delivering the product to the consumer. The extension representatives have also encouraged and assisted in the formation of cooperative dairy manufacturing establishments where the conditions warranted such organizations.

During the year ending July 1, 1922, the county agents gave assistance to 7,078 cooperative marketing associations of various kinds. These associations did $349,807,153 worth of business, with an estimated saving to farmers of $23,791,869.

INCREASING THE CONSUMPTION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS.

Campaigns for the increased consumption of dairy products have been carried on in many cities. By means of posters, newspaper articles, pamphlets, public meetings, health plays, moving pictures, exhibits, demonstrations, and the distribution of milk at public schools the consumption of milk has been greatly increased. In 10 of the larger cities the increase has run from 15 to 25 per cent. Striking evidence of the value of increased milk consumption by school children was noted in the decreased percentage of malnutrition subsequent to the milk campaign.

The extension service has accomplished much for the improvement of agriculture since the passage of the Smith-Lever Act in 1914. A considerable part of the increasing returns from land and livestock may be traced directly to the improved methods of production and marketing, demonstrated by the extension specialists, the county agricultural agents, the leaders of boys and girls' clubs, and others engaged in extension work.

This definite Nation-wide plan of agricultural extension has been in operation only nine years. The work as a whole may yet be said to be in its infancy, and its beneficial results will continue to increase as the improved methods of production and marketing taught by extension workers become more generally adopted throughout the Nation.

Chairman Hatch. Inasmuch as the next speaker on the program has to be in another meeting, over which he is presiding, we will postpone discussion on Professor Borland's paper until after the presentation of the next topic by Mr. J. H. Frandsen, who is editor in chief of the Journal of Dairy Science and dairy editor of Capper Farm Press. I am pleased to present Mr. Frandsen to discuss the matter of “ Methods of disseminating results of research concerning the dairy industry by publications.” Mr. Frandsen. [Applause.) METHODS OF DISSEMINATING RESULTS OF RESEARCH CON.

CERNING THE DAIRY INDUSTRY BY PUBLICATIONS.

Julius HERMAN FRANDSEN, editor in chief, The Journal of Dairy Science, and

dairy editor, Capper Farm Press, Lincoln, Nebr.

Mr. Chairman, ladies, and gentlemen: The subject which the chairman has assigned to me is one that I fear may not be of maximum interest to you extension workers, and I see many of you in the audience. However, I was assured by the program committee that from their correspondence with people of Europe and other countries there was a great deal of confusion regarding our various types of publications, and I was asked to take a few minutes to explain, as well as I could, the nature of our various publications.

“Why are Americans so fond of printing bulletins and circulars of every description instead of utilizing the world's accepted scientific journals—the regular channels—for the dissemination of research information?” is a question often asked by scientific workers from abroad.

The writer of this paper holds no brief for scientific workers in this country, but will venture the suggestion that if we familiarize ourselves with the historical aspect of the early experiment stations and the provisions of the Hatch Act, under which agricultural investigation in this country had its inception, we will see why research workers have fallen into the habit of depending so largely upon their own station bulletins instead of upon scientific journals as a means of acquainting their fellow workers and the general public with their progress of work.

THE HATCH ACT.

The Hatch Act, to which I refer, has a provision which reads as follows:

That in order to assist in acquiring and diffusing among the people of the United States useful and practical information on subjects connected with agriculture, and to promote scientific investigation of agricultural science, experiment stations shall be established and bulletins or reports of progress shall be published as often as once in three months, and these shall be distributed to farmers and newspapers.

This organic act under which all United States experiment stations function is not very specific either as to what shall be published, how it shall be written, the style, the shape, or the size of publications. In fact, all of this detail is left to the discretion of the director of the experiment station and his staff of workers in each State.

When we remember that we are a nation made up of 48 different States, each one of which is operating to a very large extent independently of the others, and under its own laws and often with its own ideas as to how results of its experiment station can best be disseminated among its own citizens, we can account for the striking variation in type of publication of the many bulletins issued by the experiment stations in this country. Most American scientists understand these variations, though it must be admitted that there is as yet considerable confusion among our own laity, as well as among those unacquainted with our customs, concerning our apparent lack of uniformity regarding scientific publications.

Then again, agricultural college workers in the United States do not, as a rule, consider it a mistake to frame or write their bulletins so as to make them intelligible to the general public, although it frequently means carrying results far enough along so that they can be interpreted in terms of general practice as well as making them a contribution to science.

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