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simplest way is to make a whole-wheat loaf with milk and add table salt and calcium salts. This combination makes a very nutritious loaf of bread. But consumers do not like to eat this loaf of bread every day. Furthermore, the salts and vitamins locked up in the germ and bran are not so readily available when they pass into the digestive operations of the human system.

Flavor is an all-important factor with the food, and close consideration must be given to it, whether it be in the kitchen of the home or in the larger kitchen, the food factory. Flavor and economy must be considered and answered by those who undertake to pass the vitamins, nutrient salts, balanced proteins, and other needs of a complete diet on to the consuming public.

Just what can be done by combining whole milk and whole wheat into a palatable white loaf and its high feeding value is shown in this loaf of bread, which in the feeding data is referred to as “ Vitovim."

This loaf of bread is composed of: (a) Strong patent flour to give a well-leavened and palatable loaf.

(6) An extract rich in vitamin B, soluble proteins, and mineral salts derived from wheat germ and a small admixture of bran.

(c) Whole milk as the only liquid ingredient of the dough, plus added whole-milk solids, including the vitamin A and milk salts.

(d) Soluble calcium salts.

(e) The usual leavening ingredients, including yeast, salt, shortening, and yeast food. The shortening is selected beef oleo oil, selected in preference to lard for its additional vitamin A.

The nutritional facts established for the loaf are:

The loaf contains proteins of superior food value for growth and strength.

Liberal amounts of vitamins A and B.

A well-balanced variety of body-building mineral nutrients for bones and teeth.

It is rich in the food elements needed by the expectant and nursing mother and growing child. It supplies abundant energy and builds resistance for

young

and old at low cost.

Measured by the elements necessary in the food for everybody, this loaf is one of the most perfect single foods ever produced.

The questions presented and which the research staffs of the Ward Baking Co. were called upon to answer were:

(a) To what extent could the salts, vitamin, proteins, and other food valuables contained in the germ and bran be separated away from the crude fiber, and how much of the food value contained in the whole wheat would be separated into the extract? What potency would be left in the extract? Would it have the same, a lesser, or a greater potency than whole wheat?

() How much of this extract would it be necessary to add to a white loaf to make it contain as much or more of the nutrient salts, vitamin B, and soluble proteins contained in the whole wheat?

(c) Since even whole wheat is an unbalanced food, what besides the extract could be added to make up a nutritional balance?

(d) What were the baking problems involved and how could they be overcome?

The analyses of both white bread made according to the average formula and whole-wheat bread show a deficiency in lime, and whatever else is added to the loaf there must be a proper balance between the phosphates and magnesia and the lime in order to secure normal growth and reproduction. Whole-wheat bread is a good food source of iron, and it is necessary that this be taken care of from organic sources in building up the loaf. An analysis of the new loaf in comparison with good white bread and 100 per cent whole-wheat bread is as follows:

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Chlorine (CI)..
Phosphates (P,03).
Potash (K,0).
Sodium (Na).
Sulphates (80.).
Magnesia (Mgo)..
Line (CaO)..
Silica (SiO2).
Iron (F003).
Manganese (Mn0n).
Brorine (Br).

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Per cent.

0.64
.50
.34

Per cent.

0.68
. 19
.11
. 39
. 10
.015
.032
.013
.0022

.34

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.

: : : .....

40 .25 .05 .39 .011

0015 Trace. Trace.

43 .21

17 .068 .010 .0052 Trace. Trace.

Trace.

The difficulties presented and the method of handling can be illustrated by a few examples. After the extract was produced, analysis told the amount of protein, maltose, dextrins, and salts contained, but there was no knowledge and nothing upon which to base knowledge as to whether the extract contained the vitamin B so potent in the whole wheat and particularly in the germ, and so the first step was to determine from diets deficient in vitamin B with test animals just how much of this vitamin was contained in this extract and how much extract it would be necessary to add to make the loaf complete in vitamin B. After this was determined from material produced in the laboratory, the next step was the production on a large scale of a uniformly sound product containing a standardized amount of proteins, salts, and vitamin, and the further question whether the extract coming out of the commercial process would contain in potent and standardized amount the food accessories sought in the whole wheat.

With the loaf standardized in vitamin B content, the building of it up further into a balanced ration so as to contain adequate proteins, salts, and an adequate amount of vitamin A as well as vitamin B was undertaken. Here, the baking problem as well as the fermentation and leavening of the dough presented their difficulties. For example, when it is found that whole milk and whole wheat produce a nutritional balance, large amounts of the whole milk can be combined with the whole wheat for animal-feeding tests. But when the problem of baking the mixture into a well-leavened and palatable loaf of bread is presented it becomes necessary to find out just how much of the whole-milk solids are needed to produce this balance and how much can be put into the loaf. Feeding experiments were conducted with the wheat germ extract and varying quantities of milk. Finally, it was found that enough whole-milk solids could be put in the loaf to furnish an adequate protein balance with the proteins of the wheat and adequate amounts of vitamin A, but not enough to furnish a sufficient amount of lime salts needed to balance the phosphates and magnesium salts in the wheat, and so it was necessary to turn to another source of calcium salts and to find the form of the salts and the amount which, while producing a nutritional balance, would not have a detrimental effect upon the fermentation.

Chemistry can not yet determine the presence in measured amounts of the so-called vitamins. Feeding tests are the only dependable present methods to measure the value of foods in these directions. On the other hand, the feeding test shows what the food will do in animal nutrition. The feeding tests conducted with the loaves of bread leading up to the Vitovim loaf and feeding tests of popular and widely sold breads, selected from the markets and fed for comparative purposes, were carried on independently in three laboratories. The same technique was employed, the starting weight of the animals was the same, or approximately the same, and the same methods for recording and expressing the results were followed, but the work in each laboratory was kept separate and independent from the other laboratories, and none of them sought to know what the others were doing until a feeding test had been finished and reported. During the development of the loaf, loaves

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DIED - 30 1 2

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12.

WEEKS Fig. 2.—This figure shows the growth curves of animals started at about 4 weeks of

age and at an average weight of 50 grams. A was fed on a popular white market bread. B was fed on a bread made according to the usual formula of the bakeshop, with the addition of the wheat germ extract. C was fed on a bread made with the additions of the wheat germ extract and whole milk instead of water. D was fed on a bread made with the wheat germ extract, 10 per cent of whole milk solids, based on the weight of the flour, and 0.5 per cent of calcium salts. The space between C and D was found to be a combined fat-soluble A, protein and calcium deficiency.

containing different combinations of ingredients were made at the Ward laboratories and shipped to the other two laboratories, but since the Vitovim loaf has been put upon the market each laboratory carries on its tests with loaves purchased in the open market.

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Fig. 3.—Showing agreement of results obtained at three laboratories.

As a normal diet, one that is capable of producing good growth and normal reproduction, the one used by the Bussey Institute for breeding rats was adopted. It is called the basal diet, and the growth curves will refer to it as such. For rats the basal diet was compounded as follows:

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Parts.

40 24 16 8 1

Rolled oats.
Hominy
Meat scrap ground-
Dried whole milk.

Table salt--
Basal mouse diet:

Parts.
Rolled oats.

9
Sunflower seed

3 Hemp seed.-

3 Dried whole milk_

1 The Ward laboratory carried on another series of feeding tests using Sherman's normal diet which was found excellent for growth and reproduction. It is made up as follows: :

Parts.
Whole wheat flour.

61.5
Dry whole milk

31.5 Table salt---

1.5 This diet was fed in comparison with popular loaves selected from the market, and three loaves containing varying proportions of the

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