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in great improvement in quality, and a certain amount of regulation is necessary as a guaranty that minimum standards will be complied with; but it is a recognized fact that if the cooperation and interest of the producers of milk can be secured and maintained through the means of education, progress will be made far beyond the result of a system of dairy inspection maintained by public officials. However, as this educational program proceeds, these minimum standards can be raised and, supported by public opinion, may be rigidly enforced in the cases of careless individuals.
EDUCATIONAL METHODS EMPLOYED.
1. Through sediment tests of the farmers' milk, the careless producers are discovered and given special personal encouragement, and the more careful commended and encouraged. Reinspection of this kind discloses consistent improvement throughout the territory. Some 25,000 such tests have been made in one year at plants supplying Philadelphia.
2. Educational meetings, in cooperation with the State and agricultural extension forces, county agents, the producersassociation, and other agencies, are held at all points where it is possible to secure an adequate audience. A most important feature of such meetings is the use of educational motion pictures, showing how to produce milk of a satisfactory quality, supplemented by short talks by the field men of the council and others. These field men travel by automobile, carrying motion-picture projector and generator, so it is possible to hold meetings in the open air or in any roadside schoolhouse. The dairy council produces its own motion pictures. About 150 such educational meetings have been held during the past year, with audiences amounting to 25,000 farmers and their families.
3. Barn inspections are made where it seems desirable, and advice given for improving both equipment and methods.
4. Two booklets have been prepared, printed, and distributed dealing with the production of clean, safe milk.
5. Demonstrations are held wherever advisable, at which our field men perform all operations of milking the cows and the subsequent care of the product from the barn to the cooling station. As many as 75 farmers attended one of these demonstrations.
Results obtained show constant improvement in the quality of the milk delivered. We have helped lower the average temperature of the milk, have eliminated very largely the visible dirt, and have reduced the number of bacteria in the milk.
A spirit of rivalry is maintained between various communities in endeavoring to see which can supply milk of the best quality. It is no unusual thing to find that now farmers themselves will frequently visit and talk with their neighbors who have not been careful in the matter of producing clean milk, knowing that the milk of all dairies of a community is mixed together and should one of their number be producing an inferior article it would tend to lower the quality of the combined product of all.
The improvement in the quality of the supply of milk through cooperation and education, in addition to suitable legislation, has proven its worth in every territory where carried out, and it is doubtful if similar results have ever been accomplished elsewhere at so low a figure from the standpoint of financial expenditure. We have fully demonstrated through the educational work of the quality control department of the dairy council that careful production insures satisfied customers and better market conditions for the producer's milk.
RESULTS OF DAIRY COUNCIL WORK.
W. ALLERTON WENTWORTH, secretary, Ohio Dairy Products Association,
There are two methods of measuring results of the work of the dairy councils in the United States. The first measure is interpreted in terms of health and the second is interpreted in terms of increased dairy products consumption. The first is all important to human welfare. The second is important to all engaged in the dairy industry. The first we might possibly term “philanthropic"; the second may be termed “commercial.” There is, however, such a close relationship between the two that one can scarcely be discussed without consideration of the other.
There is probably no method available at the present time to nationally measure results of better health. Hence, of necessity, we must deal in terms of individuals, or groups of individuals in a local community. Naturally these individuals or groups in a preponderance of cases are children of school age or preschool age.
I. INTENSIVE HEALTH CAMPAIGN.
In Dauphin County, Pa., the extension service of State college conducted a survey and a year's intensive health campaign in which the dairy council was asked to cooperate by assuming control of certain phases of the project. The survey, when completed, gave such accurate data on conditions and the results were so satisfactory that the plan of cooperation is a model for campaigns of its kind.
The survey showed only 11 per cent of all school children seriously underweight in towns where health education was being conducted as compared with the average for the country, which is 33 per cent of all school children seriously underweight. It is noteworthy that in these towns the children were regular milk drinkers.
II. NUTRITION CLASS WORK.
Nutrition classes particularly emphasize results in improvement of health in the individual child. One example out of many hundreds will be given here. “ Jennie, a pale listless girl when weighed, was 17 pounds, or 151 per cent underweight. She entered a nutrition class in the spring. After 10 weeks she had gained only 1 pound, but that was the start. She gained slowly but steadily from that time until school closed. Her mother carried on' with her during the summer and in September when she returned to school she not only had gained 17 pounds and was up to weight for height and age, but had become an active, alert, happy girl.”
III. SCHOOL WORK.
School work is of three classes :
That in which the dairy council cooperates with a school health program already in operation.
That in which the program is initiated and supervised by the dairy council.
That in which the dairy council is responsible for the health education part of the program.
The New England Dairy Council, through efforts of the first type, reports 50,000 school children drinking milk. In almost 100 other communities cooperation between the local dairy council and the educational forces has accomplished results of an outstanding nature in the use of milk and educational material in the schools.
A series of nutrition classes, organized as a demonstration in the suburbs of Philadelphia, developed into a school-wide plan. The spring work a year ago in the nutrition classes reduced the serious underweight for the whole school 10 per cent. This year as a result of the school-wide health program throughout the township the serious underweight has been reduced 50 per cent, meaning that today only 9 per cent of all the children in the township are more than 10 per cent underweight for their height and age. It is interesting to note in this connection that all schools of all surrounding townships, and some private schools, have this year adopted the midmorning milk service in the schools.
The medical inspector of the Trenton public schools asked a representative of the dairy council to give a series of object lesson talks under his direction in all the schools. A series of five lessons were given to the 16,000 children in Trenton.
IV. OTHER ACTIVITIES.
1. Mothers clubs.-The mothers of children in nutrition classes under the public school system of Philadelphia were organized into 43 groups. A dairy council representative was given the responsibility of teaching to these groups, by actual demonstration, the preparation of simple, nourishing dishes with milk as a basis. These mothers, especially foreign mothers, responded unusually well to this form of teaching Over 2,000 families were reached in this way. In addition the dairy council is cooperating with other agencies, namely the department of public health, in health centers with the same type of demonstrations dealing with the preschool child.
2. Parent-teacher associations.—Cooperation with parent-teacher associations is a regular part of the dairy council's program wherever they are active. One outstanding project is typical: In Bridgeton, N. J., after a health talk by a dairy council worker, the parent-teacher association assumed responsibility for the health program in the community. In three months they had reduced the serious underweight nearly 40 per cent, had 50 per cent of the eye defects corrected, inaugurated milk service in the school, and ended their program with a city-wide “clean-up” and health week.
3. Supper clubs.-For obvious reasons one of the most difficult groups to reach in health work is that of the young employed woman and the girl in industry. To meet this situation, supper clubs of 20 to 25 each have been organized. In St. Paul last year 362 girls in industry attended supper clubs. Philadelphia recently inaugurated this program with four groups of 25 each.
4. Park booths.-In Pittsburgh the dairy council has two booths in the parks for weighing and measuring children and giving a health message. Last year 7,500 children were weighed and measured. This year, in June alone, 12,000 children have been weighed and measured.
5. Dairy dish contests.-A piece of city-wide publicity that kept dairy products before the public for some weeks was the dairy dish contest projected by the St. Paul Dairy Council this year. This contest was conducted through the newspapers. One thousand housewives, chefs, etc., competed in this contest and over 300 dishes were exhibited for the final judging.
6. Child-health day.-The St. Paul Dairy Council, with the cooperation of the other health organizations, has established in that city an annual child health day. At this time the entire city is given over to the subject of making children healthy and keeping them so. This is one of the most successful city-wide projects.
V. DRAMATIC WORK.
Health plays are utilized through the dramatic department to arouse interest in and to stimulate enthusiasm for health practices. Many permanent health projects have resulted from these performances. The wide distribution of milk lunches in the Philadelphia schools can be traced in many cases to health plays.
In Atlantic City, after the Milk Fairy play, the consumption of milk by the children in the school doubled in one week.
In addition to performances in schools, health plays have also been given in department stores, industrial plants, with the Girl Scouts, the Y. M. C. A., the Y. W. C. A., and nutrition camps.
It is impossible to estimate adequately the results of dairy council work at the end of a three-year period, since its methods are such that the effect of its efforts are continuous and cumulative. The dairy council, with other health organizations, is engaged to-day in a permanent educational program to fix in the minds of parents and children alike that a strong, healthy body is the best prevention against disease and sickness, and to teach them how to get and keep a strong, healthy body. Through conspicuously successful work, the avenues for bringing its teaching before all types of people are now open, and it looks confidently forward to the time that the menace of undernourishment in children will be reduced to a minimum or will be eliminated. Only then will it feel that its purpose has been achieved.
This leads us to the second result, namely, increased consumption. There is an abundance of evidence showing a stabilized market for dairy products as compared with other food products dur
ing the past five years. This has been brought about by increased consumption, a fact which prevails much more distinctly in dairy products than in other foods (unless it be a few of the vegetables and fruits upon which accurate records are not available). To give any thorough report of figures on consumption would require too much detail for the time afforded, so I refer you to scattered examples and the national figures.
The consumption of milk in Boston from 1918 to 1922 increased from 146,300,000 quarts to 178,400,000 quarts, which is 22 per cent in five years. Of this 54 per cent increase was accomplished in 1922 over the immediately preceding year. This increase in milk used is approximately five times the increase in population of Boston.
In Pittsburgh, 590,000 people used 9,000,000 more pounds of milk in 1922 than in 1921, again an increase materially larger than the population increase. In St. Louis another method was used to determine increased milk utilization. This method was a survey of 600 typical homes. In these homes 19 per cent more milk was being used than in the preceding year. At St. Paul, where the Milk Producers' Association has very accurately recorded milk sales through distributive channels, 26,253,000 pounds of milk were sold during the first seven months of 1923 as compared with 22,268,000 the same period of 1922, which is an increase of 18 per cent. These are not reported for the spectacular feature of the accomplishment but because they are distributed geographically and represent circumstances in territory where the work of the dairy council has been of longer standing.
Nationally, the result may not be attributed entirely to the work of the dairy council but logically much can be credited thereto, and certainly when the whole economic aspect of food consumption is studied as influenced by increased production, producers' financial returns, and consumers purchase prices, a tremendously favorable situation prevails.
It must be sufficient, because of circumstances, to merely call your attention to the fact that since 1918 the average per capita consumption of milk has increased from 41 to 50 gallons, and of butter from 14 to 16.7 pounds. These two commodities represent 87 per cent of all dairy products produced in this country. The increased use of these products is reflected in others.
The interlocking relationship between these results is such that it is almost impossible to deal with one without discussing the other, and each of them, from the point of view of the educator, the housewife, the mother, or the dairyman, should redound to his satisfaction.
Toastmaster, M. D. MUNN, president, National Dairy Council.
BALLROOM, BELLEVUE-STRATFORD HOTEL,
Philadelphia, Thursday, October 4, 1923–6 p.m. Toastmaster Munn. I am quite certain that I express the united and profound feeling of all those present when I say that we deeply appreciate the splendid hospitality and courtesy and consideration