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day is coming rapidly when we are going to teach the children through children of the period and not through the political issues of that particular day. [Applause.]
I would like to quote from that young teacher's outline a little of what she did with these children:
The children themselves were quick to suggest that it might be helpful, first, to study their own health activities in order to find out the most essential ones to look for in reconstructing the health day of the Pilgrim child. Accordingly, one of the first steps in the project was the memorandum which each child made of those activities he felt to have a direct connection with his own health. Two large yellow clock faces found their way into the classroom and were immediately named by the class “Our health clocks." The numerals for the hours were already marked, but beyond these numerals lay a wide yellow border on which could be pasted pictures of the health activities suited to that part of the day.
The art instructor's help was enlisted in the clocks mounted on a background of black cardboard which bore in yellow lettering an explanation of the clocks. One clock face represented noon to midnight. The other midnight to noon, etc. Together they offered opportunity for the picturing of the complete health day.
The information found relative to the health activities in daily life of the Pilgrim child was organized on a large cardboard sundial compared with the health clocks. The material which could be placed on the sundial was conspicuously limited. There were, however, also advantages in this life. The outdoor occupation, the long hours of sleep, and certain simple foods to which the children were accustomed.
The majority of the children were taking milk in some form or other at home. That they recognized its importance as a food was demonstrated by their excitement on discovering that the first cows were introduced into the Plymouth Colony two years after the arrival of the Mayflower; also the attention given the allotment of the first shipment of cows, which Governor Bradford described in his chronicles of the Plymouth plantation, made quite an impression.
I heard those children discussing this afterward, and one little girl who showed a very beautiful picture of a cow (these were 9-year-old children) on a little enlarged drawing that she had made and thrown on the screen, was asked the question, “What did the children do before the cows came?” She said, "Well, they had
but when they were too old to have their mamas, then they sometimes died.”
Now there was quite a connection, as you will see, in those children's minds of the fact that there were no cows there for two years after the landing of the Pilgrims. That was really history teaching, as I see it. It demonstrates the correlation method whereby health can be taught in connection with every school subject.
We don't want 15 minutes a day for health teaching in any of our schools, or half an hour. I would rather have five minutes a week given, through actual classroom work of reading and writing and arithmetic and poster making, what we might call art and music, a real part of their lives, and not, “Now, children, take out your physiologies and we will have 15 minutes”—of torture, as you know. Very little hygiene did we give to our children in those days and very little physiology that meant anything.
How many of us remember any of it? How many of us know how many
bones in our bodies? How many of us know how many teeth we have in our heads? But the children of to-day who are being taught by this modern method know what to eat to make the bones; they know that sleep has something to do with being able to stand erect; they know because it has been taught to them day
after day, week after week, in what we might call the indirect method—the vitalized method.
Mr. Munn tells me I have three more minutes. (There were cries of "go on.")
You are very kind. There are two subjects that I have not covered that I want to cover in these three minutes. First, that of how you who are interested in the great industry of milk-in the great dairy industry—can help forward this program in all parts of the world. It is not enough to give it to a few children in America, health should be given to all the children in all the world. [Applause.) We must give all children a vitalized interest in this great matter of health; we must help them to form health habits so that every child in the world may grow strong and vigorous with vitality.
What are the steps? First of all, you can't go into the schools and teach. No; but you can help to arouse public opinion to make possible the right sort of teaching in our schools, a public opinion that will demand from educators and from taxpayers health teaching that is real and vitalized in every school in the world.
How can the milk industry mold public opinion so that every man in the street-every woman in the home—will understand the value of health education in the schools? You can't do it by only trying to get him to buy more milk. That is not the way to do it. Of that I am quite sure.
I have had the pleasure of dealing for the last few years witn your president, Mr. Munn, president of the National Dairy Council, and it has been a great privilege because he has had the vision to see that he could not sell milk by telling the people that milk was the only food to make them strong. He has understood that it was necessary to say sleep and orange juice and spinach were just as essential as milk. The public will not be fooled by being told that dairy products will make you healthy. They won't, and you know they won't.
It is not enough. We must have sleep; we must have air; we must have green vegetables; we must practice many health habits; we must have doctors and we must have nurses; we must have all of
his program to make a real health program. But an essential part of all is dairy products, as you know. So you can tell the truth about milk and increase its use tremendously and at the same time advance the health movement.
We health workers want to increase its use. You do, too. Our reasons may not be the same, but we can work together if we will each of us be quite fair about the way to do this work. Don't forget that every time you see a health scholarship given to a teacher, a health fellowship given to an instructor in an academy or a college or a university, that the truth about milk is going to thousands and thousands of lives in a way that your commercial advertising could never accomplish. [Applause.]
But I look forward to the day when your own advertising will tell the truth about health. It won't weaken your message; it will strengthen it. It is good sound psychology to tell the truth and the public wants the truth, and you can afford to tell the truth because you have the best and most essential product for building healthy children. You can develop so many methods of health advertising.
I see a woman in the audience, Laura Cauble, who, a long time ago, believed that it was possible to put in milk stations (just as we have drug stores on the corners) so that milk could be sold here and there and everywhere, and that every public school should have its milk station next door to it. [Applause.]
Of course it is possible to do those things, but the first step is for fou to stand back of those training teachers to teach health. You can't pay a worker from the outside to come into the schools and teach your subject. But you can help create a public demand for the teacher in the classroom, who has the child five hours a day, to teach health through all school subjects and activities.
We must work through the teacher if we are to build a whole world of healthy, happy, gloriously radiant children.
I thank you.
(The delegates rose and applauded.)
Chairman WILLITS. I am sure you will agree with me that Miss Jean knows a child and knows what to do for the health of that child.
I have now the pleasure of introducing to you Doctor Broome, who is superintendent of schools of the city of Philadelphia. Doctor Broome. [Applause.]
Dr. EDWIN BROOME. Mr. Chairman, ladies, and gentlemen: After hearing a large part of this remarkable address to which
have just listened and which brought you unanimously to your feet, I realize that my rôle at the best is the rôle of an anticlimax, and having had a little experience with such matters and having myself as a member of numerous audiences listened to anticlimaxes, I
appreciate the necessity of making that as brief and painless as possible.
I have been allowed 10 minutes and, Mr. Chairman, if I speak 1 second over 10 minutes, please jerk my coattail as hard as you can. This coat was made for that purpose. [Laughter.] It was made especially strong for just that sort of use; and it has been utilized before.
THE PHILADELPHIA PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
Edwin C. BROOME, Ph. D., superintendent of schools, Philadelphia, Pa. I know of no subject before the public mind to-day, especially before the minds of those interested in the future citizenship of this country, more important than this whole question of the health and the physical welfare and the nurture of children. We spend much more money in the care of our horses and cattle—that is an old story-than we do upon the care of children.
In our school work we owe four duties to the children: First, the duty of giving them a general, all-round education; second, the duty of supervising their moral conduct; third, the duty of looking after their health and physical welfare; and, fourth, the duty of seeing to it that they are in fit physical condition to take the
fullest possible advantage of the education that we require them to receive.
We are interested to-day more especially in that fourth duty, seeing to it that the boys and girls who are sent to us to be educated are put in proper physical condition to profit to the fullest degree by that education.
We have in Philadelphia an ambitious program of nutrition and health building. I can't go into all the details. I can simply say in so far as we know it is as extensive a program as any large city in the United States has.
At present we are not able, for lack of facilities, to carry out more than about 50 or 60 per cent of that program; but what is being done, we have reason to believe, is being done well. At any rate, it is being done with splendid spirit and with the full cooperation of many agencies, including your own, without which there would be no success in this work.
We have seven classes for the incipient tubercular children scattered throughout the city. We have eight classes that we call the regular nutrition classes with rest periods, open windows, lunch in the middle of the day, physical and nurse attention. There are about 80 of what are termed nutrition-instruction classes.” That is to say, the children come one hour a week as a class into a room with their parents, where they are weighed and measured and instructions about diet, home care, sleep, and exercise are given. The weight charts of the children are kept, the parents instructed; altogether, This sort of work is very helpful indeed.
We have also the milk service. We are dispensing approximately 9,000 quarts of milk a day to the children of the public schools of Philadelphia in half-pint containers. You can readily see that that will take care of 35,000 or 36,000 children a day in the way of giving them a partial milk diet.
We are spending about $15,000 a year on various forms of food for various types of children. That money comes from different sources, and is managed by the Philadelphia Public School Food or Health Service, an organization within our own group.
Here are some of the results we can prove are being secured: First, last year there was an average gain of weight of all the children in the tubercular and nutrition classes of about 8 pounds per child per year, and, secondly, we are reaching about 1,500 in the tubercular classes, about 1.500 in the regular nutrition classes, and we have about 80 classes of 40 each on the average who are having the weekly nutrition instruction above described-probably an average of 3,000 to 3,200 at any one time receiving that sort of instruction.
I should estimate that by these organized efforts we are reaching about 6,500 children a year. In addition to that, our milk service reaches perhaps 30,000 more. It is safe to estimate that through these various lines of activity for improving the health, nutrition, and the power to withstand strain and to participate in the work of the schools, we are probably reaching roughly 40,000 children a year.
Now what are some of the considerations in this line of work? Compulsory attendance means compulsory health. The corollary to compulsory attendance should be compulsory health. People are constantly setting up the straw man of paternal government, of pauperizing the people; and at the same time they pass laws requiring that every boy and girl from the age of 8 to 16 shall attend school during the entire time in which the schools are in session. We know that a large percentage of those children may attend school. But they don't get a full measure of education, and they don't get it because they are not in a physical condition to receive it.
The intention of the law is to see that every boy and girl gets a thorough American education; and in the enforcement of the law, it is just as much our business to see to it that as many as possible are in fit physical condition to receive that education.
That is the principle upon which we are operating, upon which all are operating throughout this country where they are doing this magnificent kind of work. It is a sound and simple principle that will bear abundant fruit, and the one which I hope will be adopted and carried out throughout the length and breadth of our land.
We can not do too much for these children. There is no greater expense upon a community or a State than having as public charges people who in their childhood might have been rendered strong and well and physically capable of taking care of themselves. We mean to do that through this health and nutrition work in Philadelphia as widely as they are doing it in any city in the United States.
Lack of proper facilities and funds have made it impossible for us to carry out the program, but we are moving along by leaps and bounds. Every year we are able to show an increase of 25 or 30 per cent in the scope of this work, and if you will come to Philadelphia two or three years from now, if we are all spared and are permitted to go on at the rate we are now going, we hope to show you the most creditable results that can be seen anywhere.
I am glad to have this opportunity this morning I want to thank you personally and officially for the splendid cooperation that we have received through the Interstate Dairy Council to make this work possible and profitable. [Applause.]
Chairman WILLITS. We seem to be limited in our time. Therefore it will be necessary to read, by title, the papers by Mr. Cohee and Mr. Wentworth.
Mr. BALDERSTON. We are now going to have a typical demonstration of what the dairy council has been doing for the past three years. These children whom you will see have been trained at only three rehearsals of an hour each. Two weeks ago we didn't know what children we were going to have. There isn't anything you will see to-day that is cooked up, fixed up, for this performance. Each one of the demonstrations is just exactly as it has been put on in these schools day after day for the benefit of the children and their friends.
The next number is a food value story with objects, which will be given from the platform by Miss Lillian Conwell, of the Pittsburgh District Dairy Council. She will talk to the children here just as if the rest of us were more children in the back of the room.