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less in other countries than it is with us. I had the pleasure yesterday of listening to one of your Senators speak before the Rotary Club in Washington. The club had asked him to address them upon the question of wheat growing and the condition that the farmers are in in the northwest of your great country. I learned from him that wheat that costs $1.40 a bushel to produce is being sold for export purposes at $1 per bushel; a state of things like that can not go on, and what is happening in America is happening practically all over the world. Every nation that is producing cereals is producing those cereals at a loss, and England, in common with the other nations, is doing that.

We in our country are determined that we will remodel our methods of farming. Mr. Chairman, we are very conservative in our ideas; we move exceedingly slowly, but we move usually upon safe and sure ground. We think that you in these newer countries can probably produce the wheat that we need cheaper than we can. In any case we are going to buy our wheat in the future from our colonies and from America and from other foreign nations. We are going to treat our tillage as an adjunct to animal farming in the future.

You who are farmers know as well as I do that it is impossible to produce a large quantity of stock without having straw for litter and for other purposes. That is the only purpose for which, in the future, we propose to grow cereals. We will let you have that market, and we hope it may be a source of income and profit to those who supply us with our cereals.

We are determined to do, as I think this congress would desire us to do (and as I am sure every nation so far as I can learn is endeavoring to do), and that is to produce larger quantities of milk and milk products than we have produced in the past.

May I say that we are learning much from your country, and I am certain that the delegates who are here with me are drinking in much that we are seeing. We shall attempt to apply it to our own country. This is a great day for Philadelphia; it is a great day in the history of milk production, advertising, and distribution, and I think you will agree with me that we have seen much to-day that carries conviction to our hearts and our consciences, and we shall endeavor when we go to our own sphere of work and operations to put into actuality what we have seen here with regard to the subtle way in which you advertise milk. [Laughter and applause.]

I am not complaining; I think you have learned much of the art of useful and true advertising. You do not appear to be pushing milk, but I notice that it always comes in-in your plays, in your demonstrations. Therefore we will copy you and endeavor to increase the per capita consumption of milk in my country.

It may surprise you to learn that in England our people up to now only consume, per head of the population, one-third of a pint. We are woefully lagging behind you. We perhaps have not paid so much attention to pushing the food value of milk as you appear to have done throughout America, and particularly in Philadelphia; but we are bending our minds to this problem, realizing, as you have realized before us, that in making known the food value of milk we are helping to build up the manhood, and therefore to build up the nation.

England has been alive to the necessity of doing this for some time past, and something like 18 months ago the National Farmers' Union,

, whom I have the honor of representing here to-night, sent me to Canada and to America to learn something of the methods of milk production, handling, and distribution, and I came over and I spent several days in this city.

I want to pay a tribute to the gentlemen connected with the trade in this city who gave so much time and so much information to me. Mr. Robert Balderston spent days with me, and he was untiring in his efforts to see to it that I got all the information that I needed before I returned to England. I went on and visited very many cities in the States and from here I went to Canada.

When I went back I was able to put into operation a method of selling milk which has made an immense difference to the milk industry in England. I molded a plan very much upon the Philadelphia plan of selling milk, and not only the producers but the distributors of milk all with one accord agreed that the system that we inaugurated has done a great thing for the industry.

Until we brought forward that plan we had a good deal of bickering with the trade as to what the price of milk should be. A farmer would take the platform and decry the trade and indicate that his margin of profit was an outrageous one. The trader, in order to refute what the farmer had said, also took the platform or resorted in writing to the press and saying bitter things about the producer. The public were looking on and could not decide which of the two, if not both, were thieves and robbers, and in consequence they took as little milk into their homes as possible.

We have settled our differences, we believe now in friendly negotiation, and the result is that we are joining our efforts in propaganda work. We have a national council, which is subscribed to by every phase of the industry, and we are making known for the first time the food value of milk.

I was glad to hear your governor say that he did not believe in too much State regulation and legislation. We, in our country, believe in a minimum of legislation and in a maximum of education. [Applause.] We have a great deal of educational work to do. We have dairy institutes. There is a gentleman here as a delegate from England, Doctor Williams, who in a particular part of England is radiating an extraordinary amount of useful information to the farmers. We appreciate that if we are to extend the sale of milk in our country we have got to give the people a pure, a clean, and a wholesome article, and with that end in view we are doing a good deal of educational work with the farmer.

The trade, in turn, is seeking to learn new methods of handling and distributing milk. I am glad to say that the trade side of the industry has a large number of representatives here, in addition to which we have from Scotland and from England a large number of scientists who are applying their skill to the betterment of the indus

We are determined to eradicate the reacting cow; we are determined to eradicate the low butterfat yielding cow, and we believe

try in our country.

that it is our duty to give that essential food to the people as cheaply as possible, and it is up to us to produce that article as cheaply; therefore, we are endeavoring by recording to eradicate the lowmilk-yielding cow.

One is glad to be here and see so many nations represented. One is glad to be here to-night to learn that the ladies are putting their heart and their time into the work of making known the food value of milk. I could never quite understand how it was that you got prohibition in this country, but I have no difficulty of making up my mind to-night when I realize the zeal and the energy of the ladies on the side of what is right, and when I realize what an important factor in voting for prohibition they were, I realize that it was an easy job.

I am glad, at any rate, now that they are perfectly free to devote their time to something of a more useful character. [Laughter.] I am perfectly certain that if we in our country can only enlist the ladies to the same extent that you have here, it will go a long way toward extending the milk industry and toward a larger consumption in the homes of the people of our country.

Before I close I should like also to say that the Ministry of Agriculture of our country and the Ministry of Health are cooperating with us with regard to cleaning up, as it were, the mess with regard to milk production and distribution. We are determined that inasmuch as general agriculture is paying so badly, we will turn our attention to the improvement of our methods of milk production.

However, what I am thinking about is this: If all the ladies in every country do as the ladies in this particular part of your country are doing, there won't be enough milk to go around. The last speaker indicated that she at any rate would not be satisfied until every child in every country had a copious supply of milk to take. If that is the case, undoubtedly there will have to be a very great extension of dairy farming, and if that is the case, it may happen (unless we produce very much larger quantities than we do at present in our own little land) that the countries who are looking to us as a good market, may have no milk to send us. Well, that would be a catastrophe and we shall have to meet it.

Before I close may I thank, on behalf of myself and my fellowdelegates, those who have been so benevolent and generous to us up to this moment and I feel that none have been more generous, more kind to us than the people who have organized this great day in this great city of Philadelphia. [Applause.]

Toastmaster Munn. We are going to close this program on time so no one need get uneasy.

The next speaker will take about two minutes. I am informed he is a gentleman from whose lips phrased humor falls like glittering pearls. I call upon Mr. E. J. Cattell, of the Chamber of Commerce of the city of Philadelphia. [Applause.]

Mr. EDWARD JAMES CATTELL. Mr. Chairman, Governor Pinchot, members of this wonderful congress: I am delighted to say just a word of good night and God bless you after your visit to this my native city. I came over with Penn some several hundred years ago,

and I hope the good God will let me stay till the last one goes, because I get more in love with life every moment I live. I am going to live to be 100 years old and then renew the lease at double the rent and do my own repairing. (Laughter and applause.]

I am delighted to be here just to say a God bless you and to thank you for this visit to this city with its 408,000 separate homes. When I was young we could look from a point where I am now speaking and only find 50,000 homes within the limits of this city, so that in my conscious life the homes in this one city have grown from 50,000 to 408,000. And yet to-day we are building a new home every 20 minutes and a new baby every 13. (Laughter and applause.]

I am delighted to say that in this old city we carry on our seal the motto “Let brotherly love continue," which means doing automatically and instinctively those kindly acts which the good God dropped from heaven into the hearts of men to make life worth living.

I am delighted to be here to-night to hear these wonderful addresses and to see in this hall that has had so many wonderful social gatherings this effort to put a little of the milk of human kindness into the cream of society. [Laughter and applause.]

I do think that we want, that the whole world wants, to stop crying over spilt milk and get ready to skim the new cream. The most prosperous times the world has ever seen are just ahead of us. I have traveled 80,000 miles over this country of mine the past year. Everywhere I find hope. I have lived 14 years on the other side of the Atlantic in countries represented by the delegates here.

I sat to-night near some dear friends from dear old Ireland and I told them of the happy days I had there. I thought of one thing that happened while I was there. A man was driving me about and I told him to stop if there was anything unusual to be seen. At a certain point he stopped." I said,"" What is unusual here?” He said, "A milestone." I said, “What is unusual about that." He said, "You never see two of them together.” [Laughter.]

You have a wonderful gathering; there are more than two of you together, and you are doing God's work in God's world. Years ago driving in the South I saw a little darkey digging potatoes. It was a very cold day. I said, “What do you get for digging potatoes?": He replied, “Nothing, but I get hell if I don't dig them.” [Laughter.]

That is the spirit of this work so wonderfully described by the lady who spoke here to-night. It is doing those things which seem to bring no compensation in money but which bring that wonderful income from dreamland, that message from the living God that is back of every smile that we coax to a pinched white face, every new smile and new throb of joy we bring to a little child.

Happiness is just like a shadow, my friends. When you run after a shadow it runs away; it is only when you run away that the shadow follows after. And so it is only when you make somebody else happy that God makes you happy. It is only when you lift a burden that God lifts yours. You get by giving, but you have got

. to give first.

There is no such thing as growing old. You can get older, but you need never get old. If you can't get what you like, like what you've

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got—which is a good rule, even for married people. [Laughter and applause.]

am delighted to see so many ladies here. The Lord made man first and woman after, but man has been after woman ever since. I have carried on the wall of my office for 25 years a sign which reads, « If a pretty girl passes and I don't notice her, call for the coroner, I'm dead.” Laughter.]

God bless you as you go out into the night into that wonderful State of New York that I know and love so well. And God bless you and God give to each of you an answer to your prayers when you ask him to send peace to this world which is filled with blood and pain and tears.

We love you; it has done us good to have you here, and when you go home, think that the mother city of America looks to you for big things to show the God in man, to bring a little heaven to this dear old earth. God bless you all. [Applause.]

Toastmaster MUNN. Doctor Van Norman has something to say to you.

President Van NORMAN. As president of the World's Dairy Congress, I want to say, “ Philadelphia, we thank you.” No words can make our thanks more heartfelt than that.

(The meeting then adjourned.)

(Thursday evening, at the close of the dinner in Philadelphia, special trains took the delegates to Syracuse, N. Y., where the remaining sessions of the congress were held. This arrangement was made to give the delegates an opportunity to attend the National Dairy Exposition held in that city October 7 to 13.)

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