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dairy animals in each country. The cooperation of the World's Dairy Congress of the United States in this project is desired. A formal copy of the by-laws is included.

Chairman MINER. I believe it was your decision, gentlemen, that you would return to a discussion of the paper which was first given. What is your pleasure as to the discussion? Will it be in the nature of asking the reader of the paper questions, or will you discuss it yourselves? The chair is open to suggestions now.

Mr. BENZINGER (of Stockholm). I wonder whether it wouldn't be wise, if there is any discussion regarding the paper of Mr. Bovy, to have the discussion while M. Porcher is present.

Dr. ROADHOUSE (of California). I move that M. Bovy's paper be discussed.

(The motion was seconded and carried.) Chairman MINER. Gentlemen, the paper is before you. The chair will limit the discussion to not exceed five minutes for each speaker.

Mr. BENZINGER (of Stockholm). I had nothing to say. I only thought that as long as M. Porcher was here it would be advisable to discuss M. Bovy's paper. MEMBER. Would it be a dairy office or just a relay office ?

INTERPRETER FOR PROFESSOR PORCHER. It is thought that there should be research laboratories as well as statistical departments and departments of a commercial nature. But several of the countries now united in the International Federation claim that a scientific department must come first; and only if that is successful, then they may carry on and establish the second department, which is the library, which is, of course, necessary for scientific research work. And if this should be a success again, then there would be other departments. That is the idea.

Mr. E. D. WAID (of the Ohio Farm Bureau). Is this an outgrowth of the good work that Switzerland has been carrying on for some time in the gathering of statistics and supposed to be combined with it?

Chairman MINER. That, perhaps, can be answered by the gentleman from Switzerland.

Mr. PETER (of Switzerland). Gentlemen, we are glad to extend the work. I did not think that the international dairy institute would begin this work next year. Professor Laur expects to establish this organization. But I think when an international era comes to life that this statistical work done by Professor Laur will be connected with an international dairy organization.

But I think this dairy institute must be founded. All nations should be members. I know the International Federation, which meets in Brussels, is working on this line, and the Swiss Dairy Office. which is a member of the International Federation. We have had under discussion the foundation of these international institutions, but we do not yet know what position we will take in Rome. We can not found a new international institute when we have already these international organizations. All of these questions are not settled for the Swiss dairy organizations. We are looking to what is to be done here, and then afterwards we will take our action. I hope you will understand me. I thank you. [Applause.]

Mr. BENZINGER (of Sweden). I think the question which M. Bovy's paper brings up is a very interesting thing. The only drawback is that at present it seems to me we can not get together the money to do this work. We know only too well that Europe is in a very bad state; even the countries which have not been in the war have been affected by the conditions so much that the Governments will hardly see their way to give them any money for such a work as M. Bovy has thought it would be wise to do.

However, it seems to me that the question would not be, perhaps, good that an international federation would follow the question and take it up again at a moment when we see that we have come to a success. They are better than anyone else able to know when the time has come, and it appears to me these two institutions shall be together at the same place. In sympathizing with the idea to create such an institution some day, I think that the whole question would be best put under way if the Federation Internationale would put it in their lands and bring it up again as soon as possible; and they have in every country some representative through which they might get information as to whether it would be better to wait another

I think Professor Bovy would like it if the persons present would express themselves as to what they think of the idea.

Chairman MINER. I may say we are very fortunate in having another corps of interpreters, so if any of you wish to discuss the subjects in French, Italian, or Spanish, we will be able to translate it for the benefit of English friends.

Dr. F. E. POSTHUMA (of Holland). We are all expected to speak the American language and we try to do so; and if I use words with which you are not familiar, I hope you will realize I mean no offense at all.

Professor Porcher represents here the French organization; Professor Peter the Swiss, and I, as chairman of the federation in Holland, represent the Dutch branch of the International Dairy Federation. So I think I am entitled to speak a few words.

The decision for the foundation of this international institute has been already taken by the International Federation. But the only difficulty, as mentioned by Mr. Benzinger, is that all the governments are poor.

We came home with our decision and we told the different governments that we needed some money, and they answered they had none. For the Netherlands it is not a great question because our organizations are strong enough to pay for themselves. And we mean, moreover, that if we can not have a foundation on a large scale, then we must have a foundation on a smaller scale. The action has been taken, and what we want as representatives of the international dairy organization in Europe is only this—that we be backed up by the American organization. Therefore our secretary has written his paper; therefore Professor Bovy gave you certain information; and therefore I speak at this moment. We want, we need, the help of America for the international dairy institute, and we beg you to give us your assistance.

Mr. Wald (Ohio). In regard to the statistical records I believe they are extending their inquiries to all countries of the world. Are they expecting to combine with that figures regarding consumption and demand? Are you expecting to include demand figures and consumption figures of the world on dairy products soon, or are you now in combination with your production of figures?

Mr. WILKINS (of England). I do not want to add anything to the excellent paper that has been read, but I think one of the chief and first duties of this institute should be to carry on this work, and that seems to me to raise some problems. I would like to ask whether the backers of this scheme have any concrete examples of the type of research which they think should be carried out by this institute?

Chairman MINER. Professor Porcher, will you answer that? INTERPRETER (for Professor Porcher). Professor Porcher wants to point out, first, that there is no industry in which the work which has been done may be more useful than in the dairy industry. For instance, Professor Porcher explained that he came to this country in 1919. He was sent by the French Government to study the condition of the dairy industry and the work connected with dairying in general in this country, and he found that many people connected with the dairy industry wanted to know about the scarcity of milk. And that is a branch in which the work done in laboratories might be useful for producing, evaporating, and concentrating the milk.

Professor Bovy hopes that it will be possible with the help of the office to create an international office of dairying to compare the results which have been obtained in different countries. At present there is the International Institute in Rome, but, of course, that institute is not concerned exclusively with dairying, and Professor Bovy hopes that the dairy industry may deem it advisable to have that office just to assemble the results which have been obtained relative to dairy matters.

Mr. WILKINS (of England). Do I understand that the bureau of research is not to be under this scheme for an international dairy office, but was contemplated as the collaboration of the results obtained in various departments on subjects which will affect generally the dairy industry throughout the world?

INTERPRETER (for Professor Porcher). The intention of the office is to collect everything which concerns dairying, so that everything will be together. That is the intention of the people who want to start that office.

Chairman MINER. I understand, gentlemen, it is your desire to close the discussion on that paper and we will discuss the paper entitled “Dairy and factory management," by A. Peter, director, Government Dairy School, Řütti-Zollikofen, Switzerland.

INTERPRETER (for Mr. Peter). The speaker said he should have found his place rather in another session than here, but nevertheless he is going to make these few remarks.

He deals with the educational question. He says he misses the fact that the young people are not trained in a systematic way. All those who attend high school are filled with a lot of knowledge but they are not able to apply their knowledge to practical questions. So he would rather see them get more careful training in broad economic questions.

He refers to a book that has been edited lately in this line, and in spite of all the bad times he found it a good seller, and he thinks it is proven by the success of this book that the young men who want to be well equipped in your line should receive a better training in all economic questions.

He says, in closing his remarks, he is glad that he finds this system well developed here in America. The American people seem to treat this question in a more practical way than in all other countries. [Applause.]

INTERPRETER (for Professor Porcher). I want to say that I don't quite agree with his statement on the question as to why the chemists and scientists are not so economically inclined. I suppose it is because a real scientist hasn't time enough to study economics as well as he should.

Mr. PETER (of Switzerland). I will not say that chemists want to be well trained in economic questions, but I say that our students who are working in dairy schools in the practical line want to know something of chemistry. They want to know something about bacteriology. But they also want to know something of economic questions, and that in a systematic way. They can not only read a newspaper to read the economic questions, always in a peculiar line and not in a scientific line; and I think that there are students in the higher dairy schools and in the technical universities who must be familiar with economic questions of our industry. That is what I will say and add to my book.

INTERPRETER (for Professor Porcher). I agree with him absolutely. I misunderstood the main idea he was trying to bring out.

CHAIRMAN MINER. We have completed the list of papers whose authors are present. The remaining papers on the program for this session will be read by title.

(Adjournment.)
(Papers read by title) :

COOPERATION AS A FACTOR IN STABILIZING THE MARKET FOR

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS.

STEPHEN I. MILLER, Jr., dean of the College of Business Administration,

University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.

On every hand artificial selection tends to become more and more important in the social and economic fields of endeavor. Industrial evolution is little more than the gradual replacement or supplementation of the older law or principle of natural selection. In no field of economics is this more evident and important than in agriculture. The industrial progress of a community no longer awaits the develop, ment of natural selection and evolution. Industry does not spread to the various points of the United States in response to direct economic laws; the development of agricultural zones and the fulfillment of irrigation projects do not await the slow process of individual endeavor. Communities have become competitive and community effort is more and more dependent upon constructive realization of possibilities through motivating settlement.

A western State develops an irrigation project which is adapted for dairy purposes. Settlers move upon these irrigated lands. At once, several agricultural problems are presented to the State: First, the aid necessary to maintain the dairymen who have previously acquired a footing; second, the necessity of building the economic welfare of those who have settled upon the new lands; third, the necessity of fulfilling the hope of the project by bringing the unoccupied lands under cultivation. A sound economic policy will undoubtedly consider these interests in the order named; otherwise there is little hope of bringing settlers to the unoccupied areas of the project brought under irrigation; likewise, the success of the farmers who have sparsely settled upon the area is largely dependent upon the economies that must come from the occupation of the entire zone. Taxes, road work, markets, cooperation, and finance do not respond readily to thinly populated areas. An economic pause on the part of the State is likely to be fatal to agriculture as a whole and especially to agriculture in a new area. The entire State must bring its resources and power to bear upon the industrial necessity created by the irrigation enterprise. Other States are eternally active, and dependence upon the passive development and growth may submerge the equities and hopes of the settlers. Economists and individualists may deplore the discount placed upon individual endeavor. The fact remains that the new community is dependent upon the economic vigilance necessary to keep step with competitive efforts put forth by other States and communities.

The formation of capital may be dependent upon natural or tradicional standards of living which make possible certain margins of saving, but the application of capital to a given industry does not necessarily follow unguided economic competition. Nowhere is this more evident than in the field of agriculture and nowhere has greater change taken place in capital requirements than in this particular field. The modern dairying plant, the cost of acreage, the technique necessary for cultivation, and the preliminary soil investments now rival many other forms of industry. The necessity for large, or at least larger, capital than heretofore, is everywhere apparent. State bankers very often find it necessary to cooperate in order that the necessary capital may be available for the normal economies necessary for a group of farmers located within the State. Natural competitive forces may be so retarded as to jeopardize the interests of the farmers unless that broader vision be kept in mind. Regardless of the danger that may be involved in a cooperative mass movement to advance the necessary capital to a community, the necessity brought about by modern community cooperation remains as a fact and not a theory.

A lack of stability has been introduced into farming through what may be termed “the failure of the farming generation.” For hundreds of years generation followed generation in the tilling of the soil; this became a kind of natural selection in which at least one son, by disposition and tradition, inherited the farm and carried on to a very great extent the economies, customs, and experiences of the preceding generation. Although this may have been a force which somewhat retarded the introduction of more progressive methods, nevertheless, great continuity and stability were brought about by this sequence. The boy or the boys of the farm no longer may be depended upon to carry on the cultivation of the parent's farm. This lack of continuity in the farming generation has done much to break the natural stability of the earlier periods. Throughout the

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