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charged with being present; on the floor before me are you who have come as individuals, or as representatives of firms, associations, organizations, and States. We are pleased to count ourselves of this country a democracy, yet we like a little bit of show, so we place the government delegates here on the platform for you to look at, then we adopt the rule that all delegates are equal as listeners and participants in the congress, so you are all equal whether you sit in the gallery, on the main floor, or on the platform.

This congress was undertaken before the signing of all World War treaties, and under conditions which prompted the dairy leaders of America to take the initiative. With the reestablishment of the active work of the International Dairy Federation, we were happy to secure its cooperation.

This congress is not legislative in character. It has no authority to commit its delegates or the countries they represent to any particular policy or course of action. Its purpose is to effect an international exchange of the newer knowledge of the sciences and practices of dairying, and of the methods and results of a wise use of milk and its products in human diet, and to stimulate interest in world-wide factors affecting dairy commerce. It has been made possible by the successful, public-spirited members of this great industry who have financed the organization of the congress, and the propaganda which has informed the rank and file of dairy science and industry in many lands of the plans for the congress.

Our Government has not only authorized an official invitation to foreign governments to participate, but has provided for the permanent recording and distribution of the proceedings of the congress in printed form.

We of this country are indebted to Europe for our leading breeds of dairy cattle, for early feeding standards, much of our elementary knowledge of dairy chemistry, and bacteriology, the principles of Pasteurization, the use of pure cultures, the early centrifugal separators; for leadership in the standardization of dairy products, especially for export, and for the early cooperative dairy organizations. We, however, think that we have materially developed these gifts and that we have also made a contribution to the progress of the industry, such as the State supervision of advanced registry of yearly production by purebred cows, the systems of production and supervision of high-grade milk for our cities, the perfection of commercial Pasteurization equipment and methods, the development of certified milk, the application of mechanical refrigeration, the development of labor-saving machinery, the development of our immense ice-cream business, the perfection of milk condensing and milk powder manufacture, and the use of attractive 1-pound, or even smaller, rectangular butter packages for retail trade.

Our vast areas of scattered farms, with relatively small herds, have brought about our so-called centralizer creameries, in addition to a system of cooperative creameries so successful in some parts of our more important dairy States.

This congress is a recognition of the world character of the dairy industry, of the interrelationship of all of the countries engaged in dairying, and of the fact that seasonal, climatic, economic, and political changes in any country rapidly affect the prosperity of the

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dairy industry in other countries. Successful leadership seeks increasing familiarity with these world forces.

Progress is ahead of the printed page. Only by personal intercourse and oral exchange of ideas by the most progressive leaders can the newer developments in science and industry be rapidly made available for the improvement of general practice. The contribution of science to the practices of refrigeration have made possible the shipment of dairy products around the world, tending to equalize prices and counteracting seasonal variation in supplies in the leading markets.

Six great nations are to-day aggressively encouraging increased dairy production. This necessitates increased consumption. The revelations of science and the accumulated data of welfare agencies show immense, untouched markets in every country in that portion of its growing and mature population which, through ignorance and in spite of wealth or poverty, is underfed because of unwise choice of foods and insufficient use of milk. Wider dissemination of these facts is a contribution to human health and to the economic prosperity of the industry.

New problems are constantly confronting this industry. Some of the important ones are the relation of mineral matter to the nutrition of dairy animals, the control of costly diseases, the increased use of mechanical equipment, the influence of larger container units, especially in the handling of milk, the application of mechanical refrigeration to retail ice cream distribution, and the influence of mechanical refrigeration on geographical development of the dairy industry, together with the future trend of cooperative and corporate forms of marketing its products.

In developing the program of this congress, it has been assumed that these problems may be viewed from four angles :

I. That of those whose chief interest is that of scientific investigation and teaching.

Commercial progress in the industry parallels results of the investigator. In some cases, science explains why proven practices succeed; in other cases, science points the way to newer and better practices.

II. That of those who are engaged in the business of production, manufacture, or distribution, and the manufacture of the supplies and equipment essential to the industry.

The further security and profits of immense amounts of capital are vitally affected by the trend of the dairy development in various parts of the world. When an unusually productive season in Australia and New Zealand so floods the markets of England that Scandinavian dairy products are forced to seek a market in the United States, the probable influence of these factors on prices and profits becomes an immediate concern of every business leader, and is here mentioned only as suggestive of the international aspects of this great industry, with Canada, New Zealand, Australia, Argentina, South Africa, and the United States encouraging greater dairy development as a factor of successful agriculture, and Siberia and Russia unknown factors in the future of this industry.

III. That of those who are concerned with problems of regulation and control.

Many of us seem to need outside admonition, or we fail to do that which we know is right. Our American railways did not put automatic breaks on all their cars as protection to the trainmen and the traveling public until forced to do so by Government commission; our medical schools have their standards prescribed by law, and even our automobile drivers are prone to disregard the rights of pedestrians unless policemen enforce them. So our dairy industry is involved in adherence to laws, municipal, State, and National, which define standards of sanitation and quality and guard against adulteration. The enforcement of these laws is in the hands of a small but important group of men in every land anxious to protect the public and serve the industry.

IV. That of those seeking to secure that wise use of dairy products in the diet of the public which shall best promote the nearest perfect development of man.

As students of human welfare and as an industry supplying an essential food, especially for the growth of our young, we owe a debt of gratitude and appreciation to the scientists who have shown, and are showing, us the proper relation of this important product to the everyday life of our people.

As an industry, we cheerfully join hands with health and educational officers and welfare workers in securing the widest understanding and practices of these truths.

Since the purpose of this congress is to bring into the limelight of public discussion the fruits of most recent research and industry practices, a world-wide invitation was extended for the presenting of papers embodying new developments. This program includes 244 papers. Doubtless there are omissions of messages from eminent authorities; possibly there are papers included which could have been omitted. This is unavoidable. The very size of the program requires its subdivision into sections for presentation. Several of these sections will be in progress at the same time. Some of you may be disappointed in not hearing all of the papers you would like to hear because of conflict in the hour of presentation, but I assure you the program committee has striven to so group the subjects as to serve the largest possible number of delegates.

I particularly invite your careful study of the program, and invite your attention to the little schedule on pages 12 and 13. It suggests the general character and scope of each sectional meeting. I hope that it will enable you to find the things which you most wish to hear. Topics will be found indexed in the back of the book.

This congress has the distinction of being the first to include the serious discussion of business problems of the dairy world, and of the relation of the use of dairy products to human health, together with the problems of science and those of regulation. May I express the hope that there may grow out of this congress a larger acquaintance among those men who direct the important industries in the various countries, because, “Acquaintance," as our Secretary of State has said, “is a bond of fellowship,” and is a stimulus to progress. May this be an outstanding feature of the congress and a growing force to modify our business practices.

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We have reached a point in international interest and relationship where a better understanding of these relationships is most important. I believe our people are interested and eager to participate in that larger and better acquaintanceship.

It seems appropriate that you from foreign lands should assemble here at Washington, our Nation's Capital; that you should be welcomed by our Government, by the men who have made this congress possible, by the men who come from nearly every State in the Union as representatives of business, of science, of education, and of human welfare; that after a glimpse of the city's beauties, you should journey to Philadelphia where we shall present the unique work of the National Dairy Council's efforts to enlarge the public's understanding of its relation to the product which we have to sell; and from there to continue to Syracuse, N. Y., where our National Dairy Exposition will be in progress. We hope the disadvantages of a moving, congress may be offset by a larger understanding of our country and our industry's development. With the exception of to-morrow the forenoons of each day will be devoted to the sessions of the congress, while the afternoons will be left free for sight-seeing, which may include places of national and historic interest, as well as the wonderful portrayal of our industry at the exposition, and short excursions from the different cities. The evenings in Washington and Philadelphia will be devoted to the activities of the respective hospitality committees; in Syracuse they will be left free for participation in the annual meetings of the various national associations which take advantage of the annual exposition for the holding of their business meetings. Some of these associations have given up their general and technical sessions in order that their members may participate in the sessions of the congress.

The congress will close with an international dairy dinner, so called as a warning that the formality usually accompanying a banquet will be omitted and that each one is expected to come. We hope that it will be the largest dinner gathering of dairy people that has yet taken place. We shall hope to hear at that time something from the representatives of many lands.

We have, in this country, some 1,300 national and State dairy organizations which play an important part in the rapid dissemination of knowledge and the stimulation of improvement in our industry. This fact and your presence prompt the suggestion of the need of greater coordination in our own industry, and a closer articulation with the world's dairy organizations, and the hope that further international meetings, while accentuating the cause of science, will give greater recognition to the part which the organization of the industry plays in the application of science to commerce, and, finally, the wider cultivation of society's appreciation of its dependency on a successful dairy industry for lowering the human death rate and increasing the physical efficiency of men and women.

[Applause.]

President VAN NORMAN. We have time before Secretary Hoover can arrive from the Cabinet meeting for me to tell you just a little of the development of the plans for the congress.

It was my pleasure, as a representative of our committee, to attend the International Institute of Agriculture at Rome last year,

and to travel through the different countries of western Europe, to call on several of the influential men in each country, and to tell them of the plans for the congress; to learn from them something of the peculiar conditions in their respective countries, to learn of those who should participate in the program of this congress, and to thus lay the foundation for the splendid cooperation which we have had in the development of plans. I found in several countries organized committees; in others active committees had been established, and the presence of the distinguished body of delegates here to-day is evidence of the success of the splendid cooperation we have had.

In addition to the information concerning the congress supplied to newspapers of many countries through their cooperating committees, over 1,000 foreign newspapers have been supplied with news items direct from our office. In our own country we have supplied the leading papers of all the larger cities through the several national news distributing agencies. It has been the purpose of this congress, so far as possible, to develop in the Congress of the United States, among the officials of our Government, among the editors of our urban press, and the residents of our cities, a fuller realization of the importance of a successful dairy industry and the service it renders to those who dwell in the cities.

We have sought to use the news incident to the coming of you men and women from foreign lands as a vehicle for carrying to city readers a little story of what a wonderful thing milk and its products are, how important they are, and something of the problems involved in their successful production and distribution to the homes of our people. Because of the public-welfare character of this congress and the absence of any immediate money-making schemes, because the doors are open to all, and because our purpose is to help society to grow stronger and better children, the papers of our land have been most generous in publishing the news of the congress with their dairy stories. Our clippings show that they have been published in thousands of papers at home and abroad.

Invitation to participate in the congress has been extended not only by our Government to foreign governments, but by this association through governments and direct to states, provinces, and associations of any and every character interested in any phase of the science and industry dependent on or related to the dairy cow. This invitation has gone to over 200 railroad presidents, many of whose companies maintain educational dairy development departments. We realize that it is not possible for hundreds of thcusands of people to attend such a congress, but that it is possible for nearly every organized group to have present a spokesman or an auditor, to meet and exchange ideas with you and take back to his community something of the fruits of progress presented here, something of the inspiration that grows from participation in this congress. I venture the hope that this may be but the forerunner of a closer working together of all these organizations at home and abroad to the end that we may more quickly get into use and practice the good things which develop in our annual meetings and in these semioccasional international meetings.

Our country is big. Some of our guests from abroad have found it possible to traverse the length of the land. Others have gone but part way. There will be additional excursions and opportunities to

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