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of milk in bread," which will be presented by Mr. R. M. Allen, director of the research products department of the Ward Baking Co. [Applause.]
THE USE OF MILK IN BREAD.
R. M. ALLEN, director, research products department, Ward Baking Co.,
New York City.
Every worker in the field of the newer knowledge of nutrition" has emphasized the high food value of a combination of whole wheat and whole milk, and the job before the baking and dairy industries is to put whole wheat and whole milk into a palatable loaf of bread. You are interested in the milk. The loaf of bread affords an immediately available and a very practical, palatable, and economic means for the distribution of more milk to the consuming public. The palatability of evaporated, dried, and condensed milks has been a factor for consideration in planning wider sales. Cookery is the best outlet for these products. The custard is eaten now and then, but bread is eaten three times a day by young and old, and the addition of the proper amount of milk solids along with not only the flour but the mineral salt and vitamin B constituents of the wheat, contributes a daily needed and a dependable food balance to the diet.
The preservation of dried milk is not so much a problem between the creamery and the wholesale user as it is when the dried milk is put upon the shelves of the grocer and the druggist. Bread is consumed within from 24 to 36 hours, and the retail problem of the dried whole milks is wiped out through the sale of milk breads.
Many, in fact most, of those engaged in the dairy industry or who are interested in it from a scientific or governmental standpoint have looked upon the movement for more milk in bread as an ultimate outlet for skimmed milk. The consumption of butter is reported to have increased in the United States, since 1919, about 40 per cent, and the more of milk that is used for butter the larger grows the bulk of milk solids not fat. The skimmed milk solids furnish a splendid protein balance for the flour, and the salts of the milk tend to balance the salts of the wheat, just as the phosphates and iron of the wheat tend to balance the salts of the milk. But it must not be forgotten that vitamin A, the most of which is removed with the butterfat, is an important requisite in the diet of both young and old. So that, if the butter is not put into the bread it must be put onto the bread. And if it is put into the bread the child has a better opportunity to get the daily needs of a balanced diet. But ordinary bread is still deficient, even though it contains sufficient butterfat, for it is lacking in balanced proteins, mineral salts, and other vitamins.
Skimmed milk furnishes a cheap source of protein of splendid quality-probably the best of all proteins. The best outlets will be found in cookery. This high-class protein, with its valuable milk sugars and salts, stands in a very unpopular light with the consuming public, first, because it is labeled with the word “skimmed " and, second, because the public have constantly been imposed upon through the sale of partially skimmed milk as whole milk or as a whole-milk product. Porterhouse steak is in the same way a skimmed or separated product, yet we pay the price for this choice protein because it is palatable and we know just exactly what we are getting.
Again, skimmed milk has not come into universal consumption because the sources of protein have been more abundant than the sources of the fat-soluble A vitamin contained in the butterfat. Moreover, milk is one of the natural foods which does not need to be separated in order to make it palatable, as do meats, vegetables, and cereals. The consuming public universally want milk as nature makes it, and if separated the consumer prefers the cream and the butter.
But milk spoils and the butterfat keeps better when separated from the other milk solids and so we have the skimmed milk. To those interested in the conservation of this valuable food and the creation of a popular demand for it, four things are recommended: (a) better care of the milk and the skimmed milk so as to assure purity and good flavor, (b) a campaign to show the food industries and private consumers how to use skimmed milk in the preparation of palatable food products and tasty dishes, (c) education of the consumer to know the exact food value of skimmed milk, (d) education of the consumer to realize the necessity for combining the skimmed milk product with butter, in order to get the diet-balancing food elements in the butterfat. In this way the time should soon come when consumers will go to the store and purchase a pound of milk protein, just as they purchase a pound of meat. Skimmed milk powder is, to-day, at the wholesale price of 15 cents per pound, one of the cheapest and best sources of protein for human consumption.
But there is need to have the basic foods, that are well adapted, so prepared as to furnish a diet balance to the daily food. For this purpose the loaf of bread is ideal. Whole milk balances the constituents of the whole wheat, or its separated equivalents, and gets an increased food efficiency out of the carbohydrate, protein and mineral salts in the wheat.
The research staffs of the Ward Baking Co. have built up a white loaf of bread out of whole-milk solids, an extract from the germ and bran of the whole wheat and soluble calcium salts, which is producing normal growth in test animals and reproduction, already into the eighth generation. When fed to children with no other change in the diet than this bread, the result in increased weight and height is pronounced. The congress has invited us to give you the results of our feeding tests with such a loaf. The loaf is the result of years of previous research, both in baking and nutrition. It is an outstanding instance of practical benefit to the consuming public through the application of science to industry. Behind every such result there is an individual who has the vision and the courage to see and to back the necessary research. Many of our industrial leaders, figuratively speaking, are but cutting existing timber without reforestation. Others devote part of the earnings to the planting of new trees. Mr. George S. Ward, president of the company, has given this loaf and the research connected with it most generous backing. Credit is also due Dr. Charles Hoffman, chief, and Messrs. N. M. Cregor, H. D. Grigsby, James E. Mastin, assistant chief, and their associates of the Ward laboratories. Independent check feeding tests and studies have been
made by Dr. Worth Hale, of Boston; Dr. H. A. Kohman, of the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research, of Pittsburgh; and by Dr. C. B. Morison, of the American Institute of Baking, in Chicago.
Members of our research staff have consulted with the publichealth and food-control services of the Federal Government, and the facts presented here have been submitted to the review of several of the outstanding leaders in the field of nutrition.
Before taking up the loaf, let us sketch for a moment the background showing the need for such additions to the American diet and the responsibility on those engaged in the production and distribution of foods.
Dr. Emmett Holt states in his recent book, “ Food, Health and Growth,” that “ food nutrition is probably the most pressing world problem." The researches in food nutrition during the past 25 years, and particularly during the last 10 years, have taught us facts which if applied can build a race of stronger men and women. We know better how to feed the mother and the child, the boy and the girl, the man and the woman, according to the needs of their
and their work, and we know more about the protective essentials that are necessary in all diets.
The American farms produce an abundance of proper food, but there is an intricate system of preparation, milling, separation, canning, churning, cooking, storage and handling between the farm and the city home. Too much of the vitamin and mineral salt content of the food gets lost on the way, or the food gets separated into so many parts that it requires considerable care and thought for the consumer to recombine it into a balanced diet. During the last 15 years, the cereal, meat, vegetable and fruit foods have been subjected to well-checked feeding tests to determine just what the food contributes to normal growth and health, as well as its diet deficiencies.
Fruits and vegetables are important sources of needed vitamins and mineral salts. Every housewife and cook, as well as every one dealing with fruits and vegetables, needs to know the meaning of " watersoluble.” This phrase is used with certain of the vitamins.
“ Watersoluble B” and “ water-soluble C” mean that these vitamins are soluble in and are extracted with water. Some of the mineral salts and proteins are also “ water-soluble.” And, so, if we have been milling away from the flour too much of the nourishment for blood and bone, we have also been pouring from the vegetables too much of these valuable and “ water-soluble" food substances into the kitchen sink. The liquor from the can of peas or beans containing these solubles is poured off and the product further washed before it is prepared for the table. Or if the fresh vegetable is cooked in the kitchen, a part or all of the water used in the cooking is poured away before it is seasoned and put in the vegetable dish.
In butter making, most of the skimmed milk and practically all of the buttermilk with their valuable proteins, mineral salts and vitamins are lost to human nutrition; in cheese making, a large part of these solubles passes away in the whey. Food separations and refinings have followed needs in food preservation, demands in the public taste, and the former teachings of food experts that the calorie or energy content of the product indicated the true value of the food. Changes will be necessary so as to pass the food supply through the existing system of manufacture and distribution with more protection to the vitamin and mineral-salt content. Here comes the duty of everyone in the food industry, the compelling duty of those who determine what goes into the composition, the labeling and advertising of the Nation's food.
In every feeding test, wherever conducted, it has been demonstrated, and the workers agree, that the combination of the food essentials in whole wheat and whole milk produces the most perfect single food known.
This outstanding fact, demonstrated everywhere in every feeding test, binds the dairy, milling and baking industries into a great common interest with an opportunity to perform a service to the present and to the coming generations, from which benefits that can not be overstated will result.
A controversy has been going on about the food value of white bread versus whole-wheat bread. The miller has separated the bran and germ, which is darker, easily subject to spoilage and has less leavening value, but which is the depository in the grain of valuable proteins, nutrient salts, and the water-soluble vitamin B from the white portions of the berry. These whiter portions contain protein and carbohydrate material of high and very useful food value, and this white bread has been consumed with meat, milk, eggs, fruits, and vegetables to form an adequate and satisfying diet. But where the diet has been limited or where the consumers have not known just what to combine with bread, or just how to combine out of the general food supply an adequate diet, the need for the food substances contained in the bran and germ of the wheat has shown up and dietitians have properly recommended the consumption of bread made from the whole grain. The people have been slow to eat whole-wheat bread. Another step, another process in addition to milling, was needed in order to get the valuable salts, protein material, and the vitamin B into the bread of everyday popular consumption. It was an extraction problem rather than a milling problem.
Turning again to the food value of wheat and milk, we find that whole wheat is very rich in phosphate, but very low in lime. It is rich in vitamin B; low in vitamin A. To get the best results from the phosphates there must be an adequate lime balance. Whole wheat is deficient in lime and in sodium and chlorine, or sodium chloride, ordinary table salt. Whole wheat still needs. from the mineral-salt standpoint, additional amounts of lime and table salt in order to put its other valuable mineral salts into a balanced form for proper nutrition. So, we have white flour with its cheap and valuable proteins and starches, whole wheat with its valuable iron, phosphates, and other salts and yet needing to be balanced with calcium. With these we start out to find what are the other food needs and how best to supply these needs.
We turn to proteins. The wheat germ contains a different kind of protein from that in the white flour, and milk contains still another form of protein than that contained in the flour and wheat germ. When all of these are put together they form a better combination and secure better results than when each is taken alone. In addi
tion to the high potassium phosphate, for example, contained in the wheat germ and bran, we have another substance in the germ, namely, a large amount of vitamin B. This is the vitamin contained in yeast.
LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH A GRAIN OF WHEAT
MAGNIFIED ABOUT 20 DIAMETERS FIG. 1.-The popular breads made by the bakery and in the home are made from the inside of the wheat berry. The wbite flour spoils less easily, is more palatable, and makes a lighter and better risen loaf. The bran and germ and the lower grade of flour, known as the “red dog," are richer in mineral salts than the white flour and contain practically all of the vitamin B contained in the wheat berry. Whole wheat bread is one way to get the valuable salts and the vitamin B into the human diet. Another way is to extract them and add them back to the white flour.
On the other hand, milk, while rather stable in the important vitamin A, associated with the butterfat in the milk, varies in the amount and strength of the vitamin B contained.
Now, having found the particular mineral salt, soluble protein, and vitamin B value of the wheat and the bran, the next problem is to get it out into a palatable form for human nutrition. The